In the United States, a district attorney is the chief prosecutor for a local government area a county. The exact name of the office varies by state. Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most known as deputy district attorneys; the Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters; the district attorney, assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789, Section 35, provided for the appointment of a person in each judicial district to prosecute federal crimes and to represent the United States in all civil actions to which it was a party. There were 13 districts to cover the 11 States that had by that time ratified the constitution; each State was a district, except for Virginia which formed two. Districts were added; the statute did not confer a title upon these local agents of federal authority, but subsequent statutes and court decisions referred to them most as "district attorneys". In 1948, the Judicial Code adopted the term "United States attorneys"; this term for a prosecutor originates with the traditional use of the term "district" for multi-county prosecutorial jurisdictions in several U. S. states. For example, New York appointed prosecutors to multi-county districts prior to 1813. After those states broke up such districts and started appointing or electing prosecutors for individual counties, they continued to use the title "district attorney" for the most senior prosecutor in a county rather than switch to "county attorney".
District attorney and assistant district attorney are the most common titles for state prosecutors, are used by several major jurisdictions within the United States, such as California, Georgia, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In St. Louis, the title is circuit attorney, while in St. Louis County, the title is prosecuting attorney. Alternative titles for the office include commonwealth's attorney, state's attorney, county attorney, circuit solicitor, or county prosecutor. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a chief crown prosecutor, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is a crown prosecutor; these prosecutors work under the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales, the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland, the Director of Public Prosecutions in Northern Ireland. In many other countries, the title of the chief prosecuting officer is Director of Public Prosecutions. In Canada, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a crown attorney, crown counsel or Crown Prosecutor depending on the province, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is the assistant crown attorney, assistant crown counsel or assistant crown prosecutor respectively.
The assistant district attorney, or state prosecutor, is a law enforcement official who represents the state government on behalf of the district attorney in investigating and prosecuting individuals alleged to have committed a crime. In carrying out their duties to enforce state and local laws, ADAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals. Administrative assistant district attorney, executive assistant district attorney, chief assistant district attorney, or first assistant district attorney are some of the titles given to the senior ADA leadership working under the DA; the chief ADA or first ADA, depending on the office, is considered the second-in-command, reports directly to the DA. The exact roles and job assignments for each title vary with each individual office, but include management of the daily activities and supervision of specialized divisions within the office.
A senior ADA may oversee or prosecute some of the larger crimes within the jurisdiction. In some offices, the Exec ADA has the responsibility of hiring lawyers and support staff, as well as supervising press-releases and overseeing the work of the office; some District Attorneys maintain their own law enforcement arm whose members are sworn peace officers. Depending on the jurisdiction, they are referred to as District Attorney Investigators or county detectives. List of district attorneys by county Allegheny County District Attorney Baltimore County State's Attorney Bronx County District Attorney Commonwealth's attorney Cook County State's Attorney Dallas County District Attorney Denver District Attorney's Office District Attorney of Philadelphia Essex County Prosecutor's Office King County Prosecuting Attorney Kings County District Attorney Law and order Los Angeles County District Attorney Milwaukee County District Attorney New York County District Attorney Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu Queens County District Attorney Richmond County District Attorney San Diego County District Attor
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Jeremiah Ordway is an American writer, penciller and painter of comic books. He is known for his inking work on a wide variety of DC Comics titles, including the continuity-redefining Crisis on Infinite Earths, his long run working on the Superman titles from 1986–1993, for writing and painting the Captain Marvel original graphic novel The Power of Shazam!, writing the ongoing monthly series from 1995–1999. He has provided inks for artists such as Curt Swan, Jack Kirby, Gil Kane, John Buscema, Steve Ditko, John Byrne, George Perez and others. Jerry Ordway was inspired in his childhood by Marvel Comics, dreamed of drawing Daredevil, Spider-Man, the Avengers. To date he has only worked on the latter. Among the artists he considers influential are Curt Swan, Jack Kirby, Gil Kane, John Buscema, Steve Ditko, all of whose pencils he would ink over, he cites Wally Wood, Alex Raymond, Hal Foster and Roy Crane as early inspirations. He names contemporaries such as Lee Weeks, John Romita Jr. Ron Garney, Mike Weiringo and Alan Davis, inkers such as Joe Sinnott, Dick Giordano, Tom Palmer and Klaus Janson.
