Voivode, Vojvoda or Wojewoda is a Slavic term for a military commander in Central and Southern Europe during the Early Middle Ages, or a governor of a territorial voivodeship. The different permutations of the term all share two roots, voi related to warring and secondly, vod meaning leading in Old Slavic, together denoting a "war-leader" or "warlord". In early Slavic vojevoda meant the bellidux the military leader in battle. During the Byzantine Empire it referred to military commanders of Slavic populations in the Balkans, the Bulgarian Empire being the first permanently established Slavic state in the region; the title voevodas occurs in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in his De Administrando Imperio in reference to Hungarian military leaders. The title was used in medieval Bohemia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland, Rügen, Russian Empire, Serbia and Wallachia In the Late Middle Ages the voivode, Latin translation is comes palatinus for the principal commander of a military force, deputising for the monarch became the title of territorial Voivodeship governors of senatorial rank in Poland and the Czech lands and in the Balkans.
In the Kingdom of Serbia the highest military rank was Army General. After the Second World War, the newly formed Yugoslav People's Army stopped using the royal ranking system, making the name obsolete; the transition of the voivode from military leader to a high ranking civic role in territorial administration occurred in most Slavic countries and in the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages. They included Bulgaria, the Czech lands, Moldavia and Russia. Moreover in the Czech lands it was an aristocratic title corresponding to Duke or Knyaz. In the 16th-century Commonwealth of Two Nations the Wojewoda was a civic role of senatorial rank and neither heritable nor a title of nobility, his powers and duties depended on his location. The least onerous role was in Ruthenia; the role began in the crown lands as that of an administrative overseer, but his powers were ceremonial. Over time he became a representative in the Sejm, his military functions were reduced to supervising a Mass mobilization and in practice he ended up as little more than overseer of weights and measures.
Appointments to the role were made until 1775 by the King. The exceptions were the voivodes of Polock and Vitebsk who were elected by a local poll of male electors for confirmation by the monarch. In 1791 it was decided to adopt the procedure throughout the country but the Partitions of Poland put a stop to it.. Polish voivodes were subject to the Law of Incompatibility which prevented them from holding ministerial or other civic offices in their area; the role was revived during the Second Polish Republic after Poland regained her independence in 1918. Voivodes continue to have a role in local government in Poland today, as overseers of self-governing local councils, answerable not to the local electorate but as representatives/emissaries of the central government's Council of Ministers, they are appointed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and among their main tasks are budgetary control and supervision of the administrative code. Bjelajac, Mile. Generali i admirali Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1918—1941.
Belgrade: Institut za novu istoriju Srbije. ISBN 86-7005-039-0. Franz Ritter von Miklosich. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der slavischen Sprachen. W. Braumüller. P. 393. Konstantin Jireček. Staat und gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien: studien zur kulturgeschichte des 13.-15. Jahrhunderts. In Kommission bei Alfred Hölder
Seat of local government
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, a guildhall, a Rathaus, or a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It houses the city or town council, its associated departments, their employees, it usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, borough, or county/shire. By convention, until the mid 19th-century, a single large open chamber formed an integral part of the building housing the council; the hall may be used for other significant events. This large chamber, the "town hall" has become synonymous with the whole building, with the administrative body housed in it; the terms "council chambers", "municipal building" or variants may be used locally in preference to "town hall" if no such large hall is present within the building. The local government may endeavor to use the town hall building to promote and enhance the quality of life of the community. In many cases, "town halls" serve not only as buildings for government functions, but have facilities for various civic and cultural activities.
These may include art shows, stage performances and festivals. Modern town halls or "civic centres" are designed with a great variety and flexibility of purpose in mind; as symbols of local government and town halls have distinctive architecture, the buildings may have great historical significance – for example the Guildhall, London. City hall buildings may serve as cultural icons that symbolize their cities; the term "town hall" may be a general one applied without regard to whether the building serves or served a town or a city. This is the case in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Hong Kong, many other Commonwealth countries. English-speakers in some regions use the term "city hall" to designate the council offices of a municipality of city status; this is the case in North America. The Oxford English Dictionary sums up the generic terms: town hall: "A large hall used for the transaction of the public business of a town, the holding of a court of justice, entertainments, etc.. Conversely, cities that have subdivisions with their own councils may have borough halls.
