A red herring is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important question. It may be either a logical fallacy or a literary device that leads readers or audiences toward a false conclusion. A red herring may be used intentionally, as in mystery fiction or as part of rhetorical strategies, or may be used in argumentation inadvertently; the term was popularized in 1807 by English polemicist William Cobbett, who told a story of having used a kipper to divert hounds from chasing a hare. As an informal fallacy, the red herring falls into a broad class of relevance fallacies. Unlike the straw man, premised on a distortion of the other party's position, the red herring is a plausible, though irrelevant, diversionary tactic. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a red herring may be unintentional; the expression is used to assert that an argument is not relevant to the issue being discussed. For example, "I think. I recommend you support this because we are in a budget crisis, we do not want our salaries affected."
The second sentence, though used to support the first sentence, does not address that topic. In fiction and non-fiction a red herring may be intentionally used by the writer to plant a false clue that leads readers or audiences towards a false conclusion. For example, the character of Bishop Aringarosa in Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code is presented for most of the novel as if he is at the centre of the church's conspiracies, but is revealed to have been innocently duped by the true antagonist of the story; the character's name is a loose Italian translation of "red herring". A red herring is used in legal studies and exam problems to mislead and distract students from reaching a correct conclusion about a legal issue as a device that tests students' comprehension of underlying law and their ability to properly discern material factual circumstances. In a literal sense, there is no such fish as a "red herring"; this process makes the fish pungent smelling and, with strong enough brine, turns its flesh reddish.
In its literal sense as a cured kipper, the term can be dated to the mid-13th century, in the poem The Treatise by Walter of Bibbesworth: "He eteþ no ffyssh But heryng red."Prior to 2008, the figurative sense of "red herring" was thought to originate from a supposed technique of training young scent hounds. There are variations of the story, but according to one version, the pungent red herring would be dragged along a trail until a puppy learned to follow the scent; when the dog was being trained to follow the faint odour of a fox or a badger, the trainer would drag a red herring perpendicular to the animal's trail to confuse the dog. The dog learned to follow the original scent rather than the stronger scent. A variation of this story is given, without mention of its use in training, in The Macmillan Book of Proverbs and Famous Phrases, with the earliest use cited being from W. F. Butler's Life of Napier, published in 1849. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable gives the full phrase as "Drawing a red herring across the path", an idiom meaning "to divert attention from the main question by some side issue".
Another variation of the dog story is given by Robert Hendrickson who says escaping convicts used the pungent fish to throw off hounds in pursuit. According to a pair of articles by Professor Gerald Cohen and Robert Scott Ross published in Comments on Etymology, supported by etymologist Michael Quinion and accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary, the idiom did not originate from a hunting practice. Ross researched the origin of the story and found the earliest reference to using herrings for training animals was in a tract on horsemanship published in 1697 by Gerland Langbaine. Langbaine recommended a method of training horses by dragging the carcass of a cat or fox so that the horse would be accustomed to following the chaos of a hunting party, he says if a dead animal is not available, a red herring would do as a substitute. This recommendation was misunderstood by Nicholas Cox, published in the notes of another book around the same time, who said it should be used to train hounds. Either way, the herring was not used to distract the hounds or horses from a trail, rather to guide them along it.
The earliest reference to using herring for distracting hounds is an article published on 14 February 1807 by radical journalist William Cobbett in his polemical periodical Political Register. According to Cohen and Ross, accepted by the OED, this is the origin of the figurative meaning of red herring. In the piece, William Cobbett critiques the English press, which had mistakenly reported Napoleon's defeat. Cobbett recounted that he had once used a red herring to deflect hounds in pursuit of a hare, adding "It was a mere transitory effect of the political red-herring. Quinion concludes: "This story, extended repetition of it in 1833, was enough to get the figurative sense of red herring into the minds of his readers also with the false idea that it came from some real practice of huntsmen." Although Cobbett popularized the figurative usage, he was
Digital rights management
Digital rights management tools or technological protection measures are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to control the use and distribution of copyrighted works, as well as systems within devices that enforce these policies; the use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen, that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control, that it can ensure continued revenue streams; those opposed to DRM contend there is no evidence that DRM helps prevent copyright infringement, arguing instead that it serves only to inconvenience legitimate customers, that DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competition. Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued.
