Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body from the soul completely. Jain philosophy deals with reality, cosmology and Vitalism, it attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of soul's bondage with body and the means to achieve liberation. Jain texts expound that in every half-cycle of time, twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the Universe to teach the unchanging doctrine of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. Jain philosophy means the teachings of a Tirthankara; the distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are:- Belief on independent existence of soul and matter. Refutation of the idea that a supreme divine creator, preserver or destroyer of the universe exists. Potency of karma, eternal universe. Accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth and Morality and ethics based on liberation of soul. Jainism upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions.
According to the Jain texts, the vitalities or life-principles are ten, namely the five senses, respiration, life-duration, the organ of speech, the mind. The table below summaries the vitalities, living beings possess in accordance to their senses. In the animal world, the five-sensed beings without mind have nine life-principles with the addition of the sense of hearing; those endowed with mind have ten with the addition of the mind. According to Tattvarthasutra, a major Jain text, "the severance of vitalities out of passion is injury". According to the Purushartha Siddhyupaya, "non-manifestation of passions like attachment is non-injury, manifestation of such passions is injury." This is termed as the essence of the Jaina Scriptures. Vegetarianism and other nonviolent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of ahiṃsā. Jain philosophy postulates; these are:- Jīva-The soul substance, said to have a separate existence from the body that houses it. Jīva is characterised by upayoga.
Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearance of another state, these being the modes of the soul substance. Ajīva- the non-soul āsrava - inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. Bandha - mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. Samvara - obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. Nirjara - separation or falling off of part of karmic matter from the soul. Mokṣha - complete annihilation of all karmic matter; the knowledge of these reals is said to be essential for the liberation of the soul. According to the Jain philosophy, the world is full of hiṃsā. Therefore, one should direct all his efforts in attainment of moksha. According to the Jain text, Tattvartha sutra:Right faith, right knowledge, right conduct constitute the path to liberation. Right Faith means belief in substances like soul and non-soul without misapprehension. Right Knowledge - When the nature of reality is ascertained with the help of the doctrine of manifold points of view, the knowledge thus obtained is said to be the Right Knowledge.
Right Conduct -The nature of the soul. It is achieved by abjuring all sinful activities of the body, the speech, the mind. Jain text mention about the following stages of spiritual development: Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. According to Jainas, the world is composed of two different kinds of substances, the Jīva and the ajīva; these are the uncreated existing constituents of the Universe which impart the necessary dynamics to the Universe by interacting with each other. These constituents behave according to the natural laws and their nature without interference from external entities. Dharma or true religion according to Jainism is Vatthu sahāvō dhammō translated as "the intrinsic nature of a substance is its true dharma." The five unconscious substances are: Pudgala – It is non living Matter, classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter or ultimate particles. Paramānu or ultimate particles are the basic building block of matter.
It possesses at all times four qualities, namely, a color, a taste, a smell, a certain kind of palpability. One of the qualities of the Paramānu and Pudgala is that of indestructibility, it combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma – and Adharma – Also known as Dharmāstikāya and Adharmāstikāya, they are unique to Jain thought depicting the principles of motion and rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without dharmāstikāya motion is not possible and without adharmāstikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa: Space – Space is a substance that accommoda
Analytic philosophy is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century. The term can refer to one of several things: As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision making use of formal logic, conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree and the natural sciences; as a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege, the logical positivists. In this more specific sense, analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical traits, such as: The logical-positivist principle that there are not any philosophical facts and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts; this may be contrasted with the traditional foundationalism, which considers philosophy to be a special science that investigates the fundamental reasons and principles of everything.