In Scotland, local government in larger cities operates from the "City Chambers", otherwise the "Town House". Elsewhere in English-speaking countries, other names are used. In London, the official headquarters of administration of the City of London retains its Anglo-Saxon name, the Guildhall, signifying a place where taxes were paid. In a small number of English cities the preferred term is "Council House": this was the case in Bristol until 2012, when the building was renamed "City Hall". In Birmingham, there is a distinction between the Council House, the seat of local government, the Town Hall, a concert and meeting venue which pre-dates it. In the City of Sheffield, the distinction is between the Town Hall, the seat of local government, the City Hall, a concert and ballroom venue. Large halls called basilicas were used in Ancient Rome for the administration of justice, as meeting places, for trade. In the Early Medieval period, the hall, a single large open chamber, was the main, sometimes only room of the home of a feudal lord.
There the lord lived with his family and retinue, ate and administered rule and justice. Activities in the hall played an essential role in the functioning of the feudal manor, the administrative unit of society; as manorial dwellings developed into manor houses and palaces, the hall, or "great hall" as it was termed, remained an essential unit within the architectural complex. In the Middle Ages or early modern period, many European market towns erected communal market halls, comprising a covered open space to function as a sheltered marketplace at street level, one or more rooms used for public or civic purposes on the upper floor or floors; such buildings were the precursors of dedicated town halls. The modern concept of the town hall developed with the rise of regional government. Cities administered by a group of elected or chosen representatives, rather than by a lord or princely ruler, required a place for their council to meet; the Cologne City Hall of 1135 is a prominent example for self-gained municipal autonomy of medieval cities.
The Palazzo Pubblico of the Republic of Siena and the Palazzo Vecchio of the Republic of Florence, both town halls, date from 1297 and 1299 respectively. In each case the large, fortified building comprises a large meeting hall and numerous administrative chambers. Both buildings are topped by tall towers. Both buildings have ancient timepieces. Both buildings have facilities for the storage of documents and references that pertain to the city's administration; these features: a hall, a tower and a clock, as well as administrative chambers and an archive or muniment room became the standard features of town halls across Europe
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Ukraine and Serbia; the area of extent of voivodeship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval states, much as the title of voivode was equivalent to that of a duke. Other equivalent titles and areas in medieval Eastern Europe included ban and banate. In a modern context, the word refers to one of the provinces of Poland. Poland as of 2017 has 16 voivodeships. A voivod was a military commander who stood, in a state's structure, next to the ruler; the word came to denote an administrative official. Words for "voivodeship" in various languages include the Polish: województwo; some of these words, or variants of them, may be used in English. Named for the word for "voivodeship" is the autonomous Serbian province of Vojvodina. Though the word "voivodeship" appears in English dictionaries such as the OED and Webster's, it is not in common general usage, voivodeships in Poland and elsewhere are referred to as "provinces".
Depending on context, historic voivodeships may be referred to as "duchies", "palatinates", "administrative districts" or "regions". Since 1999, Poland has been divided into the following 16 voivodeships or provinces: Greater Poland Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Lesser Poland Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Lubusz Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Opole Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Silesian Voivodeship Subcarpathian Voivodeship Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship In the territory of modern Romania and Moldova, the regions of Wallachia and Transylvania were voivodeships. Historical voivodeships in the territory of modern Serbia include the Voivodeship of Salan, Voivodeship of Sermon and Voivodeship of Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik. A voivodeship called Serbian Vojvodina was established in 1848–1849; this is the origin of the name of the present-day Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina.