DRM can restrict users from exercising their legal rights under the copyright law, such as backing up copies of CDs or DVDs, lending materials out through a library, accessing works in the public domain, or using copyrighted materials for research and education under the fair use doctrine. The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Free Software Foundation consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention; such laws are part of the United States' Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the European Union's Copyright Directive. The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations within the music and movie industries. While analog media lost quality with each copy generation, in some cases during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.
The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form for portability or viewing later. This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media much easier. In 1983, a early implementation of Digital Rights Management was the Software Service System devised by the Japanese engineer Ryuichi Moriya. and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder; the underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would be encouraged to do so. Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use. DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing; these technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content such as by fair use. DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry. Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig's coffeemakers, Philips' light bulbs, mobile device power chargers, John Deere's tractors. For instance, tractor companies try to prevent farmers from making DIY repairs under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA.
Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be'recovered' when the game is uninstalled; this not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes, but can prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game unusable after a certain period if it is only used on a single computer. In mid-2008, the Windows version of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles making use of SecuROM for DRM and requiring authentication with a server; the use of t
Think of the children
"Think of the children" is a cliché that evolved into a rhetorical tactic. It refers to children's rights. In debate, however, it is a plea for pity, used as an appeal to emotion, therefore it becomes a logical fallacy. Art and Advocacy argued that the appeal substitutes emotion for reason in debate. Ethicist Jack Marshall wrote in 2005 that the phrase's popularity stems from its capacity to stunt rationality discourse on morals. "Think of the children" has been invoked by censorship proponents to shield children from perceived danger. Community and Online Censorship argued that classifying children in an infantile manner, as innocents in need of protection, is a form of obsession over the concept of purity. A 2011 article in the Journal for Cultural Research observed that the phrase grew out of a moral panic, it was an exhortation in the 1964 Disney film Mary Poppins, when the character of Mrs. Banks pleaded with her departing nanny not to quit and to "think of the children!" The phrase was popularized as a satiric reference on the animated television program The Simpsons in 1996, when character Helen Lovejoy pleaded "Won't somebody please think of the children?" during a contentious debate by citizens of the fictional town of Springfield.
In the 2012 Georgia State University Law Review, Charles J. Ten Brink called Lovejoy's use of "Think of the children" a successful parody; the appeal's subsequent use in society was the subject of mockery. After its popularization on The Simpsons, the phrase has been called "Lovejoy's Law", the "Helen Lovejoy defence", the "Helen Lovejoy syndrome", "think-of-the-children-ism". Sociologist Joel Best wrote in 1993 that during the late 19th century, adults developed an increased concern for the welfare of children. Best noted that societies experienced decreasing birth rates after industrialization, with parents focusing their attention on fewer children. According to him, at that time adults began to view childhood as a sacred period of development and children as invaluable, guiltless beings. During the 1970s and 1980s, Best wrote, adults saw children as potential victims and sought to eliminate perceived threats. In the 1995 compilation Children and the Politics of Culture, anthropologist Vivienne Wee analyzed the perception of children by adults and how it supported the concept of children's rights.
Wee wrote that in this model, children were seen as defenseless, in need of protection by authoritative adults. According to Wee, this European pattern led to the idea that children required the sanctuary of the United Nations Charter and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Wee wrote: "Alternatively, children's vulnerability could be interpreted as purity and innocence, needing the protection of responsible adults, it is this second, protective mode of interpretation that underlies the idea of children's rights, needing the protection of a UN charter – hence the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child." She observed that the view of youth as weak and innocent focused on what might occur if children's rights were not shielded. Wee argued that this behavior towards children was not positive. According to her, this mindset may lead to hypocrisy by adults who assume that all their actions intended to protect children and creates the risk that adults may wield power "for the children's own good".
Noting that adult authority may be masked as empathy, Wee concluded: "These alternative cultural interpretations of the vulnerability of children would thus generate their own respective political and psychological consequences." "Think of the children" has been used in its literal sense to advocate for the rights of children. Early usage during the 20th century included writings in 1914 by the National Child Labor Committee criticizing child labor standards in the United States. U. S. President Bill Clinton used the phrase in a 1999 speech to the International Labour Organization, asking his audience to imagine a significant reduction in child labor: "Think of the children... freed of the crushing burden of dangerous and demeaning work, given back those irreplaceable hours of childhood for learning and playing and living."The phrase's literal use extends into the 21st century, with Sara Boyce of the Children's Law Centre in Northern Ireland drawing on it to advocate for the legal rights of the region's children.