Many analytic philosophers have considered their inquiries as continuous with, or subordinate to, those of the natural sciences. This is an attitude that begins with John Locke, who described his work as that of an "underlabourer" to the achievements of natural scientists such as Newton. During the 20th century, the most influential advocate of the continuity of philosophy with science was Willard Van Orman Quine; the principle that the logical clarification of thoughts can be achieved only by analysis of the logical form of philosophical propositions. The logical form of a proposition is a way of representing it, to reduce it to simpler components if necessary, to display its similarity with all other propositions of the same type. However, analytic philosophers disagree about the correct logical form of ordinary language; the neglect of generalized philosophical systems in favour of more restricted inquiries stated rigorously, or ordinary language. According to a characteristic paragraph by Russell: Modern analytical empiricism differs from that of Locke and Hume by its incorporation of mathematics and its development of a powerful logical technique.
It is thus able, in regard to certain problems, to achieve definite answers, which have the quality of science rather than of philosophy. It has the advantage, in comparison with the philosophies of the system-builders, of being able to tackle its problems one at a time, instead of having to invent at one stroke a block theory of the whole universe, its methods, in this respect, resemble those of science. In the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments. Analytic philosophy is understood in contrast to other philosophical traditions, most notably continental philosophies such as existentialism and phenomenology, Thomism and Marxism. British idealism, as taught by philosophers such as F. H. Bradley and Thomas Hill Green, dominated English philosophy in the late 19th century. With reference to this intellectual basis the initiators of analytic philosophy, G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, articulated early analytic philosophy.
Since its beginning, a basic goal of analytic philosophy has been conceptual clarity, in the name of which Moore and Russell rejected Hegelianism for being obscure—see for example Moore's "A Defence of Common Sense" and Russell's critique of the doctrine of internal relations. Inspired by developments in modern logic, the early Russell claimed that the problems of philosophy can be solved by showing the simple constituents of complex notions. An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism—the opinion that there are aspects of the world that can be known only by knowing the whole world; this is related to the opinion that relations between items are internal relations, that is, properties of the nature of those items. Russell, along with Wittgenstein, in response promulgated logical atomism and the doctrine of external relations—the belief that the world consists of independent facts. Russell, during his early career, along with his collaborator Alfred North Whitehead, was much influenced by Gottlob Frege, who developed predicate logic, which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible using the ancient Aristotelian logic.
Frege was influential as a philosopher of mathematics in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. In contrast to Edmund Husserl's 1891 book Philosophie der Arithmetik, which argued that the concept of the cardinal number derived from psychical acts of grouping objects and counting them, Frege argued that mathematics and logic have their own validity, independent of the judgments or mental states of individual mathematicians and logicians. Frege further developed his philosophy of logic and mathematics in The Foundations of Arithmetic and The Basic Laws of Arithmetic, where he provided an alternative to psychologistic accounts of the concept of number. Like Frege, Russell argued that mathematics is reducible to logical fundamentals in The Principles of Mathematics, his book written with Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, encouraged many philosophers to renew their interest in the
Women in philosophy
Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times, a small number were accepted as philosophers during the ancient, medieval and contemporary eras during the 20th and 21st century no woman philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon. In ancient philosophy in the West, while academic philosophy was the domain of male philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, female philosophers such as Hipparchia of Maroneia, Arete of Cyrene and Aspasia of Miletus were active during this period. Notable medieval philosophers include St. Hildegard of Bingen and St. Catherine of Sienna. Notable modern philosophers included Sarah Margaret Fuller. Influential contemporary philosophers include Susanne Langer, Hannah Arendt, Simone de Beauvoir, Mary Midgley, Mary Warnock, Julia Kristeva, Patricia Churchland and Susan Haack. In the early 1800s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women, giving rise to new generations of female academics.
U. S. Department of Education reports from the 1990s indicate that philosophy is one of the least proportionate fields in the humanities with respect to gender. Women make up as little as 17% of philosophy faculty in some studies. In 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy "...discipline’s own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment" of women students and professors. Jennifer Saul, a professor of philosophy at the University of Sheffield, stated in 2015 that women are "...leaving philosophy after being harassed, assaulted, or retaliated against."In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that there is gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy. In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." The editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy have raised concerns about the underrepresentation of women philosophers, they require editors and writers to ensure they represent the contributions of women philosophers.
