Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which can contain data, in the form of fields, code, in the form of procedures. A feature of objects is an object's procedures that can access and modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated. In OOP, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects. OOP languages are diverse, but the most popular ones are class-based, meaning that objects are instances of classes, which determine their types. Many of the most used programming languages are multi-paradigm and they support object-oriented programming to a greater or lesser degree in combination with imperative, procedural programming. Significant object-oriented languages include Java, C++, C#, Python, PHP, JavaScript, Perl, Object Pascal, Objective-C, Swift, Common Lisp, MATLAB, Smalltalk. Object-oriented programming uses objects, but not all of the associated techniques and structures are supported directly in languages that claim to support OOP.

The features listed below are common among languages considered to be class- and object-oriented, with notable exceptions mentioned. Variables that can store information formatted in a small number of built-in data types like integers and alphanumeric characters; this may include data structures like strings and hash tables that are either built-in or result from combining variables using memory pointers. Procedures – known as functions, routines, or subroutines – that take input, generate output, manipulate data. Modern languages include structured programming constructs like conditionals. Modular programming support provides the ability to group procedures into files and modules for organizational purposes. Modules are namespaced so identifiers in one module will not conflict with a procedure or variable sharing the same name in another file or module. Languages that support object-oriented programming use inheritance for code reuse and extensibility in the form of either classes or prototypes.

Those that use classes support two main concepts: Classes – the definitions for the data format and available procedures for a given type or class of object. For example, a graphics program may have objects such as "circle", "square", "menu". An online shopping system might have objects such as "shopping cart", "customer", "product". Sometimes objects represent more abstract entities, like an object that represents an open file, or an object that provides the service of translating measurements from U. S. customary to metric. Each object is said to be an instance of a particular class. Procedures in object-oriented programming are known as methods; this leads to the following terms: Class variables – belong to the class as a whole. They provide a layer of abstraction. External code can use an object by calling a specific instance method with a certain set of input parameters, read an instance variable, or write to an instance variable. Objects are created by calling a special type of method in the class known as a constructor.

A program may create many instances of the same class. This is an easy way for the same procedures to be used on different sets of data. Object-oriented programming that uses classes is sometimes called class-based programming, while prototype-based programming does not use classes; as a result, a different yet analogous terminology is used to define the concepts of object and instance. In some languages classes and objects can be composed using other concepts like mixins. In class-based languages the classes are defined beforehand and the objects are instantiated based on the classes. If two objects apple and orange are instantiated from the class Fruit, they are inherently fruits and it is guaranteed that you may handle them in the same way. In prototype-based languages the objects are the primary entities. No classes exist; the prototype of an object is just another object. Every object has one prototype link. New objects can be created based on existing objects chosen as their prototype. You may call two different objects apple and orange a fruit, if the object fruit exists, b

Lancaster Township, Huntington County, Indiana

Lancaster Township is one of twelve townships in Huntington County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 1,150 and it contained 472 housing units. Lancaster Township was founded in 1837. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 35.89 square miles, of which 35.63 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles is water. Mount Etna Harlansburg Lancaster Majenica River Huntington Township Union Township Rock Creek Township Salamonie Township Jefferson Township Wayne Township Polk Township Dallas Township The township contains three cemeteries: German Settlement, Loon Creek and Rees. Indiana State Road 5 Indiana State Road 37 Indiana State Road 124 "Lancaster Township, Huntington County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-24. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana

Peter Sullivan (record producer)

Peter Michael Sullivan is a British record producer, active during the 1960s and most associated with records by Tom Jones and Engelbert Humperdinck. By the late 1950s, Sullivan was working at the HMV record label as assistant to producer Wally Ridley. Ridley allowed Sullivan to take charge of recording sessions by a rock and roll group, Johnny Kidd and the Pirates, in 1960, working with engineer Malcolm Addey, Sullivan produced "Shakin' All Over", which became a hit single in the UK. Sullivan left HMV in 1962 and joined Decca Records as a producer. There, he produced records by Kathy Kirby, Lee Curtis and the All-Stars, The Swinging Blue Jeans, Bern Elliott and the Fenmen, before discovering Scottish singer Lulu and producing her debut hit "Shout". Although the details of their first contact are disputed, Sullivan was one of the first to recognise the recording potential of Welsh singer Tom Jones known as Tommy Scott. In late 1964, Sullivan produced Tom Jones' single, "It's Not Unusual", insisting that a brass section be used in the arrangement.

The song became. Sullivan continued to produce Tom Jones' records in the 1960s, including "What's New Pussycat?", "Green, Green Grass of Home", "Delilah". He produced the UK number one hit by Engelbert Humperdinck, "The Last Waltz", records by Solomon King, Jim Capaldi, Demis Roussos, among others. In 1965, together with George Martin, Ron Richards and John Burgess of EMI, Sullivan helped set up Associated Independent Recording, one of the earliest independent record production companies. George Martin commented in 1971: "I know I could not make records as well as Peter Sullivan in his particular field–every one of Tom Jones and Engelbert Humperdinck’s records required a special skill that he had. I know he could not have coped with the Beatles. We are complementary. We give each other something the other lacks and needs and, most important of all, we like each other."Sullivan lived and worked as a music consultant and record producer in Nashville, Tennessee