Historical voivodeships in the territory of modern Romania and Serbia include the Voivodeship of Glad and the Voivodeship of Ahtum. For more information about the divisions of Polish lands in particular periods, see Administrative divisions of Poland. Voivodeships in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: In the Polish Crown Lands: Poznań Voivodeship Kalisz Voivodeship Gniezno Voivodeship Sieradz Voivodeship Łęczyca Voivodeship Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship Inowrocław Voivodeship Chełmno Voivodeship Malbork Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Płock Voivodeship Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship Sandomierz Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Podlasie Voivodeship Ruthenian Voivodeship Bełz Voivodeship Wolhynia Voivodeship Podole Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Kijów Voivodeship Czernihów Voivodeship In the historical Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Vilnius Voivodeship Trakai Voivodeship Nowogródek Voivodeship Brest-Litovsk Voivodeship Minsk Voivodeship Mścisław Voivodeship Smolensk Voivodeship Vitebsk Voivodeship Połock Voivodeship In the historical Duchy of Livonia: Wenden Voivodeship Dorpat Voivodeship Parnawa Voivodeship Inflanty Voivodeship Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939: Silesian Voivodeship Białystok Voivodeship Kielce Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Lwów Voivodeship Nowogródek Voivodeship Polesie Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Poznań Voivodeship Stanisławów Voivodeship Tarnopol Voivodeship Warsaw Voivodeship Wilno Voivodeship Volhynian Voivodeship Voivodeships of Poland, 1945–1975: Białystok Voivodeship Bydgoszcz Voivodeship Gdańsk Voivodeship Katowice Voivodeship Kielce Voivodeship Koszalin Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Olsztyn Voivodeship Opole Voivodeship Poznań Voivodeship Rzeszów Voivodeship Szczecin Voivodeship Warsaw Voivodeship Wrocław Voivodeship Zielona Góra VoivodeshipVoivodeships of Poland, 1975–1998: Biała Podlaska Voivodeship Białystok Voivodeship Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship Bydgoszcz Voivode
Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory. Jumping can be distinguished from running and other gaits where the entire body is temporarily airborne, by the long duration of the aerial phase and high angle of initial launch; some animals, such as the kangaroo, employ jumping as their primary form of locomotion, while others, such as frogs, use it only as a means to escape predators. Jumping is a key feature of various activities and sports, including the long jump, high jump and show jumping. All jumping involves the application of force against a substrate, which in turn generates a reactive force that propels the jumper away from the substrate. Any solid or liquid capable of producing an opposing force can serve as a substrate, including ground or water. Examples of the latter include dolphins performing traveling jumps, Indian skitter frogs executing standing jumps from water.
Jumping organisms are subject to significant aerodynamic forces and, as a result, their jumps are governed by the basic physical laws of ballistic trajectories. While a bird may jump into the air to initiate flight, no movement it performs once airborne is considered jumping, as the initial jump conditions no longer dictate its flight path. Following the moment of launch, a jumper will traverse a parabolic path; the launch angle and initial launch velocity determine the travel distance and height of the jump. The maximum possible horizontal travel distance occurs at a launch angle of 45 degrees, but any launch angle between 35 and 55 degrees will result in ninety percent of the maximum possible distance. Muscles do physical work, adding kinetic energy to the jumper's body over the course of a jump's propulsive phase; this results in a kinetic energy at launch, proportional to the square of the jumper's speed. The more work the muscles do, the greater the launch velocity and thus the greater the acceleration and the shorter the time interval of the jump's propulsive phase.
Mechanical power and the distance over which that power is applied are the key determinants of jump distance and height. As a result, many jumping animals have long legs and muscles that are optimized for maximal power according to the force-velocity relationship of muscles; the maximum power output of muscles is limited, however. To circumvent this limitation, many jumping species pre-stretch elastic elements, such as tendons or apodemes, to store work as strain energy; such elastic elements can release energy at a much higher rate than equivalent muscle mass, thus increasing launch energy to levels beyond what muscle alone is capable of. A jumper may be either moving when initiating a jump. In a jump from stationary, all of the work required to accelerate the body through launch is done in a single movement. In a moving jump or running jump, the jumper introduces additional vertical velocity at launch while conserving as much horizontal momentum as possible. Unlike stationary jumps, in which the jumper's kinetic energy at launch is due to the jump movement, moving jumps have a higher energy that results from the inclusion of the horizontal velocity preceding the jump.