According to Eugene Sun Park, "hilosophy is predominantly white and predominantly male. This homogeneity exists in all aspects and at all levels of the discipline." Susan Price argues that the philosophical "...canon remains dominated by white males—the discipline that...still hews to the myth that genius is tied to gender." According to Saul, "hilosophy, the oldest of the humanities, is the malest. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is more overwhelmingly male than mathematics." In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that "...there is compelling evidence" of "...philosophy’s gender imbalance" and "bias and partiality in many of its theoretical products." In 1992, the association recommended that "fifty percent of...positions should be filled by women.” In a 2008 article “Changing the Ideology and Culture of Philosophy: Not by Reason,” MIT philosophy professor Sally Haslanger stated that the top twenty graduate programs in philosophy in the US have from 4 percent to 36 percent women faculty.
In June 2013, Duke University professor of sociology Kieran Healy stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." The editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy have raised concerns about the underrepresentation of women philosophers. The article states that a "...number of philosophers attribute the underrepresentation of women in philosophy to bias against women or some kind of wrongful discrimination". Evidence cited includes "gender disparities that increase along the path from undergraduate student to full-time faculty member". Sesardic and De Clercq argue that "proponents of the discrimination hypothesis, who include distinguished philosophers...have tended to present evidence selectively."American philosopher Sally Haslanger stated in 2008 that "...it is hard to find a place in philosophy that isn’t hostile towards women and minorities, or at least assumes that a successful philosopher should look and act like a man.”
Haslanger states that she experienced “occasions when a woman’s status in graduate school was questioned because she was married, or had a child, or was in a long-distance relationship". American philosopher Martha Nussbaum, who completed a PhD in philosophy at Harvard University in 1975, alleges that she encountered a tremendous amount of discrimination during her studies at Harvard, including sexual harassment and pro
Medieval philosophy is a term used to refer to the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century, it is defined by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome during the Classical period, by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning. The history of medieval philosophy is traditionally divided into two main periods: the period in the Latin West following the Early Middle Ages until the 12th century, when the works of Aristotle and Plato were rediscovered and studied upon, the "golden age" of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries in the Latin West, which witnessed the culmination of the recovery of ancient philosophy, along with the reception of its Arabic commentators, significant developments in the fields of philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
The Medieval Era was disparagingly treated by the Renaissance humanists, who saw it as a barbaric "middle period" between the Classical age of Greek and Roman culture, the rebirth or renaissance of Classical culture. Modern historians consider the medieval era to be one of philosophical development influenced by Christian theology. One of the most notable thinkers of the era, Thomas of Aquinas, never considered himself a philosopher, criticized philosophers for always "falling short of the true and proper wisdom"; the problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and simplicity of God, the purpose of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, of individuation. Medieval philosophy places heavy emphasis on the theological. With the possible exceptions of Avicenna and Averroes, medieval thinkers did not consider themselves philosophers at all: for them, the philosophers were the ancient pagan writers such as Plato and Aristotle.
However, their theology used the methods and logical techniques of the ancient philosophers to address difficult theological questions and points of doctrine. Thomas Aquinas, following Peter Damian, argued. Despite this view of philosophy as the servant of theology, this did not prevent the medievals from developing original and innovative philosophies against the backdrop of their theological projects. For instance, such thinkers as Augustine of Hippo and Thomas of Aquinas made monumental breakthroughs in the philosophy of temporality and metaphysics, respectively; the principles that underlie all the medieval philsophers' work are: The use of logic and analysis to discover the truth, known as ratio. One of the most debated topics of the period was that of faith versus reason. Avicenna and Averroes both leaned more on the side of reason. Augustine stated that he would never allow his philosophical investigations to go beyond the authority of God. Anselm attempted to defend against what he saw as an assault on faith, with an approach allowing for both faith and reason.