The 2008 book Child Labour in a Globalized World used the phrase to call attention to the role of debt bondage in child labor. Sara Dillon of Suffolk University Law School used the phrase "What about the children" in her 2009 book, International Children's Rights, to focus on child-labor program conditions. Benjamin Powell used the phrase differently in his book, Out of Poverty: Sweatshops in the Global Economy, writing that in the absence of child labor some youth faced starvation. In a 2010 book on human rights, Children's Rights and Human Development, child psychiatrist Bruce D. Perry used the phrase "think of the children" to urge clinicians to incorporate a process sensitive to developmental stages when counseling youth. In their 2002 book, Art and Advocacy: Mastering Parliamentary Debate, John Meany and Kate Shuster called the use of the phrase "Think of the children" in debate a type of logical fallacy and an appeal to emotion. According to the authors, a debater may use the phrase to sway members of the audience and avoid logical discussion.
They provide an example: "I know this national missile defense plan has its detractors, but won't someone please think of the children?" Their assessment was echoed by Margie Borschke in an article for the journal Media International Australia incorporating Culture
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
In science and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs, without any knowledge of its internal workings. Its implementation is "opaque". Anything might be referred to as a black box: a transistor, an algorithm, or the human brain. To analyse something modeled as an open system, with a typical "black box approach", only the behavior of the stimulus/response will be accounted for, to infer the box; the usual representation of this black box system is a data flow diagram centered in the box. The opposite of a black box is a system where the inner components or logic are available for inspection, most referred to as a white box; the modern meaning of the term "black box" seems to have entered the English language around 1945. In electronic circuit theory the process of network synthesis from transfer functions, which led to electronic circuits being regarded as "black boxes" characterized by their response to signals applied to their ports, can be traced to Wilhelm Cauer who published his ideas in their most developed form in 1941.
Although Cauer did not himself use the term, others who followed him did describe the method as black-box analysis. Vitold Belevitch puts the concept of black-boxes earlier, attributing the explicit use of two-port networks as black boxes to Franz Breisig in 1921 and argues that 2-terminal components were implicitly treated as black-boxes before that. In cybernetics, a full treatment was given by Ross Ashby in 1956. A black box was described by Norbert Wiener in 1961 as an unknown system, to be identified using the techniques of system identification, he saw the first step in self-organization as being to be able to copy the output behavior of a black box. Many other engineers and epistemologists, such as Mario Bunge and perfected the black box theory in the 1960s; the black box is an abstraction representing a class of concrete open system which can be viewed in terms of its stimuli inputs and output reactions: The constitution and structure of the box are altogether irrelevant to the approach under consideration, purely external or phenomenological.
In other words, only the behavior of the system will be accounted for. The understanding of a black box is based on the "explanatory principle", the hypothesis of a causal relation between the input and the output, and: input and output being believed to be distinct, having observable inputs and outputs, being black to the observer. An observer makes observations over time. All observations of inputs and outputs of a black box can be written in a table with the form: in which, at each of a sequence of times, the states of the box’s various parts and output, are recorded. Thus, using an example from Ashby, examining a box that has fallen from a flying saucer might lead to this protocol: Thus every system, fundamentally, is investigated by the collection of a long protocol, drawn out in time, showing the sequence of input and output states. From this there follows the fundamental deduction that all knowledge obtainable from a Black Box is such as can be obtained by re-coding the protocol. If the observer controls input, the investigation turns into an experiment, hypotheses about cause and effect can be tested directly.
When the experimenter is motivated to control the box, there is an active feedback in the box/observer relation, promoting what in control theory is called a feed forward architecture. The modeling process is the construction of a predictive mathematical model, using existing historic data. A developed black box model is a validated model when black-box testing methods ensures that it is, based on observable elements. With backtesting, inputs for past events are entered into the model to see how well the output matches the known results. Black box theories are things defined only in terms of their function; the term black box theory is applied to any field and science or otherwise where some inquiry or definition is made into the relations between the appearance of something, i.e. here the thing's black box state, related to its characteristics and behaviour within. The inquiry is focused upon a thing that has no apparent characteristics and therefore has only factors for consideration held within itself hidden from immediate observation.