Jumpers are able to jump greater distances when starting from a run. Animals use a wide variety of anatomical adaptations for jumping; these adaptations are concerned with the launch, as any post-launch method of extending range or controlling the jump must use aerodynamic forces, thus is considered gliding or parachuting. Aquatic species display any particular specializations for jumping; those that are good jumpers are adapted for speed, execute moving jumps by swimming to the surface at a high velocity. A few aquatic species that can jump while on land, such as mud skippers, do so via a flick of the tail. In terrestrial animals, the primary propulsive structure is the legs, though a few species use their tails. Typical characteristics of jumping species include long legs, large leg muscles, additional limb elements. Long legs increase the time and distance over which a jumping animal can push against the substrate, thus allowing more power and faster, farther jumps. Large leg muscles can generate greater force.
In addition to elongated leg elements, many jumping animals have modified foot and ankle bones that are elongated and possess additional joints adding more segments to the limb and more length. Frogs are an excellent example of all three trends: frog legs can be nearly twice the body length, leg muscles may account for up to twenty percent of body weight, they have not only lengthened the foot and thigh, but extended the ankle bones into another limb joint and extended the hip bones and gained mobility at the sacrum for a second'extra joint'; as a result, frogs are the undisputed champion jumpers of vertebrates, leaping over fifty body lengths, a distance of more than eight feet. Grasshoppers use elastic energy storage to increase jumping distance. Although power output is a principal determinant of jump distance, physiological constraints limit muscle power to 375 Watts per kilogram of muscle. To overcome this limitation, grasshoppers anchor their legs via an internal "catch mechanism" while their muscles stretch an elastic apodeme.
When the catch is released, the apodeme releases its energy
Mazovia is a historical region in mid-north-eastern Poland. It spans the North European Plain between Lodz and Bialystok, with Warsaw being the unofficial capital and largest city. Throughout the centuries, Mazovia developed a separate sub-culture featuring diverse folk songs, architecture and traditions different to those of other Poles. Historical Mazovia existed from the Middle Ages until the partitions of Poland and consisted of three voivodeships with the capitals in Warsaw, Płock and Rawa; the main city of the region was Płock, however, in the Early Modern Times it lost its importance to Warsaw, which became the capital of Poland. From 1138, Mazovia was governed by a separate branch of the Piast dynasty and when the last ruler of the independent Duchy of Mazovia died, it was incorporated to the Polish Crown in 1526. During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth over 20% of Mazovian population was categorized as petty nobility. Between 1816 and 1844, the Mazovian Governorate was established, which encompassed the south of the region along with Łęczyca Land and south-eastern Kuyavia.
The former inhabitants of Mazovia are the Masurians, who, as Protestants, took refuge in neighboring East Prussia in the so-called region of Masuria. The borders of contemporary Mazovian Voivodeship, created in 1999, do not reflect its original size as they don't include the Mazovian cities of Łomża and Łowicz, but include the Lesser Polish Radom and Siedlce. Mazovia has a landscape without lakes, it is spread over the Mazovian Lowland, on both sides of the Vistula river and its confluence with Narew and Bug. Forests cover one-fifth of the region, with the large Kampinos Forest, Puszcza Biała and Puszcza Zielona. In the north Mazovia borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland and in the west on Greater Poland; the area of Mazovia is 33,500 km2. It has population of 5 million; when the Slavs came to this region from the surrounding area of Polesie, they mingled with the descendants of Vistula Veneti and with other people who had settled here such as the Wielbark people.
This created a Lechitic tribe: Mazovians. The historical region of Mazovia in the beginning encompassed only the territories on the right bank of Vistula near Płock and had strong connections with Greater Poland. In the period of the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast State, Płock was one of their seats, on the Cathedral Hill they raised palatium. In the period 1037 -- 1047 it was the capital of the Mazovian state of Masław. Between 1079 and 1138 this city was de facto the capital of Poland. Since 1075 it has been the seat of the diocese encompassing northern Mazovia. During the 9th century Mazovia was inhabited by the tribe of Mazovians, it was incorporated into the Polish state in the second half of 10th century under the Piast ruler Mieszko I. In 1138 the duchy of Mazovia was established, during the 12th and 13th centuries it joined temporarily various adjacent lands and endured invasions of Prussians and Ruthenians. To protect its northern section Conrad I of Mazovia called in the Teutonic Knights in 1226 and granted them the Chełmno Land.
After the reunification of the Polish state by Władysław I in the early 14th century, Mazovia became its fief in 1351. In the second half of 15th century western Mazovia and in 1526/1529 the main part was incorporated into the Polish state. In the 15th century the eastern part of the region was settled by the yeomanry. Mazovia was considered underdeveloped in comparison with Greater Poland and Lesser Poland, with the lowest urban population. In the Early Modern Times Mazovia was known for exporting grain and fur, it was distinct because there was no reformation here. Mazovia was divided into three voivodeships, each of them divided into lands, each of them divided into counties; the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin established Mazovia as the central region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Warsaw rising to prominence as the seat of the state legislature. In 1596 King Sigismund III Vasa moved the Polish capital from Kraków to Warsaw. During the 17th and 18th centuries Swedish, Transylvanian and Russian invasions wreaked havoc on the region.
In 1793 western Mazovia, two years the rest of the region became part of Prussia. In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the region was incorporated into the Congress Kingdom of Poland, dependent on Russia. In the 19th century Mazovia was the site of Polish rebellions against Russian rule. In that era pre-partition Mazovia was divided among Płock and Augustów. Since 1918 Mazovia has been a part of the resurrected Poland, being equivalent to the Warsaw Voivodeship. Under the German occupation of Warsaw during World War II, the city’s population decreased as a result of executions, the extermination of the city’s Jews, the deaths of some 200,000 inhabitants during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, the deportation of the city’s left-bank population following the uprising. Shortly after
A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U. S. customary units equal to one eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet, 220 yards, 40 rods, or 10 chains. Using the international definition of the inch as 25.4 millimetres, one furlong is 201.168 metres. However, the United States does not uniformly use this conversion ratio. Older ratios are in use for surveying purposes in some states, leading to variations in the length of the furlong of two parts per million, or about 0.4 millimetres. This variation is too small to have practical consequences in most applications. Five furlongs are about 1.0 kilometre. The name furlong derives from the Old English words lang. Dating back at least to early Anglo-Saxon times, it referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a ploughed open field; the furlong was the distance. This was standardised to be 40 rods or 10 chains; the system of long furrows arose because turning a team of oxen pulling a heavy plough was difficult. This offset the drainage advantages of short furrows and meant furrows were made as long as possible.
An acre is an area, one furlong long and one chain wide. For this reason, the furlong was once called an acre's length, though in modern usage an area of one acre can be of any shape; the term furlong, or shot, was used to describe a grouping of adjacent strips within an open field. Among the early Anglo-Saxons, the rod was the fundamental unit of land measurement. A furlong was forty rods, an acre four by 40 rods, or four rods by one furlong, thus 160 square rods. At the time, the Saxons used the North German foot, 10 percent longer than the foot of today; when England changed to the shorter foot in the late 13th century and furlongs remained unchanged, since property boundaries were defined in rods and furlongs. The only thing that changed was the number of feet and yards in a rod or a furlong, the number of square feet and square yards in an acre; the definition of the rod went from 15 old feet to 16 1⁄2 new feet, or from 5 old yards to 5 1⁄2 new yards. The furlong went from 600 old feet from 200 old yards to 220 new yards.
The acre went from 36,000 old square feet to 43,560 new square feet, or from 4,000 old square yards to 4,840 new square yards. The furlong was viewed as being equivalent to the Roman stade, which in turn derived from the Greek system. For example, the King James Bible uses the term "furlong" in place of the Greek stadion, although more recent translations use miles or kilometres in the main text and give the original numbers in footnotes. In the Roman system, there were 625 feet to the stadium, eight stadia to the mile, three miles to the league. A league was considered to be the distance a man could walk in one hour, the mile consisted of 1,000 passus. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, medieval Europe continued with the Roman system, which the people proceeded to diversify, leading to serious complications in trade, etc. Around the year 1300, by royal decree England standardized a long list of measures. Among the important units of distance and length at the time were the foot, rod and the mile.
The rod was defined as 5 1⁄2 yards or 16 1⁄2 feet, the mile was eight furlongs, so the definition of the furlong became 40 rods and that of the mile became 5,280 feet. A description from 1675 states, "Dimensurator or Measuring Instrument whereof the mosts usual has been the Chain, the common length for English Measures four Poles, as answering indifferently to the Englishs Mile and Acre, 10 such Chains in length making a Furlong, 10 single square Chains an Acre, so that a square Mile contains 640 square Acres." —John Ogilby, Britannia, 1675 The official use of the furlong was abolished in the United Kingdom under the Weights and Measures Act 1985, an act that abolished the official use of many other traditional units of measurement. In Myanmar, furlongs are used in conjunction with miles to indicate distances on highway signs. Mileposts on the Yangon -- Mandalay Expressway use furlongs. In the rest of the world, the furlong has limited use, with the notable exception of horse racing in most English-speaking countries, including Canada and the United States.
The distances for horse racing in Australia were converted to metric in 1972. The city of Chicago's street numbering system allots a measure of 800 address units to each mile, in keeping with the city's system of eight blocks per mile; this means that every block in a typical Chicago neighborhood is one furlong in length. Salt Lake City's blocks are each a square furlong in the downtown area; the blocks become less regular in shape further from the center, but the numbering system remains the same everywhere in Salt Lake County. Blocks in central Logan, in large sections of Phoenix, are a square furlong in extent. City blocks in the Hoddle Grid of Melbourne are one furlong in length. Much of Ontario, was surveyed on a ten-furlong grid, with major roads being laid out alon
An ell is a unit of measurement a cubit, i.e. approximating the length of a man's arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, or about 18 inches. In English-speaking countries, these included the Flemish ell, English ell and French ell, some of which are thought to derive from a "double ell". An ell-wand or ellwand was a rod of length one ell used for official measurement. Edward I of England required. In Scotland, the Belt of Orion was called "the King's Ellwand". Several national forms existed, with different lengths, including the Scottish ell, the Flemish ell, the French ell, the Polish ell, the Danish alen, the Swedish aln and the German ell of different lengths in Frankfurt, Leipzig or Hamburg. Select customs were observed by English importers of Dutch textiles: although all cloths were bought by the Flemish ell, linen was sold by the English ell, but tapestry was sold by the Flemish ell; the Viking ell was the measure from the elbow to the tip of about 18 inches. The Viking ell or primitive ell was used in Iceland up to the 13th century.
By the 13th century, a law set the "stika" as equal to 2 ells, the English ell of the time. In England, the ell was 45 in, or a yard and a quarter, it was used in the tailoring business but is now obsolete. Although the exact length was never defined in English law, standards were kept; the Scottish ell is 37 inches, just over twice an ell. The Scottish ell was standardised with the exemplar to be kept in the custody of Edinburgh, it comes from Middle English elle. It was used in the popular expression "Gie'im an inch, an he'll tak an ell"; the Ell Shop in Dunkeld and Kinross, is so called from the 18th-century iron ell-stick attached to one corner, once used to measure cloth and other commodities in the adjacent market-place. The shaft of the 17th-century Kincardine mercat cross stands in the square of Fettercairn, is notched to show the measurements of an ell. Scottish measures were made obsolete, English measurements made standard in Scotland, by act of parliament in 1824; the Scottish ell was equivalent to: Scottish measures: 3 1⁄12 feet Metric system: 94.1318 cm Imperial system: 1.03 international yards, approx.
37.1 inches Ells are used for measuring the length of rope in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. In the epic poem Sir Gwaine and the Green Knight, the Green Knight's axe head was an ell wide; this article incorporates text from "Dwelly's Gaelic Dictionary". Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland Scottish National Dictionary and Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue Weights and Measures, by D. Richard Torrance, SAFHS, Edinburgh, 1996, ISBN 1-874722-09-9