The Augustinian solution to the faith/reason problem is to believe, seek to understand. The boundaries of the early medieval period are a matter of controversy, it is agreed that it begins with Augustine who belongs to the classical period, ends with the lasting revival of learning in the late eleventh century, at the beginning of the high medieval period. After the collapse of the Roman empire, Western Europe lapsed into the so-called Dark Ages. Monasteries were among the limited number of focal points of formal academic learning, which might be presumed to be a result of a rule of St Benedict's in 525, which required monks to read the Bible daily, his suggestion that at the beginning of Lent, a book be given to each monk. In periods, monks were used for training administrators and churchmen. Early Christian thought, in particular in the patristic period, tends to be intuitional and mystical, is less reliant on reason and logical argument, it places more emphasis on the sometimes-mystical doctrines of Plato, less upon the systematic thinking of Aristotle.
Much of the work of Aristotle was unknown in the West in this period. Scholars relied on translations by Boethius into Latin of Aristotle's Categories, the logical work On Interpretation, his Latin translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, a commentary on Aristotle's Categories. Two Roman philosophers had a great influence on the development of medieval philosophy: Augustine and Boethius. Augustine is regarded as the greatest of the Church Fathers, he is a theologian and a devotional writer, but much of his writing is philosophical. His themes are truth, the human soul, the meaning of history, the state and salvation. For over a thousand years, there was hardly a Latin work of theology or philosophy that did not quote his writing, or invoke his authority; some of his writing had an influence on the development of early modern philosophy, such as that of Descartes. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius was a Christian philosopher born in Rome to an ancient and influential family, he became consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths.
His influence on the early medieval pe
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, Indian philosophy which are dominant in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Mongolia. Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent. Jainism may have roots dating back to the times of the Indus Valley Civilization; the major orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Gupta Empire. These Hindu schools developed what has been called the "Hindu synthesis" merging orthodox Brahmanical and unorthodox elements from Buddhism and Jainism. Hindu thought spread east to the Indonesian Srivijaya empire and the Cambodian Khmer Empire; these religio-philosophical traditions were grouped under the label Hinduism. Hinduism is way of life, in South Asia, it includes Shaivism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma and societal norms.
Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion followers is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world and is traditionally called Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way". Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder; some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the Vedic period. Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharma, samsara and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning and logic and investigated topics such as Ontology, reliable means of knowledge, value system and other topics. Indian philosophy covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra c. 4th century BCE and the philosophy of love as seen in the Kama Sutra.
The Kural literature of c. 1st century BCE, written by the Tamil poet-philosopher Valluvar, is believed by many scholars to be based on Jain philosophies. Developments include the development of Tantra and Iranian-Islamic influences. Buddhism disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India; the early modern period saw the flourishing of Navya-Nyāya under philosophers such as Raghunatha Siromani who founded the tradition, Jayarama Pancanana, Mahadeva Punatamakara and Yashovijaya. The principal Indian philosophical schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas are a valid source of knowledge. There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, five major heterodox schools—Jain, Ajivika, Ajñana, Cārvāka. However, there are other methods of classification; each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called Pramana-sastras.
In Hindu history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period "golden age" of Hinduism. With the disappearance of Vaisheshika and Mīmāṃsā, it became obsolete by the Middle Ages, when the various sub-schools of Vedanta began to rise to prominence as the main divisions of religious philosophy. Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya "Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga and Vedanta. Sāmkhya is a dualist philosophical tradition based on the Samkhyakarika, while the Yoga school was a related tradition emphasizing meditation and liberation whose major text is the Yoga sutras. Elements of proto-Samkhya ideas can however be traced back all the way to the period of the early Upanishads. One of the main differences between the two related schools was that Yoga allowed for the existence of a God, while most Sāmkhya thinkers criticized this idea. Sāmkhya epistemology accepts three of six pramanas as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge.
The school developed a complex theoretical exposition of the evolution of matter. Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of puruṣa and prakṛti; as shown by the Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra, Sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. The Nyāya school of epistemology, is based on the Nyāya Sūtras. Nyāya holds that human suffering arises out of ignorance and liberation arises through correct knowledge. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct epistemology. Nyāya traditionally accepts four Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – Pratyakṣa, Anu
Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa, which refers to philosophy as well as logic and physics. Early Islamic philosophy began with al-Kindi in the 2nd century of the Islamic calendar and ended with Averroes in the 6th century AH, broadly coinciding with the period known as the Golden Age of Islam; the death of Averroes marked the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy called the Peripatetic Arabic School, philosophical activity declined in Western Islamic countries such as Islamic Iberia and North Africa. Islamic philosophy persisted for much longer in Muslim Eastern countries, in particular Safavid Persia and Mughal Empires, where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, Transcendent theosophy, Isfahan philosophy. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, made important contributions to the philosophy of history. Interest in Islamic philosophy revived during the Nahda movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, continues to the present day.
Islamic philosophy had a major impact in Christian Europe, where translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy and metaphysics. Islamic philosophy refers to philosophy produced in an Islamic society. Islamic philosophy is a generic term that can be used in different ways. In its broadest sense it means the world view of Islam, as derived from the Islamic texts concerning the creation of the universe and the will of the Creator. In another sense it refers to any of the schools of thought that flourished under the Islamic empire or in the shadow of the Arab-Islamic culture and Islamic civilization. In its narrowest sense it is a translation of Falsafa, meaning those particular schools of thought that most reflect the influence of Greek systems of philosophy such as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism, it is not concerned with religious issues, nor produced by Muslims.
Nor do all schools of thought within Islam admit the usefulness or legitimacy of philosophical inquiry. Some argue that there is no indication that the limited knowledge and experience of humans can lead to truth, it is important to observe that, while "reason" is sometimes recognised as a source of Islamic law, this may have a different meaning from "reason" in philosophy. The historiography of Islamic philosophy is marked by disputes as to how the subject should be properly interpreted; some of the key issues involve the comparative importance of eastern intellectuals such as Ibn Sina and of western thinkers such as Ibn Rushd, whether Islamic philosophy can be read at face value or should be interpreted in an esoteric fashion. Supporters of the latter thesis, like Leo Strauss, maintain that Islamic philosophers wrote so as to conceal their true meaning in order to avoid religious persecution, but scholars such as Oliver Leaman disagree; the main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself and Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests, along with pre-Islamic Indian philosophy and Persian philosophy.
Many of the early philosophical debates centered around reconciling religion and reason, the latter exemplified by Greek philosophy. Some Muslims oppose the idea of philosophy as un-Islamic; the popular Salafist website IslamQA.info declares philosophy to be an "alien entity": The terminology of Islamic philosophy did not emerge as a branch of knowledge, taught in the curriculum of Islamic studies until it was introduced by Shaykh Mustafa Abd al-Raziq – the Shaykh of al-Azhar – as a reaction to western attacks on Islam based on the idea that Islam has no philosophy. But the fact of the matter is; the fatwa claims that "the majority of fuqaha’ have stated that it is haraam to study philosophy, lists some of these: Ibn Nujaym writing in al-Ashbaah wa’l-Nazaa’im. Maani’ Hammad al-Juhani, is quoted as declaring that because philosophy does not follow the moral guidelines of the Sunnah, "philosophy, as defined by the philosophers, is one of the most dangerous falsehoods and most vicious in fighting faith and religion on the basis of logic, which it is easy to use to confuse people in the name of reason and metaphor that distort the religious texts".
Ibn Abi al-Izz, a commentator on al-Tahhaawiyyah, condemns philosophers as the ones who "most deny the Last Day and its events. In their view Paradise and Hell are no more than parables for the masses to understand, but they have no reality beyond people’s minds." In early Islamic
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties, he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, history, tragedy and science, his writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism. He developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his work, he became preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts, reworking his unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with Nazism. Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism and post-structuralism—as well as art, psychology and popular culture.
Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. Nietzsche's Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, they had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; the family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner and Wilhelm Pinder, all of whom came from respected families. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg; because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta.
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. He found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources, his end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in German. While at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects, he became acquainted with the work of the almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality." The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, more "German" writers. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric and drunken poet, found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Rich