The Shah Jahan Mosque known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta, is a 17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia, is notable for its geometric brick work - a decorative element, unusual for Mughal-period mosques, it was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who bestowed it to the city as a token of gratitude, is influenced by Central Asian architecture - a reflection of Shah Jahan's campaigns near Samarkand shortly before the mosque was designed. The mosque is located in eastern Thatta - the capital of Sindh in the 16th and 17th centuries before Sindh's capital was shifted to nearby Hyderabad, it is located near a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The site is 100 kilometres from Karachi. Shah Jahan sought refuge in Thatta from his father Emperor Jahangir, after he had rebelled against his father. Shah Jahan was impressed by the hospitality he received by the Sindhi people, ordered construction of the mosque as a token of gratitude.
Construction of the mosque may have been motivate by a desire to help alleviate the effects of a devastating storm that impacted the region in 1637, which had nearly destroyed Thatta. Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia during this era influenced the mosque's architectural style, as Timurid influences were introduced into the Mughal Empire as his armies pressed towards Samarkand, in modern-day Uzbekistan. Despite the fact that the Emperor was not in the region during its construction, so was unlikely directly involved in its construction, its profuse tile-work and intricate brick work indicate that it was funded by the Mughal's imperial coffers. Persian inscriptions at the mosque indicated that it was built between 1644 and 1647, during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. An eastern addition was completed during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb; the mosque's mihrab had been incorrectly aligned with Mecca. The Sufi mystic, Makhdum Nooh, buried in the nearby city of Hala is said to have been approached by the mosque's planners in order to correct its alignment.
Popular tradition maintains that Makhdum Nooh corrected the error overnight by the power of his prayer, thereby ensuring his status as a saint. Historical records show that the mosque's mihrab had been rebuilt a century after the mosque's construction; the Shah Jahan Mosque's architectural style is overtly influenced by Persian styles. The mosque is characterized by extensive brickwork and the use of blue tiles, both of which were directly influenced by Timurid architectural styles from Central Asia − from where the previous rulers of Sindh, the Tarkhans, had hailed before the region was annexed by the Mughals in 1592; the profuse use of tiles is considered to be the most elaborate display of tile work in the Indian Subcontinent. Unlike the Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, another Shah Jahan era mosque, the mosque in Thatta does not employ the use of fresco; the mosque's tiles represent a direct influence of the Timurid style. The mosque employs Cobalt blue, manganese violet, white tiles; the mosque's dome is embellished with exquisite blue and white tile-work arranged in stellated patterns to represent the heavens.
Its walls feature calligraphic tile work, signed by Abdul Sheikh. The tiles' location and arrangement displays Persian Safavid influence, features several colours on a single tile, unlike tile work at Lahore which featured a single colour on each tile; the use of multicolour tiles and floral patterns reflects. The mosque features extensive brickwork laid in geometric patterns, a decorative element unusual for Mughal era mosques, is an element of Timurid architecture adopted for use in the mosque; the mosque's brickwork was influenced by Sindhi vernacular styles, which in turn was influenced by Persian architecture. Brick work is most notable in the arcades surrounding the central courtyard, while concentric rings of brick are used to embellish the underside of peripheral domes; the layout of the mosque may have been influenced by the conservative Timurid-style Humayun Mosque in Kachhpura, near the city of Agra, in modern-day India. The main entryway into the mosque complex is through a Persian-style Charbagh, or quadrangle garden.
The main prayer hall is set to the west of its central courtyard, which features iwans, or portals, in each of its four cardinal directions. The courtyard is rectangular in shape, measures 169 feet by 97 feet, it is surrounded by aisled galleries. The mosque's mihrab features pierced screens - an element, employed on Mughal funerary monuments, but unusual in Mughal mosques; the mosque features excellent acoustics. Prayers in the main prayer hall can be heard throughout the entire building; the mosque is unusual for its lack of minarets. It has a total of the most of any structure in Pakistan. Restoration works were carried out by Emperor Aurangzeb in 1692, as well as by Murad Ali Khan Talpur in 1812; the mosque was inscribed on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list in 1993, but has not been conserved to the same high standards as the Wazir Khan Mosque or Badshahi Mosque in northern Pakistan. Khan, Ahmed Nabi and Robert Wheeler. Islamic Architecture in South Asia, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Juan Mari Brás was an advocate for Puerto Rican independence from the United States who founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. On October 25, 2006, he became the first person to receive a Puerto Rican citizenship certificate from the Puerto Rico State Department, his son, Mari Pesquere was assassinated in 1976. In 2009, documents revealed the FBI had known of a plot to assassinate Mari Brás but had not shared the information with him. Juan Mari Brás was born in Puerto Rico, his father was active in the independence movement who took his son to political meetings and rallies. In 1943, when he was 18 years old, he founded a pro-independence movement in his high school, along with some of his friends, in Mayagüez, he was the founder and director of the first pro-independence political radio program "Grito de la Patria". In 1944, he enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico and in 1946 became a founding member of Gilberto Concepción de Gracia's Puerto Rican Independence Party, he was a founding member of the Beta chapter of the Phi Delta Gamma fraternity.
