In 1922, Marion Dutton Savage cataloged the disadvantages of craft unionism, as observed by industrial union advocates. Industrial unionists observe that craft union members are often required by their contracts to cross the picket lines established by workers in other unions. Likewise, in a strike of miners, unionized railroad workers may be required by their contracts to haul scab coal. Employers find it easier to enforce one bad contract, use that as a precedent, employers could show favoritism to a strategic group of workers. Employers find it easier to outsource the work of a craft union. A craft union with critical skills may be able to shut down an entire industry, the disadvantage is the harsh feelings of those who may be forced out of work by such an action, yet receive none of the bargained-for benefits. Savage observed that industrial unionists criticized craft unionism not only for the ineffectiveness in dealing with a single employer, a union that challenges such a combination is most effective if its own structure reflects that of the company.
Industrial unions likewise do not normally assess prohibitive dues rates common with craft unions, the entire group of workers finds solidarity more elusive. Not only is loyalty to fellow-workers in the same industry emphasized, in the United States, the conception of industrial unionism in the 1920s certainly differed from that of the 1930s, for example. The Congress of Industrial Organizations primarily practiced a form of industrial unionism prior to its 1955 merger with the American Federation of Labor, Unions in the resulting federation, the AFL-CIO, sometimes have a mixture of tendencies. The most basic philosophy of the union movement observes that an individual cannot stand alone against the power of the company, having come to that understanding, the next question becomes, who is to be included in the union. The craft unionist advocates sorting workers into exclusive groups of skilled workers, the organization operates, and the rules are formulated primarily to benefit members of that particular group.
Savage identified a group that may not be craft based. They are in essence craft groups which have combined to solve jurisdictional difficulties. The industrial unionist sees advantage in organizing by industry, the local organization is broader and deeper, with less opportunity for employers to turn one group of workers against another. These are the middle stratum of workers, Industrial unionists motivated by a more global impulse act upon a universal premise, that all workers must support each other no matter their particular industry or locale. These might be unskilled or migratory workers who conceive of their philosophy as one big union. In 1922 these workers were described as believing in assault rather than in agreements with employers, power is spectacular rather than continuous, as its members have little experience in organization
The Bolivarian Circles are a loosely-knit political and social organization of workers councils in Venezuela originally begun by President Hugo Chávez in 2001. The circles have described as militias and compared to Cubas Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. They are named in honor of Simón Bolívar, the leader who transformed most of South America from Spanish colonial outposts to the independent states now in place, since the government has sponsored the creation of Community Planning Councils, which evolved into the Communal Councils. Such support from the government made Chávezs opponents skeptical of any claims of autonomy, some circles were modeled after the Dignity Battalions that were created by Omar Torríjos and Manuel Noriega in Panama since Chávez admired the model when stationed there during his military career. Many of the Bolivarian Circles were given training and weapons. According to Lina Ron, a Chávez supporter and head of her own Bolivarian Circle, La Piedrita, Chávez denied allegations of funding and the circles use of weapons.
In January 2002, Bolivarian Circles were reported to have blocked the entrance of the newspaper office El Nacional for over an hour, numerous journalists have been threatened and abused physically and verbally, particularly by people that identified with the Bolivarian Circles. Bolivian Circles took part in demonstrations which became violent against the 2002 coup attempt. Numbers of Bolivarian Circles increased significantly that month according to Diosdado Cabello, according to private intelligence agency company Stratfor, Bolivarian Circles were the parent organization of colectivos in Venezuela. Pro-Chávez Bolivarian circles exist in countries and are widespread in Europe, North America. During the 2014 Venezuelan protests, circles in Canada protested in the streets and near embassies to show support for the Venezuelan government
Upper Clyde Shipbuilders
Upper Clyde Shipbuilders was a Scottish shipbuilding consortium created in 1968 as a result of the amalgamation of five major shipbuilders of the River Clyde. It entered liquidation, amidst much controversy, in 1971 and this event led to a work-in campaign at the companys shipyards, involving the shop stewards Jimmy Airlie and Jimmy Reid among others. The creation of these groupings included Scott Lithgow on the Lower Clyde, Swan Hunter on Tyneside, the government had a 48. 4% minority holding in the consortium and provided a £5. 5m interest-free government loan over the first three years. UCS had an order book at the time worth £87m. In June 1971, the loss-making Upper Clyde Shipbuilders went into receivership, rather than go on strike, the union leadership decided to have a work-in and complete the orders that the shipyards had in place. In this way, it is argued, the employees were attempting to dispell the idea of the workers being work-shy and wanted to illustrate the long-term viability of the yards and the right to work.