The observer is assumed ignorant in the first instance as the majority of available data is held in an inner situation away from facile investigations. The black box element of the definition is shown as being characterised by a system where observable elements enter a imaginary box with a set of different outputs emerging which are observable. In humanities disciplines such as philosophy of mind and behaviorism, one of the uses of black box theory is to describe and understand psychological factors in fields such as marketing when applied to an analysis of consumer behaviour; the black box theory of consciousness states that the mind is understood once the inputs and outputs are well-defined. In computer programming and software engineering, black box testing is used to check that the output of a program is as expected, given certain inputs; the term "black box" is used. In computing in general, a black box program is one where the user cannot see the inner workings or one which has no sid
John Michael Crichton was an American author and film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction and medical fiction genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, over a dozen have been adapted into films, his literary works are within the action genre and feature technology. His novels epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and scientific background, he wrote, among other works, The Andromeda Strain, The Great Train Robbery, Sphere, Jurassic Park, Rising Sun, The Lost World, Timeline, State of Fear, Next. Films he wrote and directed included Westworld, The Great Train Robbery and Runaway. John Michael Crichton was born on October 23, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois, to John Henderson Crichton, a journalist, Zula Miller Crichton, he was raised on Long Island, in Roslyn, New York, showed a keen interest in writing from a young age.
Crichton recalled, "Roslyn was another world. Looking back, it's remarkable. There was no terror. No fear of children being abused. No fear of random murder. No drug use. I walked to school. I rode my bike to the movie on Main Street and piano lessons and the like. Kids had freedom, it wasn't such a dangerous world... We studied our butts off, we got a tremendously good education there." Crichton had always planned on becoming a writer and began his studies at Harvard College in 1960. During his undergraduate study in literature, he conducted an experiment to expose a professor who he believed was giving him abnormally low marks and criticizing his literary style. Informing another professor of his suspicions, Crichton submitted an essay by George Orwell under his own name; the paper was returned by his unwitting professor with a mark of "B−". He said, "Now Orwell was a wonderful writer, if a B-minus was all he could get, I thought I'd better drop English as my major."His issues with the English department led Crichton to switch his undergraduate concentration.
He received a Henry Russell Shaw Traveling Fellowship from 1964 to 1965 and was a visiting lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom in 1965. Crichton enrolled at Harvard Medical School. By this time, he had become exceptionally tall. Crichton said "about two weeks into medical school I realised I hated it; this isn't unusual since everyone hates medical school - happy, practising physicians." In 1965 while at medical school he wrote a novel Odds On. "I wrote for furniture and groceries," he said later. Odds On is a 215-page paperback novel which describes an attempted robbery in an isolated hotel on Costa Brava; the robbery is planned scientifically with the help of a critical path analysis computer program, but unforeseen events get in the way. Crichton submitted it to Doubleday where a reader did not feel it was for that company. Crichton used the name John Lange because at this stage he planned to be a doctor and did not want his patients worried he would use them for his plots.
The name came from a fairy tale writer called Andrew Lang. The novel was successful enough to lead to a series of John Lange novels; the second Lange novel was Scratch One. The novel relates the story of Roger Carr, a handsome and privileged man who practices law, more as a means to support his playboy lifestyle than a career. Carr is sent to Nice, where he has notable political connections, but is mistaken for an assassin and finds his life in jeopardy, implicated in the world of terrorism. Crichton wrote the book while travelling through Europe on a travel fellowship, he visited the Cannes Film Festival and Monaco Grand Prix and decided "any idiot should be able to write a potboiler set in Cannes and Monaco" and wrote it in eleven days. He described the book as "no good", his third John Lange novel was Easy Go, the story of Harold Barnaby, a brilliant Egyptologist, who discovers a concealed message while translating hieroglyphics, informing him of an unnamed pharaoh whose tomb is yet to be discovered.
He said the book earned him $1,500. Crichton said "My feeling about the Lange books is that my competition is in-flight movies. One can read the books in an hour and a half, be more satisfactorily amused than watching Doris Day. I write them fast and the reader reads them fast and I get things off my back." Crichton's fourth novel was A Case of Need, a medical thriller in which a Boston pathologist, Dr. John Berry, investigates an apparent illegal abortion conducted by an obstetrician friend, which caused the early demise of a young woman; the novel had a different tone to the Lange books. The novel would prove a turn