Ordway attended Milwaukee Technical High School, where he took a three-year commercial art course, before joining a commercial art studio as a typographer in 1976. He subsequently worked his way "from the ground floor up at the art studio" between 1978 and 1981. Before beginning his professional career as an inker, Jerry Ordway entered the comics industry as an artist and publisher for small-press comics fanzines. Ordway discovered Marvel comics in "June of 1967," and wrote in 1975 that he had "been drawing superheroes since." His first published work, a story entitled "The Messenger", appeared in Tim Corrigan's Superhero Comics No. 4, his own self-published fanzine Okay Comix followed in May–June, 1975. Okay Comix featured stories by Ordway and his friend Dave Koula, art predominantly by Ordway himself. Ordway's own hero "Proton" headlined the'zine, which featured a pin-up of a character "called Acrobat", "the first superhero created, his birth was Dec. 1969."Spending the late 1970s working as a painter in a commercial art studio in Milwaukee, between 1978 and 1979, he provided illustrations for a number of fanzines and pro-zines, including Omniverse and The Comics Journal.
His first professional work was for Western Publishing's Golden Books on young-reader Marvel books, the Superheroes Golden Beginning Stampbook'79. Having produced comics-related artwork for fanzines and licensed publishers, Ordway attended "a talent search at the 1980 Chicago Comicon," held by DC Comics. After showing them his "DC related artwork from the Golden Books," he "walked away with a promise of work." This work began in the summer of 1980 for "DC's anthology comics," in which he "inked Carmine Infantino, Trevor Von Eeden, as well as Joe Staton, Dave Cockrum." After continuing to work at the art studio for a further six months, inking comics for DC by night, Ordway began "freelancing full time in February 1981." During the mid-1980s, he "shared a studio with other artists, including Machlan, Pat Broderick, Al Vey."At DC, he would illustrate All-Star Squadron, a series which he helped launch in an insert preview in Justice League of America No. 193. With writer Roy Thomas, he co-created Infinity, Inc. in All-Star Squadron No. 25 and the new team was launched in its own series in March 1984.
Ordway inked DC Comics Presents Annual No. 4 over artist Eduardo Barreto's pencils, was one of several artists on Batman Annual No. 9, inked George Pérez's pencils on the epic crossover miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985 and Superman artist Wayne Boring's pencils for a retelling of the definitive Golden Age Superman origin story written by Roy Thomas in Secret Origins No. 1, which he considers a particular favorite. Ordway was the penciller and inker for the DC Comics adaptation of the 1989 Batman film, published as a "movie special". Ordway has noted that "Inking is a weird job, because as much as you put into it, the page still belongs to the penciler." In 1986, along with writer/artist John Byrne and writer Marv Wolfman, Ordway revamped Superman, in the wake of the Ordway-inked continuity-redefining maxiseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. Launching, with a revised origin and new continuity, in Byrne's miniseries, The Man of Steel, Superman soon returned to featuring in a number of titles.
After the titular title Superman was cancelled and replaced with The Man of Steel, it was relaunched as The Adventures of Superman, continuing the numbering of the original Superman series, with Wolfman as writer and Ordway as artist. When Wolfman departed the title with issue #435, Byrne took over script writing duties before Ordway assumed the mantle of writer-artist and took over the series with issue #445, making his writing debut two issues earlier with #443. Ordway had served as co-plotter on a few issues during both Wolfman and Bryne's writing tenures. Switching from The Adventures of Superman, Ordway became the writer-artist on the companion title Superman vol. 2 between #34 and #55, before returning to Adventures of Superman as writer and sometimes as cover artist from issues #480 to #500. Ordway was the writer and primary artist for the story. While writing for the Superman family of titles, Ordway cowrote such storylines as "Panic in the Sky" and "The Death of Superman" storyline in 1992.
After seven years working on the character, Ordway left the Superman titles in 1993, altho
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object. It occupies all of the three-dimensional volume behind an object with light in front of it; the cross section of a shadow is a two-dimensional silhouette, or a reverse projection of the object blocking the light. A point source of light casts only a simple shadow, called an "umbra". For a non-point or "extended" source of light, the shadow is divided into the umbra and antumbra; the wider the light source, the more blurred. If two penumbras overlap, the shadows appear to merge; this is known as the Shadow blister effect. The outlines of the shadow zones can be found by tracing the rays of light emitted by the outermost regions of the extended light source; the umbra region does not receive any direct light from any part of the light source, is the darkest. A viewer located in the umbra region cannot directly see any part of the light source. By contrast, the penumbra is illuminated by some parts of the light source, giving it an intermediate level of light intensity.