Mari Brás became the president of the party's "Puerto Rican Independence Youth". In 1948, the university's pro-independence student body invited nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos to the Río Piedras campus as a guest speaker; the chancellor of the university, Jaime Benítez, did not permit Albizu access to the campus. As a consequence, the students went on strike. Mari Brás was one of the student leaders who chanted anti-American slogans and who marched with a Puerto Rican flag in his hand. Both of these acts were considered as acts against the Government of the United States, which at that time had complete control of the government of the island. Mari Brás and others who protested were expelled from the university. Mari Brás moved to Lakeland, where he earned his bachelor's degree, he studied at Georgetown University. In 1954, he went to study law at George Washington University Law School but was expelled and obtained his law degree from American University. In 1959, Mari Brás founded the Pro-Independence Movement, which grouped Puerto Rican independence followers who supported the Socialist philosophy.
Along with César Andreu Iglesias he founded the political newspaper Claridad, which he directed for three decades. In 1971, the Pro-Independence Movement became the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. In 1973, he spoke before the United Nations about Puerto Rico being a colony of the United States and demanded the decolonization of the island. On March 1976, one of Mari Brás' sons, Santiago Mari Pesquera, was murdered while his father was campaigning for governor on the Socialist Party ticket. Police investigations have hinted that Mari Pesquera was assassinated in reprisal for his father's political activism; the murder has never been solved. In 2009, thanks to the Freedom of Information Act documents were obtained by news station, Primera Hora, that showed the FBI knew of a plan to assassinate Juan Marí Pesquera, had not warned him. After losing his son and the election, Mari Bras continued to dedicate his time to campaigning for the independence of Puerto Rico, he was a prolific writer as well as a speaker before various audiences on the issue of the political status of Puerto Rico.
He founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party and was a co-founder of the small but influential Puerto Rican Independence Party. Professionally he performed as a law professor at the Eugenio María de Hostos School of Law in Puerto Rico. On July 11, 1994, Mari Brás renounced his American citizenship at the American Embassy in Caracas, Venezuela. "He did this to test a technicality in United States citizenship laws.", according to writer Mary Hilaire Tavenner Brás believed that a person holding United States citizenship and who subsequently renounces his citizenship would be deported to his country of origin. As Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States, Brás theorized the U. S. Department of State would have to deport him or any Puerto Rican who renounced his or her U. S. citizenship to Puerto Rico. The U. S. State Department approved Mari Brás' renunciation of his American citizenship on November 22, 1995. On 15 May 1996, Miriam J. Ramírez de Ferrer, a pro-statehood attorney, presented a formal complaint against Mari Brás before the Mayaguez Electoral Board, where Mari Brás was registered to vote, so he could not vote as he was not a U.
S. citizen. It was denied. Upon appeal by Ramírez, the Puerto Rico Electoral Board subsequently supported the decision of the Mayaguez Board. Ramírez subsequently took the matter to the Puerto Rico Superior Court; as a result, the Superior Court declared unconstitutional Articles 2.003 y 2.023 of Puerto Rico's Electoral Law as they required U. S. citizenship as a condition to vote in Puerto Rico's elections. On November 18, 1997, Ramírez took Mari Brás before the Puerto Rico Supreme Court alleging that if he had renounced his United States citizenship he had renounced his right to vote in the local Puerto Rican elections; the Puerto Rican Supreme Court sided with Mari Brás, finding that "as a citizen of Puerto Rico" Mari Brás was eligible to vote. In Lozada Colón v. U. S. Department of State, the plaintiff was a United States citizen, born in Puerto Rico and resident of Puerto Rico, who executed an oath of renunciation before a consular officer at the U. S. Embassy in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
On April 23, 1998, the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia held that the case was about "the much debated political question as to the stat
Kurt Ove Håkan Buskhe is a Swedish businessman, better known as the president and CEO of the Swedish aerospace and defence company Saab Group, a role he has been in since September 2010. Buskhe resigned from his role at SAAB in August 2019, he will leave the company before February 2020. In addition to this role, he is the chairman of the board of directors of Sweden’s state-owned logistics and transport company Green Cargo. Buskhe was born in 1963 in Örnsköldsvik, he attended Chalmers University of Technology, where he earned a Master of Science degree in science and engineering, as well as a licentiate in engineering, a diploma in corporate management. He began his career in the military, carrying out military service during the 1980s, where he worked as a weapons technician; this gave him a basic initiation into the world of arms and defence, the only such experience he would take into his role at Saab. His first real career move was at a logistics company called Scansped where he joined in 1988 as assistant to the managing director.