The work-in was led by a group of shop stewards, including Jimmy Reid, Jimmy Airlie, Sammy Barr and Sammy Gilmore. Reid wanted to ensure the workers projected the best image of the workers he possibly could. He addressed the workers at the yards where he instructed them that there should be no hooliganism, no vandalism, the shipbuilders tactics worked and public sympathy in the Glasgow area and beyond was on the side of the workers who took part. This was backed up with demonstrations in Glasgow, one of which was attended by around 80,000 marchers, at one demonstration, on Glasgow Green, Tony Benn addressed those in attendance, and Matt McGinn and Billy Connolly offered entertainment to the gathered crowd. In February 1972, Heaths government relented and restructured the yards around two new companies, Govan Shipbuilders was established along with its subsidiary Scotstoun Marine Ltd, yarrow Shipbuilders had already withdrawn from UCS in April 1970 and regained its status as an independent company.
A fourth yard at Clydebank was sold to Marathon Oil as a fabrication yard. The former Alexander Stephens and Sons yard at Linthouse was closed in 1972 after the liquidation of UCS, as of 2012, two major shipyards on the Upper Clyde remain in operation, as BAE Systems Surface Ships, owned by the defence contractor BAE Systems. It focuses principally on the design and construction of technologically advanced warships for the Royal Navy, the Thatcher Conservative government was more far-reaching in its attempts to remove state involvement in industrial affairs. The Clyde-built ships data base - lists over 22,000 ships built on the Clyde
History of Solidarity
The history of Solidarity, a Polish non-governmental trade union, began on 14 August 1980, at the Lenin Shipyards at its founding by Lech Wałęsa and others. In the early 1980s, it became the first independent labor union in a Soviet-bloc country, Solidarity gave rise to a broad, non-violent, anti-communist social movement that, at its height, claimed some 9.4 million members. It is considered to have contributed greatly to the fall of communism, Polands communist government attempted to destroy the union by instituting martial law in 1981, followed by several years of political repression, but in the end was forced into negotiation. The Roundtable Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition resulted in semi-free elections in 1989, by the end of August 1989, a Solidarity-led coalition government had been formed, and, in December 1990, Wałęsa was elected president. This was soon followed by the dismantling of the communist governmental system, Solidaritys example led to the spread of anti-communist ideas and movements throughout the Eastern Bloc, weakening communist governments.
This process culminated in the Revolutions of 1989, in the 1990s, Solidaritys influence on Polands political scene waned. A political arm of the Solidarity movement, Solidarity Electoral Action, was founded in 1996 and would win the Polish parliamentary elections in 1997, Solidarity had little influence as a political party, though it did become the largest trade union in Poland. In the 1970s and 1980s, the success of Solidarity in particular. There was declining morale, worsening conditions, and growing stress from the Cold War. After a brief period, from 1975 the policies of the Polish government, led by Party First Secretary Edward Gierek, precipitated a slide into increasing depression. In June 1976, the first workers strikes took place, involving violent incidents at factories in Płock, the following year, KOR was renamed the Committee for Social Self-defence. On October 16,1978, the Bishop of Kraków, Karol Wojtyła, was elected Pope John Paul II, a year later, during his first pilgrimage to Poland, his masses were attended by hundreds of thousands of his countrymen.
The Pope called for the respecting of national and religious traditions and advocated for freedom and human rights, strikes did not occur merely due to problems that had emerged shortly before the labor unrest, but due to governmental and economic difficulties spanning more than a decade. In July 1980, Edward Giereks government, facing economic crisis, at once there ensued a wave of strikes and factory occupations, with the biggest strikes taking place in the area of Lublin. The first strike started on July 8,1980 in the State Aviation Works in Świdnik, although the strike movement had no coordinating center, the workers had developed an information network to spread news of their struggle. At the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, the firing of Anna Walentynowicz, on August 14, the shipyard workers began their strike, organized by the Free Trade Unions of the Coast. The workers were led by electrician Lech Wałęsa, a shipyard worker who had been dismissed in 1976. The strike committee demanded the rehiring of Walentynowicz and Wałęsa, as well as the according of respect to workers rights, in addition, they called for the raising of a monument to the shipyard workers who had been killed in 1970 and for the legalization of independent trade unions
A union organizer is a specific type of trade union member or an appointed union official. A majority of unions appoint rather than elect their organisers, in most unions, the organisers role is to recruit groups of workers under the organizing model. In other unions, the role is largely that of servicing members and enforcing work rules. In some unions, organisers may take on roles such as making representations before Fair Work Australia, tribunals. In North America, a union organiser is a representative who organizes or unionizes non-union companies or worksites. Organisers primarily exist to assist non-union workers in forming chapters of locals, Organisers employ various methods to secure recognition by the employer as being a legitimate union, the ultimate goal being a collective bargaining agreement. The methods can be classified as being either top-down organizing or bottom-up organizing, top-down organizing focuses on persuading management through salesmanship or pressure tactics. The salesmanship may include offering access to such as to a well-trained and skilled supply of labor or access to union cartels. A strict enforcement of these laws might result in fines and might serve to hurt the chances in a competitive bidding process.