A viewer located in the penumbra region will see the light source, but it is blocked by the object casting the shadow. If there is more than one light source, there will be several shadows, with the overlapping parts darker, various combinations of brightnesses or colors; the more diffuse the lighting is, the softer and more indistinct the shadow outlines become, until they disappear. The lighting of an overcast sky produces few visible shadows; the absence of diffusing atmospheric effects in the vacuum of outer space produces shadows that are stark and delineated by high-contrast boundaries between light and dark. For a person or object touching the surface where the shadow is projected the shadows converge at the point of contact. A shadow shows, apart from distortion, the same image as the silhouette when looking at the object from the sun-side, hence the mirror image of the silhouette seen from the other side; the names umbra and antumbra are used for the shadows cast by astronomical objects, though they are sometimes used to describe levels of darkness, such as in sunspots.
An astronomical object casts human-visible shadows when its apparent magnitude is equal or lower than -4. The only astronomical objects able to produce visible shadows on Earth are the sun, the moon and, in the right conditions, Venus or Jupiter. A shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon is a lunar eclipse. Conversely, a shadow cast by the Moon on the Earth is a solar eclipse; the sun casts shadows which change through the day. The length of a shadow cast on the ground is proportional to the cotangent of the sun's elevation angle—its angle θ relative to the horizon. Near sunrise and sunset, when θ = 0° and cot = ∞, shadows can be long. If the sun passes directly overhead θ = 90°, cot = 0, shadows are cast directly underneath objects; such variations have long aided travellers during their travels in barren regions such as the Arabian Desert. The farther the distance from the object blocking the light to the surface of projection, the larger the silhouette. If the object is moving, the shadow cast by the object will project an image with dimensions expanding proportionally faster than the object's own rate of movement.
The increase of size and movement is true if the distance between the object of interference and the light source are closer. This, does not mean the shadow may move faster than light when projected at vast distances, such as light years; the loss of light, which projects the shadow, will move towards the surface of projection at light speed. Although the edge of a shadow appears to "move" along a wall, in actuality the increase of a shadow's length is part of a new projection which propagates at the speed of light from the object of interference. Since there is no actual communication between points in a shadow, a shadow that projects over a surface of large distances cannot convey information between those distances with the shadow's edge. Visual artists are very aware of colored light emitted or reflected from several sources, which can generate complex multicolored shadows. Chiaroscuro and silhouette are examples of artistic techniques which make deliberate use of shadow effects. During the daytime, a shadow cast by an opaque object illuminated by sunlight has a bluish tinge.
This happens because of the same property that causes the sky to appear blue. The opaque object is able to block the light of the sun, but not the ambient light of the sky, blue as the atmosphere molecules scatter blue light more effectively; as a result, the shadow appears bluish. A shadow occupies a three-dimensional volume of space, but this is not visible until it projects onto a reflective surface. A light fog, mist, or dust cloud can reveal the 3D presence of volumetric patterns in light and shadow. Fog shadows may look odd to viewers. A thin fog is just dense enough to be illuminated by the light that passes through the gaps in a structure or in a tree; as a result, the path of an object's shadow through the fog becomes visible as a darkened volume. In a sense, these shadow lanes are the inverse of crepuscular rays caused by beams of light, but caused by the shadows of solid objects. Theatrical fog and strong beams of light are sometimes used by lighting designers and visual artists who seek to highlight three-dimensional aspects of their work.
Oftentimes shadows of chain-linked fences
The New 52
The New 52 was the 2011 revamp and relaunch by DC Comics of its entire line of ongoing monthly superhero comic books. Following the conclusion of the "Flashpoint" crossover storyline, DC cancelled all of its existing titles and debuted 52 new series in September 2011 with new first issues. Among the renumbered series were Action Comics and Detective Comics, which had retained their original numbering since the 1930s; the relaunch included changes to the publishing format. New titles were released to bring the number of ongoing monthly series to fifty-two. Various changes were made to DC's fictional universe to entice new readers, including changes to DC's internal continuity to make characters more modern and accessible. In addition, characters from the Wildstorm and Vertigo imprints were absorbed into the DC Universe; the New 52 branding ended after the completion of the "Convergence" storyline in May 2015, although the continuity of The New 52 continued. In June 2015, 24 new titles were launched, alongside 25 returning titles, with several of those receiving new creative teams.
