Robert J. Walker
Robert John Walker was an American economist and statesman. As a senator, Walker vigorously supported the annexation of Texas, as Secretary of the Treasury, he held responsibility for the management of funds relating to the Mexican-American War, and in this capacity was accused of misappropriation. He resigned shortly following his appointment by President James Buchanan as Governor of Kansas in 1857 due to his opposition to the administration-sponsored pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution, after his retirement from politics, Walker supported the United States during the American Civil War and practiced law. Born in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, he was the son of a judge and he lived in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania from 1806 to 1814, where his father was presiding judge of the judicial district. Walker was educated at the Bellefonte Academy and he graduated in 1819 at the top of his class at the University of Pennsylvania where he was a member of the Philomathean Society, and was admitted to the bar in Pittsburgh in 1821.
He practiced law in Pittsburgh from 1822 until 1826 when he moved to Mississippi, there he joined his brother, Duncan Walker, in a lucrative law practice. Walker became a speculator in cotton and slaves and he became politically prominent during the Nullification Crisis, and from 1835 to 1845 he sat in the United States Senate as a Unionist Democrat. He opposed the Bank of the United States and he claimed that independent Texas had to be annexed to prevent it from falling into the hands of Great Britain, which would use it to spread subversion throughout the South. He was U. S. Secretary of the Treasury throughout the Polk administration, from March 8,1845 until March 5,1849, vice President George M. Dallas convinced Polk to appoint Walker to the position. As Treasury Secretary, Walker financed the Mexican-American War and drafted the 1849 bill to establish the United States Department of the Interior, one example of financing the Mexican-American war can be seen in correspondence, he wrote to Major General William Orlando Butler, February 23,1848.
He supported the independent Treasury system, pushed for a tariff for revenue, Walker was involved in a prominent Treasury report of December 3,1845. It is regarded as the most powerful attack upon the system that has ever been made in an American state paper. The Walker Tariff of 1846 was based upon the principles of paper and was in fact largely the secretarys own work. It was during the Mexican-American War that the US treasury seemed to be running out of money, an astonishingly large amount of funds had been withdrawn from the armys quartermaster and commissary departments. It turned out that $1.1 million had been deposited in the bank of Corcoran and Riggs, who had run on an anti-bank platform, wrote in his diary that it was the most troubling moment of his presidency. Confronting Walker yielded only casual, vague replies, Polk ordered an investigation, but Walker still couldnt give Polk the answers he needed. Eventually Walker told Polk that the $600,000 remaining in the hands would be distributed to the army.
It was never proved whether any chicanery had been going on, after leaving Treasury in 1849, Walker became a lawyer in Washington, DC, devoted himself to business and land speculation and became involved in mining interests
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the metals and is hard and ductile. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earths inner core, use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as an element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. The elements name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel, an economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1–2% nickel. Nickels other important ore minerals include garnierite, and pentlandite, major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is slowly oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver.
About 6% of world production is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy, Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic around room temperature, alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys, about 60% of world production is used in nickel-steels, other common alloys and some new superalloys comprise most of the remainder of world nickel use, with chemical uses for nickel compounds consuming less than 3% of production. As a compound, nickel has a number of chemical manufacturing uses. Nickel is a nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a metal with a slight golden tinge that takes a high polish.
It is one of four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C, meaning that bulk nickel is non-magnetic above this temperature, the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the Father of the Constitution for his role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution. Madison inherited his plantation Montpelier in Virginia and therewith owned hundreds of slaves during his lifetime and he served as both a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and as a member of the Continental Congress prior to the Constitutional Convention. After the Convention, he one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution. His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced The Federalist Papers, Madisons political views changed throughout his life. During deliberations on the Constitution, he favored a national government. In 1789, Madison became a leader in the new House of Representatives and he is noted for drafting the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is known as the Father of the Bill of Rights.
He worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government, breaking with Hamilton and the Federalist Party in 1791, he and Thomas Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts and Madison drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, as Jeffersons Secretary of State, Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the nations size. Madison succeeded Jefferson as president in 1809, was re-elected in 1813, after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against the United Kingdom, he led the U. S. into the War of 1812. The war was a morass, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system. As a result, Madison afterward supported a national government and military, as well as the national bank. Madison has been ranked in the aggregate by historians as the ninth most successful president, James Madison, Jr. was born on March 16,1751, at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to father James Madison, Sr.
and mother Nelly Conway Madison. He grew up as the oldest of twelve children and James Sr. had seven more boys and four girls. Three of James Jr. s brothers died as infants, including one who was stillborn, in the summer of 1775, his sister Elizabeth and his brother Reuben died from a dysentery epidemic that swept through Orange County because of contaminated water. His father, James Madison, Sr. was a planter who grew up on a plantation, called Mount Pleasant. He acquired more property and slaves, and with 5,000 acres, he became the largest landowner, James Jr. s mother, Nelly Conway Madison, was born at Port Conway, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant. In these years, the colonies were becoming a slave society, in which slave labor powered the economy
William M. Meredith
For the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, see William Morton Meredith. William Morris Meredith was an American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and he served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury, during President Zachary Taylors Administration. During the year he was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar,1795, William Tuckey Meredith married the writer and poet Gertrude Gouverneur Meredith. Gertrude was the niece of Lewis Morris, as well as of Gouverneur Morris, the couple ultimately had eleven children. William Tuckey Meredith served on the Philadelphia Common and Select Councils and his brother Jonathan Meredith was a leader of the Bar in Baltimore, Maryland. William M. Meredith graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1812, after assisting his father in the familys saddlery business, he read law, and was himself admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar. After his mothers death in 1828, William Moore Meredith helped raise his younger siblings, on June 17,1834, at the age of 35 and after a ten-year engagement, Meredith married the former Catherine Keppele.
They had one son and four daughters, Gertrude Gouverneur Meredith, Euphemia Ogden Meredith, Elizabeth Caldwell Meredith, Catherine Meredith helped care for her husbands siblings, and his father when he was disabled by a stroke in 1839. Meredith was admitted to the bar in 1817, and began practicing law and he drew considerable public attention, as did his slightly senior colleague James C. Biddle, by questioning the conduct of Judge Frank Hallowell in Commonwealth v. Cook, during the jurys deliberation, the American Daily Advertiser published an article which defense counsel thought highly biased. Upon their release, they secured release of two of the prisoners in an appeal on double jeopardy grounds and this gained Meredith a reputation for fearlessness and inflexible honesty, and he was elected President of the Philadelphia Bar Association the following year. A Federalist, Meredith was elected to the Pennsylvania General Assembly, where he served in the minority for five years, from 1824 to 1828, the year of his mothers death.
Meredith was president of the Philadelphia City Council from 1834 until 1849, Meredith served as United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania from 1841 to 1845. During that time, he prosecuted Alexander Holmes for manslaughter in the William Brown case, President Zachary Taylor, wanting a Pennsylvania Whig for his cabinet, appointed William M. Meredith to be the 19th Secretary of the Treasury. He began his term in office on March 8,1849, Meredith strongly opposed the free trade legislation passed the year before under his predecessor Robert J. Walker. He felt that there was a need to protect the American workman, merediths principal contribution in office was his Annual Report of 1849 in which he set forth an elaborate argument for a protective tariff. He recommended a revision of the Coast Survey Code, which had not been changed since its implementation in 1806, the Coast Survey had seen great expansion and improvement with the introduction of steam powered ships and was in need of revision.
Meredith resigned from his office as Secretary of the Treasury, upon President Zachary Taylors death in 1850, Meredith was elected Pennsylvanias attorney general in the 1860 election, and served for two terms
Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
Two-cent piece (United States)
The two-cent piece was produced by the Mint of the United States for circulation from 1864 to 1872 and for collectors in 1873. Longacre, there were decreasing mintages each year, as other minor coins such as the nickel proved more popular and it was abolished by the Mint Act of 1873. The economic turmoil of the American Civil War caused government-issued coins, even the non-silver Indian Head cent, to vanish from circulation, one means of filling this gap was private token issues, often made of bronze. The cent at that time was struck of an alloy, the same diameter as the Lincoln cent. The piece was difficult for the Philadelphia Mint to strike, and Mint officials, as well as the annual Assay Commission and it was abolished in 1873, large quantities were redeemed by the government and melted. Nevertheless, two-cent pieces remain inexpensive by the standards of 19th-century American coinage, a two-cent piece had been proposed in 1806 by Connecticut Senator Uriah Tracy, along with a twenty-cent piece or double dime.
Reflecting the then-prevalent view that coins should contain their value in metal, Tracys bill provided that the two-cent piece be made of billon, the bill was opposed by Mint Director Robert Patterson, as it would be difficult to refine the silver from melted-down pieces. Although Tracys legislation passed the Senate twice, in 1806 and 1807, Patterson sent a brass button with two of the billon planchets that would have been used for the coin to Tracy, showing how hard it would be to prevent counterfeiting. The Mint considered a two-cent piece in 1836, and experiments were conducted by Second Engraver Christian Gobrecht, until 1857, the cent coin was a large copper piece, containing about its face value in metal. This happened because many Northerners feared that if the war went poorly, paper money, the gap was filled by, among other things, private token issues, sometimes in copper-nickel approximating the size of the cent, but often thinner pieces in bronze. He observed that the private cent tokens had sometimes contained as little as a fifth of a cent in metal and he proposed that the copper-nickel cent be replaced with a bronze piece of the same size.
Pollock wanted to eliminate nickel as a metal, its hard alloys destroyed dies. On December 8, Pollock wrote to Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase, proposing a bronze cent and two-cent piece, and enclosing pattern coins of the two-cent piece that he had had prepared. On March 2,1864, Pollock wrote urgently to Chase, warning him that the Mint was running out of nickel and that demand for cents was at an all-time high. Three days later, Chase sent Pollocks December letter and draft legislation for bronze one- and two-cent pieces to Maine Senator William P. Fessenden, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. Fessenden took no action, and on March 16, Pollock wrote again to Chase, warning that the Mint was going to run out of nickel. Chase forwarded his letter to Fessenden, legislation was finally introduced by New Hampshire Senator Daniel Clark on March 22, Pollocks letters were read and apparently influenced proceedings as the Senate passed the bill without debate. The domestic supply of nickel was at that time produced by a mine at Gap, owned by industrialist Joseph Wharton
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore and this led to very early human use, from c.8000 BC. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris, Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the hemoglobin in fish. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, the adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper, at the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The softness of copper partly explains its high conductivity and high thermal conductivity. The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. 1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air, as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. A green layer of verdigris can often be seen on old structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings.
Copper tarnishes when exposed to sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper, both have a spin of 3⁄2
McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, where he practiced law, in 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Partys expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office and he was elected Ohios governor in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 and he defeated his Democratic rival, William Jennings Bryan, after a front-porch campaign in which he advocated sound money and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity. Rapid economic growth marked McKinleys presidency and he promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition, and in 1900, he secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act.
The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898, McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election, in a campaign focused on imperialism and free silver. William McKinley, Jr. was born in 1843 in Niles, there, the elder McKinley was born in Pine Township, Mercer County. The family moved to Ohio when the senior McKinley was a boy and he met Nancy Allison there, and married her later. The Allison family was of mostly English descent and among Pennsylvanias earliest settlers, the family trade on both sides was iron-making, and McKinley senior operated foundries throughout Ohio, in New Lisbon, Niles and finally Canton. The McKinley household was, like many from Ohios Western Reserve, steeped in Whiggish and abolitionist sentiment, William followed in the Methodist tradition, becoming active in the local Methodist church at the age of sixteen. He was a lifelong pious Methodist, in 1852, the family moved from Niles to Poland, Ohio so that their children could attend the better schools there.
Graduating in 1859, he enrolled the following year at Allegheny College in Meadville and he remained at Allegheny for only one year, returning home in 1860 after becoming ill and depressed. He spent time at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio and he did not graduate from either university. Although his health recovered, family finances declined and McKinley was unable to return to Allegheny, first working as a clerk and taking a job teaching at a school near Poland. When the Southern states seceded from the Union and the American Civil War began, among them were McKinley and his cousin William McKinley Osbourne, who enlisted as privates in the newly formed Poland Guards in June 1861. The men left for Columbus where they were consolidated with other units to form the 23rd Ohio Infantry. The men were unhappy to learn that, unlike Ohios earlier volunteer regiments, they would not be permitted to elect their officers, they would be designated by Ohios governor, William Dennison. Dennison appointed Colonel William Rosecrans as the commander of the regiment, McKinley quickly took to the soldiers life and wrote a series of letters to his hometown newspaper extolling the army and the Union cause
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air. The first alloy used on a scale was bronze, made of tin and copper. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel, inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal was used for packaging as tin cans.
However, overexposure to tin may cause problems with metabolizing essential trace elements such as copper and zinc, Tin is a soft, malleable and highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When a bar of tin is bent, a sound known as the tin cry can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at the low temperature of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14, the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. β-tin, which is stable at and above room temperature, is malleable, in contrast, α-tin, which is stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. α-tin has a cubic crystal structure, similar to diamond. α-tin has no properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely. It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications and these two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more commonly known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 °C, in cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as tin pest.
Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the effect of the small amounts of bismuth, lead
The gold dollar or gold one-dollar piece is a gold coin that was struck as a regular issue by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1849 to 1889. The coin had three types over its lifetime, all designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B, the Type 1 issue has the smallest diameter of any United States coin minted to date. A gold dollar coin had been proposed several times in the 1830s and 1840s, Congress was finally galvanized into action by the increased supply of bullion caused by the California gold rush, and in 1849 authorized a gold dollar. In its early years, silver coins were being hoarded or exported, Gold did not again circulate in most of the nation until 1879, once it did, the gold dollar did not regain its place. In its final years, it was struck in small numbers and it was in demand to be mounted in jewelry. The regular issue gold dollar was last struck in 1889, the following year, Congress followed Hamiltons recommendation only in part, authorizing a silver dollar, but no coin of that denomination in gold.
In 1831, the first gold dollar was minted, at the mint of Christopher Bechtler in North Carolina. Additional one-dollar pieces were struck by August Bechtler, Christophers son and he was opposed by the Mint Director, Robert M. Patterson. Woodbury persuaded President Andrew Jackson to have pattern coins struck, in response, Patterson had Mint Second Engraver Christian Gobrecht break off work on the new design for the silver one-dollar coin and work on a pattern for the gold dollar. Gobrechts design featured a Liberty cap surrounded by rays on one side, and a palm branch arranged in a circle with the denomination, consideration was given to including the gold dollar as an authorized denomination in the revisionary legislation that became the Mint Act of 1837. Nevertheless, after Mint Director Patterson appeared before a congressional committee, in January 1844, North Carolina Representative James Iver McKay, the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, solicited the views of Director Patterson on the gold dollar.
Patterson had more of Gobrechts pattern dollar struck to show to committee members and he told Treasury Secretary John C. Spencer that the gold coins of that size in commerce. This seemed to satisfy the committee as nothing more was done for the time, even before 1848, record amounts of gold were flowing to American mints to be struck into coin, but the California Gold Rush vastly increased these quantities. This renewed calls for a dollar, as well as for a higher denomination than the eagle. In January 1849, McKay introduced a bill for a gold dollar, there was much discussion in the press about the proposed coin, one newspaper published a proposal for an annular gold dollar, that is, with a hole in the middle to increase its small diameter. Nevertheless, Gobrechts successor as chief engraver, James B, prepared patterns, including some with a square hole in the middle. McKay introduced a version into the House on February 20, debate began the same day, McKay did not respond substantively, but stated that if no one wanted these denominations, they would not be called for at the Mint, and would not be coined