Top-down organizing is generally considered easier than bottom-up and is practiced more in the construction industry, bottom-up organizing focuses on the workers and usually involves a certification process, normally overseen by a labor relations board such as the NLRB in the U. S. The process entails either a secret ballot election or, in some cases, in either case, should a majority of the employees agree to union representation, the results bind the company to recognize and negotiate with the union. Normally, both sides are given a chance to campaign for or against unionization, though management has an advantage due to their greater access to the employees. It is in this electioneering model where the organiser really organizes, arranging meetings, devising strategy and it is from the pool of activists recruited to the organizing committee that the union typically draws its shop stewards. Though some mistake organizing as strictly being a recruitment effort, numerous obstacles emerge which require more than simple enlistment, during organizing, management has greater means to reward or punish workers, far overshadowing methods available to the union.
Nonetheless, such charges are hard to prove and the movement believes the entire process to be slanted against them in enforcement. Sometimes, organizing involves legal wrangling over issues such as voter eligibility, in such cases, issues are often settled by appeal to the Labor Board who serves, essentially, as a referee during the process. Intrigue during heated campaigns is not uncommon, in various cases, one or both sides have used spying and information-gathering techniques tantamount to industrial espionage. Organisers must be determined and persuasive individuals able to sway groups to action under trying circumstances when jobs are on the line, Organisers must be strong enough to stand up to constant confrontation and must be willing to take big risks
The official number of disappeared under the presidency of Néstor Kirchner was reported to be 13,000. Some 10,000 of the disappeared were guerrillas of the Montoneros, although the lowest estimate is that the Montoneros and ERP had a combined strength of 5,000. The worst repression reportedly occurred after the guerillas were largely defeated in 1977, although the Montoneros reported having carried out some 600 armed attacks in 1977, the guerrilla threat had greatly declined. In late 1979, Amnesty International accused the Videla military government of being responsible for the disappearance of 15,000 to 20,000 Argentine citizens since the 1976 coup. That year, a study by the New York City Bar concluded that around 10,000 Argentines had disappeared since the coup. According to Registro Unificado de Víctimas del Terrorismo de Estado,662 were disappeared under the presidency of Isabel Perón and 6,348 were disappeared during the military dictatorship. Declassified documents of the Chilean secret police cite an official estimate by the Batallón de Inteligencia 601 of 22,000 killed or disappeared between 1975 and mid-1978.
In 2003, The National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons claimed the number of disappeared to be around 13,000. After democratic government was restored, Congress passed legislation to provide compensation to victims families, the exact chronology of the repression is still debated and some sectors claim the long political war started in 1969. After taking control, the armed forces proscribed Peronism, soon after the coup, Peronist resistance began organizing in workplaces and trade unions, as the working classes sought economic and social improvements. Both were small and quickly defeated, with the Cuban Revolution in 1959, the popularity of left-wing guerrilla forces continued to grow among civilians in Latin America. Prior to 1973 the major groups were the Peronist Armed Forces, the Marxist–Leninist-Peronist Revolutionary Armed Forces. The FAL guerrillas raided Campo de Mayo in April 1969 and stole 100 assault rifles from the elite 1st Infantry Regiment Patricios. In time these armed groups consolidated, with the FAR joining the Montoneros, formerly a group of intellectuals and students.