In February 2016, DC announced their Rebirth initiative with the release of an 80-page one-shot on May 25, 2016, continuing through late 2016. Following the conclusion of the Flashpoint limited series, all titles set in the DC Universe were cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues; the new continuity features new outfits and backstories for many of DC's long-established heroes and villains. An interview with DC Comics executive editor Eddie Berganza and editor-in-chief Bob Harras revealed that the new continuity did not constitute a full reboot of the DC Universe but rather a "soft reboot". While many characters underwent a reboot or revamp, much of the DC Universe's history remained intact. Many major storylines such as "War of the Green Lanterns", "Batman: A Death in the Family" and Batman: The Killing Joke remained part of the new continuity, while others have been lost in part or in whole. DC editorial constructed a timeline that details the new history and which storylines to keep or ignore.
On August 31, 2011, Midtown Comics Times Square held a midnight event at which they began selling Justice League #1 and Flashpoint #5. On hand to sign the books were DC Chief Creative Officer Geoff Johns, the writer of both titles, Co-publisher and writer/artist Jim Lee, who illustrated Justice League. On January 12, 2012, DC announced that after their eighth issues, Blackhawks and Dove, Men of War, Mister Terrific, O. M. A. C. and Static Shock would be cancelled and replaced with six new titles, which would reveal more of The New 52 DC Universe. The new titles were dubbed the Second Wave: Dial H, Earth 2, G. I. Combat, World's Finest and Batman Incorporated, absent from the initial line of Batman titles, would continue Grant Morrison's storyline from before The New 52 involving the conflict between Batman and Talia al Ghul. On June 8, 2012, DC announced that in September 2012, the first anniversary of The New 52 launch, all titles would get a zero issue, dubbed "Zero Month". In addition, the Third Wave of titles was announced: Talon, Sword of Sorcery, Phantom Stranger, Team 7.
With these additions to the line, Justice League International, Captain Atom, Resurrection Man, Voodoo were cancelled. In October and November 2012, DC announced new titles Threshold, Justice League of America, Justice League of America's Vibe, Constantine. Threshold would be published in January 2013, Constantine in March 2013, while the others would be published in February 2013. DC consolidated these new titles as the Fourth Wave of The New 52. G. I. Combat, Agent of S. H. A. D. E. Grifter, Blue Beetle, Legion Lost were cancelled as a result. Young Romance: A New 52 Valentine's Day Special #1 was published as the 52nd title in February 2013. In January 2013, DC Comics announced the cancellation of I, Vampire and DC Universe Presents in April 2013. To celebrate the 60th birthday of Mad Magazine mascot Alfred E. Neuman, DC solicited variants drawn by Mad artists for 13 titles being published in April 2013. Starting with titles released on January 28, 2013, all printed New 52 publications featured advertisements for fictional news channel, Channel 52.
The two page back-ups, titled Channel 52, appear in all books, starting in February 2013, replaced the previous "DC Comics: All Access" features. This news feature stars Bethany Snow, Ambush Bug and Calendar Man as reporters and anchors on the fictional in-universe news show; the art is provided by Freddie E. Williams II; each week brings new content regarding the future goings-on in the DC universe. Channel 52 and Bethany Snow make an appearance in the second season of Arrow. On January 30, 2013, DC announced that all titles released in April 2013 would be "WTF Certified"; each title would feature a gatefold cover and story lines and moments that will leave readers in a state of shock, including the return of Booster Gold. However, DC dropped the "WTF Certified" branding and did not feature it on any of The New 52 books. In February 2013, it was announced that DC Comics would launch two new politically motivated books as parts of the Fifth Wave: The Green Team: Teen Trillionaires and The Movement.
These would explore concepts similar to the Occupy Movement and the role money has in a world of superheroes. A wave of cancellations was announced for May 2013 including: The Savage Hawkman, The Fury of Firestorm: The Nuclear Man, Sword of Sorcery, Team 7, The Ravagers. In March 2013, DC announced that it would launch four new titles in June 2013, making up the rest of the Fifth Wave: Superman Unchained, Batman/Superman and Trinity of Sin: Pandora. In April 2013, the cancellation of Bat
Alan Scott is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, the first character to bear the name Green Lantern. He fights evil with the aid of a magical ring, he was created by Martin Nodell first appearing in the comic book All-American Comics #16, published in 1940. Alan Scott was created after Nodell became inspired by the characters from Greek and Norse myths, seeking to create a popular entertainment character who fought evil with the aid of a magic ring which grants him a variety of supernatural powers. After debuting in All-American Comics, Alan Scott soon became popular enough to sustain his own comic book, Green Lantern. Around this time DC began experimenting with fictional crossovers between its characters, leading towards a shared universe of characters; as one of the publisher's most popular heroes, Alan became a founding member of the Justice Society of America, one of the first such teams of "mystery men" or superheroes in comic books. Following World War II, the character's popularity began to fade along with the decline of the Golden Age of Comic Books, leading to cancellation.
After 12 years out of print, DC chose to reinvent Green Lantern as science fiction hero Hal Jordan in 1959. DC would again revisit Alan Scott, establishing that Alan and Hal were the Green Lanterns of two different parallel worlds, with Alan residing on Earth-Two and Hal on Earth-One. Stories set on Earth-Two thereafter showed that Alan became the father to two superheroic children, the twins Obsidian and Jade, each with powers a bit like his own; when in 1985 DC chose to reboot its internal continuity, it merged the worlds of Earth-One and Earth-Two, Alan was again reimagined as an elder statesman of the DC Universe, the magical Green Lantern of an earlier generation who coexists with the more science fiction-oriented heroes of the Green Lantern Corps. When DC brought back its internal Multiverse concept in the 2000s, it reintroduced a new, young version of Alan on the new Earth-Two, this time as a gay man and the owner of a media conglomerate whose magical powers stem from his role as champion of the Green, an entity embodying plant life on Earth.
The original Green Lantern was created by an American artist named Martin Nodell. Nodell mentions Richard Wagner's opera cycle The Ring of the Nibelung and the sight of a trainman's green railway lantern as his inspiration. After seeing this opera, Nodell sought to create a superhero who wielded a variety of magical powers from a magic ring, which he recharged from a green lantern. Nodell wanted a colorful and interesting costume for his character, deriving from elements of Greek mythology; as Nodell recalled in an undated, latter-day interview, When I sent it in, I waited into the second week before I heard the word to come in. I was ushered into Mr. Gaines' office and after sitting a long time and flipping through the pages of my presentation, he announced, "We like it!" And "Get to work!" I did the first five pages of an eight-page story, they called in Bill Finger to help. We worked on it for seven years. Nodell chose the name "Alan Scott" by flipping through New York telephone books until he got two names he liked.
The character of Alan Scott made his debut in All-American Comics #16, fighting crime under the masked identity of "Green Lantern". He appeared as part of the superhero team Justice Society of America in All Star Comics #3, he served as the team's second chairman in #7, but departed following that issue and returned a few years remaining a regular character. His villains tended to be ordinary humans, but he did have a few paranormal ones, such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Green Lantern proved popular and was given his own series, Green Lantern that year. Most of his adventures were set in New York. In 1941, Alan Scott was paired with a sidekick named Doiby Dickles, a rotund Brooklyn taxi driver, who would appear on a regular basis until 1949. In 1948, Alan got a canine sidekick named Streak; the dog proved so popular. After World War 2, superheroes declined in popularity. Green Lantern was cancelled in 1949 after 38 issues and All-American Comics dropped superheroes in favor of westerns.
Alan Scott's final Golden Age appearance was in All-Star Comics #57. He remained out of publication for 12 years, after his revival he never got another solo series. In 1959, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz reinvented Green Lantern as a science fiction hero; the new Green Lantern, named Hal Jordan, was empowered by alien masters to serve as an interstellar lawman and had many adventures set in outer space. His powers were similar to Alan's but he was otherwise unrelated—Alan Scott never existed as far as the new stories were concerned. Hal Jordan proved popular; some years Alan Scott reappeared as a guest star in The Flash #137. To avoid continuity conflicts with the Hal Jordan character, Alan Scott and all his old stories were written as being from a parallel universe. For most of the 1960s and 1970s, Alan Scott made guest appearances in books belonging to Silver Age characters, visiting their universe through magical or technological means. In 1976, he appeared alongside his Justice Society comrades in the revived All-Star Comics and Adventure Comics in stories set in the 1970s.
In 1981, DC Comics launched All-Star Squadron, which featured Alan Scott and the Justice Society in a World War 2 setting. In 1986, the editors at DC Comics decided that all its characters should exist within the same setting and effected this change with the Crisis on Infinite Earths minis
Blackest Night is a 2009–2010 American comic book crossover storyline published by DC Comics, consisting of an eponymous, central miniseries written by Geoff Johns and penciled by Ivan Reis, a number of tie-in books. "Blackest Night" involves Nekron, a personified force of death who reanimates deceased superheroes and seeks to eliminate all life and emotion from the universe. Geoff Johns has identified the series' central theme as emotion; the crossover was published for eight months as a limited series and in both the Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps comic titles. Various other limited series and tie-ins, including an audio drama from Darker Projects, were published; the storyline was first mentioned at the conclusion of the "Sinestro Corps War" in Green Lantern vol. 4, #25. As the war between the Green Lantern and Sinestro Corps reaches its climax, the four Green Lanterns of Earth—Hal Jordan, Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner—are told by the Guardians Ganthet and Sayd of the Blackest Night prophecy.
According to the prophecy, the two existing Corps would be joined by five new ones, each driven by a specific emotion and empowered by a specific color of the emotional spectrum, leading to a "War of Light" that would subsequently destroy the universe. Johns says the prophecy has its origins in the story "Tygers" by Alan Moore, which touches on the rising up of the Guardians' enemies the Weaponers of Qward, Ranx the Sentient City, the Children of the White Lobe, the destruction of the Green Lanterns, shows Hal Jordan and Mogo dying. Both Geoff Johns and Ethan Van Sciver said that Blackest Night is the third part of a Green Lantern event trilogy that began with Rebirth and continued with "Sinestro Corps War". In a December 2007 interview with IGN, Johns stated that he has the monthly Green Lantern book plotted up until issue #55. More details for the event were revealed in DC Universe #0, which depicted Black Hand discovering the black power battery on the planet of Ryut. Blackest Night #0 was released on May 2, 2009, —Free Comic Book Day—and portrays a series of events directly leading into Blackest Night #1.
The standalone, self-titled miniseries consists of Blackest Night eight monthly issues. Tie-ins include issues of Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps starting with issues #43 and #38 and nine 3-issue limited series: Blackest Night: Tales of the Corps, Blackest Night: Superman, Blackest Night: Batman, Blackest Night: Titans, Blackest Night: Wonder Woman, Blackest Night: Flash, Blackest Night: JSA. Ethan Van Sciver had planned to work on the opening book, but because of his work on The Flash: Rebirth miniseries he was not able to complete both effectively. Van Sciver and Ivan Reis created many of the designs for this storyline. Green Lanterns Ash and Saarek find the Black Central Power Battery at a classified location within Sector 666. After touching the battery, Saarek reports; the two are killed when two monstrous hands emerge from below them as the battery calls "flesh". In Green Lantern Corps, a field of asteroids in an unknown region of space is depicted with the colors of the spectrum in the background.
The asteroids, which are the remains of the planet Xanshi, are shattered and a large quantity of black power rings move through them. In Gotham City, Black Hand removes Bruce Wayne's skull from his grave and carries it with him, a Black Lantern power battery begins to charge; the Guardians of Oa observe the War of Light and realize that Ganthet and Sayd are correct but are kept from intervening by Scar, who swiftly kills one and imprisons the rest. Thousands of black rings assault the Corps' crypt. Hal Jordan and the newly revived Flash investigate Bruce Wayne's grave and are attacked by Black Lantern Martian Manhunter. On Oa, the Green Lanterns are met by all of the resurrected Lanterns. Hawkgirl and Hawkman are killed by Black Lanterns Elongated Man and Sue Dibny and join the growing Black Corps; the Atom is tricked into visiting Black Lantern Hawkman, Deadman is the first to realize the dead superheroes are not their true selves when his physical body revives as a Black Lantern while he is still free.
Aquaman and his Black Lantern family attack Mera. A black ring strikes the Spectre, binding the spirit Aztar and reviving Crispus Allen as a Black Lantern; the black rings are unable to revive dead characters who are at peace, such as former Dove Don Hall as his partner Hawk and his brother Hank rise. In Gotham, Hal Jordan and Barry Allen are confronted by several Black Lanterns, including Ronald Raymond. Hal, the Atom and Flash battle the Black Lanterns when the Indigo Tribe appear and use their Indigo power with other rings to obliterate the Black Dibnys. Mera finds the new Gehenna, who merge to create a new Firestorm. Indigo says; the Indigo Tribe leave the other heroes to fight the invading Black Lanterns. Black Lantern Firestorm separates Gehenna and Jason, kills Gehenna and absorbs Jason's consciousness. Black rings revive the villains. Mera and Flash use Atom's powers to escape through a telephone line. Flash leaves and gives all the superheroes in the US the key to defeat the Black Lanterns—merging lights with a Green Ring—and the Atom and the Justice Society of America battle many Lanterns together.
Jean Loring kills and causes Damage to revive as a Lantern, which empowers the Black Lantern power battery. Barry arrives in Coast City. Black Hand summons Nekron, who revives the residents of Coas