He rose through the ranks of this company and became head of EDP in 1990, where he was responsible for the implementation of a transport administration IT system across Europe. In 1994, he moved to Carlsberg, serving in various key senior logistics roles before he moved on to the electrical wholesale company Storel in 1998, where he became managing director. In 2002, he became the CEO of logistics firm Schenker North, where he became a board member in 2005. In 2006, Bushke joined the German energy company E. ON’s Swedish division, E. ON Sverige, where he served as senior vice president before being appointed as president and CEO of the entire Nordic region, it was his successful time here. In September 2010, Bushke was appointed as CEO of Saab Group, with the chairman Marcus Wallenberg choosing him for his breadth of expertise and focus on the high-tech field. Bushke is married with three daughters; the oldest daughter Katrine lives in Gothenburg
The Sarntal Alps are a mountain range of the Eastern Rhaetian Alps, in South Tyrol, which surrounds the Sarntal. It is limited by the Etschtal, Eisacktal and the Jaufen Pass; the Sarntal Alps are divided into a Western Part, which meet at the Penser Joch. The Eastern Part has got various minor ridges; the Southern half is compared to the surrounding ranges not that elevated, its highest peaks are Villanderer Berg and Rittner Horn, further south it becomes the Ritten. The northern has got the Tatschspitze, Jakobsspitze, Plankenhorn Kassianspitze; the biggest minor ridge of the Sarntal Alps is the Middle Ridge, beginning at the Hörtlanerspitze, it limites the Durnholztal. Its most known peaks are Gentersbergspitze and Leiterspitze, its last peak; the other minor ridge to the west is the Getrumkamm, with Getrumspitze. The minor ridges on the Eisack side are due to Schalderer Tal. Limited to the north by Flaggertal and to the south by Schalderer Tal exists a ridge with Karspitze as its highest peak and limited to the north by Schalderer Tal exists a ridge with Lorenzispitze and Königsangerspitze.
The southern half is not that elevated, it is called Tschöggelberg. Its middle part consists of the highest mountains, that among the Hirzer, Alplerspitze, Hönigsspitze and Plattinger Spitze. More to the west, there is the Ifinger; the most notable mountains of the northern part are the Penser Weißhorn, Jaufenspitze, Hochwart and Ötsch. The churchhouse Latzfonser Kreuz is one of the highest located places of pilgrimage in South Tyrol. At the southern side the Ritten, the natural phenomenum of hoodoo can be seen. Media related to Sarntal Alps at Wikimedia Commons
Mike Jacobs is a trial judge on the State Court of DeKalb County, Georgia. He presides over Division 5 of that court, he was appointed to the bench by Governor Nathan Deal in 2015 and was unopposed for re-election in 2016. Prior to his judicial service, Jacobs was a Republican member of the Georgia House of Representatives representing District 80, which included portions of Brookhaven, Georgia in DeKalb County and Sandy Springs, Georgia in Fulton County. Jacobs earned his law degree from the University of Georgia School of Law in 2003 and his bachelor's degree from Georgetown University in 1997, he is Jewish. Jacobs was first elected to the House of Representatives in 2004 as a Democrat, he narrowly defeated his Republican opponent, J. Max Davis, by a margin of 51-49%. In 2006, he defeated Republican Tom Elliott by a margin of 66-34%. On June 19, 2007, he switched to the Republican Party, he was re-elected in 2010 with 67 % and 66 % of the vote, respectively. In 2012, he was unopposed. In 2014, he defeated Catherine Bernard in the Republican Primary, 75-25%, had no opponent in the November election.
Jacobs was chairman of the MARTA Oversight Committee, a joint legislative committee charged with reviewing the finances and management of Atlanta's transit system. He chaired one of two subcommittees of the House Judiciary Committee, he served on the Transportation, Juvenile Justice, Budget and Fiscal Affairs Oversight committees. According to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, although Jacobs "was best known locally for drafting legislation creating the city of Brookhaven, he staked out a reputation statewide as an advocate for LGBT rights, he sponsored legislation forcing the state to develop an anti-bullying policy after the suicide of an 11-year-old, attacked by homophobic slurs. And in 2015 he halted a'religious liberty' measure by adding an amendment that said it could not be used to discriminate against same-sex couples or others."In 2018, Jacobs became the first sitting judge in the United States to come out as bisexual. Official website