In 1970, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, one of the leaders of the 1955 coup, was kidnapped and killed by the Montoneros. In 1970, the Marxist Peoples Revolutionary Army was founded, by the early 1970s, leftist guerrillas kidnapped and assassinated high-ranking military and police officers almost weekly. The extreme left bombed and destroyed buildings in the 1970s in its campaign against the government. In 1978, a bomb meant to kill an Argentine admiral ripped through a nine-story apartment building, killing three civilians and trapping scores beneath the debris
SsangYong Motor Company is the fourth largest South Korea-based automobile manufacturer. It is a subsidiary of Indian multinational Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, a 70% share of SsangYong was acquired by Mahindra & Mahindra Limited in February 2011, after being named the preferred bidder in 2010 to acquire the bankruptcy-protected company. Mahindras acquisition was approved by South Koreas Free Trade Commission, SsangYong originally started out as two separate companies, Ha Dong-hwan Motor Workshop and Dongbang Motor Co. In mid-1963, the two merged into Ha Dong-hwan Motor Co. In 1964, Hadonghwan Motor Company started building jeeps for the US Army as well as trucks, beginning in 1976, Hadonghwan produced a variety of special purpose vehicles. After changing its name to Dong-A Motor in 1977, it was taken over by SsangYong Business Group in 1986, in 1987, it acquired United Kingdom-based specialty car maker Panther Westwinds. In 1991, SsangYong started a partnership with Daimler-Benz. The deal was for SsangYong to develop an SUV with Mercedes-Benz technology and this was supposedly to allow SsangYong to gain footholds in new markets without having to build their own infrastructure while giving Mercedes a competitor in the then-booming SUV market.
This resulted in the Musso, which was sold first by Mercedes-Benz, in 1997, Daewoo Motors, now Tata Daewoo, bought a controlling stake from the SsangYong Group, only to sell it off again in 2000, because the conglomerate ran into deep financial troubles. In late 2004, the Chinese automobile manufacturer SAIC took a 51% stake of SsangYong Motor Company, in January 2009, after recording a $75.42 million loss, the company was put into receivership. This may have due to the global economic crisis and shrinking demand. On August 14,2009, worker strikes finished at the SsangYong factory, Company employees and analysts have blamed SAIC for stealing technology related to hybrid vehicles from the company and failing to live up to its promise of continued investment. SAIC denied allegations of theft by the companys employees. In 2010, Daewoo Motor Sales was dropped by General Motors, the deal is non-exclusive, meaning SsangYong will sell vehicles through private dealers. In April 2010, the released a statement citing interest of three to four local and foreign companies in acquiring SsangYong Motor Company, resulting in shares rising by 15%.
The companies were revealed to be Mahindra & Mahindra and the Ruia Group of India and SM Aluminum, Seoul Investments, in August 2010, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited was chosen as the preferred bidder for SsangYong. The acquisition was completed in February 2011 and cost Mahindra 522.5 billion Won, russian company Sollers JSC manufactured SsangYong Korando as New Actyon, Rexton II, Actyon Sports and its upgraded version SUT1. Kremenchuk Сar Assembly Plant manufactured Korando, Rexton II
Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S. p. A. which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, Fiats main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on two segments. Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat owns. Fiats share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004, at this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiats chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent, Fiats built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europes largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, in Turin, to prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968.
Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino. Fiats 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols. The second generation Punto was a seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday. Fiat has invested for a time in South America, mainly in Brazil. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched, the Fiat Uno. Other European models are imported to Brazil, Fiat 500. Some others are still in production, Idea, Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P.
Chrysler, the New Jersey factory was closed when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917. Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, for example the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9
Strike action, called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances, Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries, Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard or 1981 Warning Strike, official publications have typically used the more neutral words work stoppage or industrial dispute. The first historically certain account of action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty. The artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid, the Egyptian authorities raised the wages. An early predecessor of the strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome.
In the Outline Of History, H. G. Wells characterized this event as the strike of the plebeians, the plebeians seem to have invented the strike. The strike action became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the working class, they lived in cities. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak, in 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries finally exploded into the first modern general strike. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions. Probably as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote, by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, the English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, and the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer.
Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy, in 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States. This was the greatest strike wave in American labor history, the number of major strikes and lockouts in the U. S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010
Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called glorified workshops, most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail, factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors, discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may be supplied parts from elsewhere or make them from raw materials, continuous production industries typically use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products.
The term mill originally referred to the milling of grain, which usually used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, and paper manufacturing were originally powered by water, according to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens, although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states, a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere. The wheel was invented circa 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c.2000 BC, the Iron Age began approximately 1200-1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production, according to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C.
By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, the Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, the Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombes water-powered silk mill at Derby, by 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, wire, housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a workers cottage.
Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities