Ocean Grove, New Jersey
Ocean Grove, New Jersey
The Ocean Grove Great Auditorium (2007)
Location of Ocean Grove in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Inset: Location of Monmouth County in New Jersey.
|• Total||0.428 sq mi (1.109 km2)|
|• Land||0.372 sq mi (0.964 km2)|
|• Water||0.056 sq mi (0.145 km2) 13.05%|
|Elevation||16 ft (5 m)|
|• Density||8,979.9/sq mi (3,467.2/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (Eastern (EDT))|
|GNIS feature ID||02389609|
Ocean Grove is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located within Neptune Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. It had a population of 3,342 at the 2010 United States Census, it is located on the Atlantic Ocean's Jersey Shore, between Asbury Park to the north and Bradley Beach to the south. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, Ocean Grove is noted for its abundant examples of Victorian architecture and the Great Auditorium, acclaimed as "the state’s most wondrous wooden structure, soaring and sweeping, alive with the sound of music".
Ocean Grove was founded in 1869 as an outgrowth of the camp meeting movement in the United States, when a group of Methodist clergymen, led by William B. Osborn and Ellwood H. Stokes, formed the Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association to develop and operate a summer camp meeting site on the New Jersey seashore. By the early 20th century, the popular Christian meeting ground became known as the "Queen of Religious Resorts." The community's land is still owned by the camp meeting association and leased to individual homeowners and businesses. Ocean Grove remains the longest-active camp meeting site in the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Governance
- 5 The Great Auditorium
- 6 Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association
- 7 Hurricane Sandy
- 8 Gay relations
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Climate
- 11 Ecology
- 12 Notable people
- 13 References
- 14 External links
On July 31, 1869, Reverend W. B. Osborn, Reverend Stokes, and other Methodist ministers camped at a shaded, well-drained spot on New Jersey's seashore and decided to establish a permanent Christian camp meeting community called "Ocean Grove." About twenty tents were pitched that summer. By the following year paths were being graded, lots were sold, and plans were set in motion for a new town. In the summer of 1870, near the site of the first tabernacle, a well was dug to provide fresh water, it was named the "Beersheba" well, for an ancient well used by the Biblical patriarchs Abraham and Isaac, and is still in existence.
Drawing from the major population centers of New York City and Philadelphia, Ocean Grove soon became a popular destination during the growth of the camp meeting movement in post-Civil War America. Tents and an open-air wooden shelter, or tabernacle, were erected in the 1870s, for the trainloads of visitors arriving by the New York and Long Branch Railroad after 1875. In 1877 alone, 710,000 railroad tickets were sold for the Ocean Grove-Asbury Park train station.
A second, larger tabernacle was built in the 1880s, and permanent structures began to be constructed. Streets were paved and some were given Biblical names, such as "Pilgrim Pathway" and "Mt. Tabor Way".
As Ocean Grove drew more and more visitors, the second tabernacle was also outgrown, and construction of the present Great Auditorium was completed in 1894. Originally designed to accommodate crowds of as many as 10,000 people, the subsequent installation of theater-style cushioned seating in many sections reduced seating capacity to 6,250, it remains Ocean Grove's most prominent structure and the centerpiece of its summer programs (see more about the Auditorium further down the page). By the early 20th century, said The New York Times in 1986, it was called the "Queen of Religious Resorts ... Visitors would travel miles to bask in the Victorian seaside splendor and to attend engaging, extroverted religious ceremonies. Millions of people, tourists and pilgrims both, made the trip to Ocean Grove every summer." The social disillusionment around 1920 following World War I had a profound effect on Ocean Grove and church going in general. There was a decline in interest in camp meeting type activities and there was little in the way of new construction in the town after this time. One result was that Ocean Grove became a time capsule of late Victorian and early 20th century architecture.
Until Ocean Grove's municipal authority was folded into Neptune Township in 1981, it had its own set of unique laws, including one that made it illegal on Sundays to have cars on the streets of Ocean Grove; this had a significant effect on the development of a close-knit community. People looking to get away for the weekend typically avoided the Grove (the beach was closed on Sunday, too); that meant the visitors were likely to be coming for a week-long visit or more. Most came to attend programs sponsored by the Camp Meeting.
President Ulysses S. Grant visited Ocean Grove during his time in office and made his last public appearance in this town. Other presidents to speak on the grounds included: James Garfield, William McKinley, Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Richard Nixon. Heavyweight boxing champions James J. Corbett and Max Baer and department store magnate F.W. Woolworth were among the celebrities of the day who vacationed in Ocean Grove.
In 1975, Ocean Grove was designated a State and National Historic District as a 19th-century planned urban community, it has the most extensive collection of Victorian and early-20th century architecture in the United States.
During the 1960s–1980s, the town declined along with much of the Jersey Shore, and was pejoratively called "Ocean Grave" due to the general air of decrepitude and the elderly population, but beginning in the 1990s, and through 2006, Ocean Grove experienced a dramatic increase in property values and a considerable revival in fortune, particularly with the restoration of older hotel structures, many of which had deteriorated into single room occupancy ("SRO") quarters. Also – as part of this resurgence – a number of sidewalk cafés and shops along Main Avenue (the main business thoroughfare) now cater to visitors and seasonal residents.
Plans were announced in 2006 for a major new hotel and condominium development on property which has been vacant since the 1970s, when the old North End Hotel – once Ocean Grove's largest – was damaged by fire and subsequently demolished in 1980; these plans have become controversial though, and in January 2008 the Planning Board of Neptune stated the North End Redevelopment Proposal was "inconsistent with the town's Master Plan".
According to the United States Census Bureau, Ocean Grove had a total area of 0.428 square miles (1.109 km2), including 0.372 square miles (0.964 km2) of it is land and 0.056 square miles (0.145 km2) of water (13.05%) is water.
|Population sources: 1880-1890|
1990–2010 2000 2010
Because Ocean Grove is a summer resort community and many residences are unoccupied during the winter months, these statistics may not be representative of the population at all times of the year.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,342 people, 1,948 households, and 615.568 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 8,979.9 per square mile (3,467.2/km2). There were 3,132 housing units at an average density of 8,415.6 per square mile (3,249.3/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.41% (3,055) White, 5.48% (183) Black or African American, 0.03% (1) Native American, 0.87% (29) Asian, 0.03% (1) Pacific Islander, 0.81% (27) from other races, and 1.38% (46) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.34% (145) of the population.
There were 1,948 households out of which 7.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.0% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 68.4% were non-families. 57.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.64 and the average family size was 2.56.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 8.1% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 38.9% from 45 to 64, and 24.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.7 years. For every 100 females there were 83.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 80.6 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 4,256 people, 2,331 households, and 785 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 4,564.6/km2 (11,956.5/mi2). There were 3,156 housing units at an average density of 3,384.8/km2 (8,866.3/mi2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.1% White, 4.0% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.0% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, and 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.6% of the population.
There were 2,331 households out of which 10.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.6% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 66.3% were non-families. 56.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.67 and the average family size was 2.59.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 9.9% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 24.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.1 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $31,935, and the median income for a family was $58,583. Males had a median income of $38,389 versus $31,886 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $26,232. About 5.1% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.
The desire to develop a Christian seaside community for summer worship and relaxation led William B. Osborn (1832–1902), a leader of the camp meeting movement in mid-19th century America, to select the site of present-day Ocean Grove for its wooded, mosquito-free location. Ellwood H. Stokes (1815-1895), a Methodist minister from Philadelphia, and others joined together to purchase a square mile of land fronting on the Atlantic Ocean. A state charter was issued to the newly formed Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association on March 3, 1870, granting the 26 trustees (13 ministers and 13 lay persons) the authority to purchase and hold the one square mile of real estate comprising Ocean Grove, and to construct and maintain all necessary works to supply the community with utilities and other municipal services, including law enforcement.
Later, efforts to establish a separate borough of Ocean Grove were attempted many times. Ocean Grove was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 5, 1920, from portions of Neptune Township, but the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals ruled the municipality unconstitutional on May 12, 1921, and the borough was dissolved as of June 16, 1921.
Although Ocean Grove reverted to being a part of Neptune Township with the court's decision of 1921, the Camp Meeting Association continued to exercise local ordinance enforcement powers until 1981, when a newspaper deliverer successfully sued to end the resort's blue law banning Sunday vehicular traffic and requiring it to disband its police force and "municipal" court; the Camp Meeting still owns all the land in town and leases it to homeowners and businesses for 99-year renewable terms. The Camp Meeting Association currently keeps its beach closed on Sunday mornings between 8:30 am and noon, and Ocean Grove is still "dry", that is, the sale of all alcoholic beverages is prohibited.
The Great Auditorium
Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association District
A statue of Ellwood H. Stokes and the Great Auditorium facing Ocean Pathway – once named one of the ten most beautiful streets in America
|Location||Ocean Grove, New Jersey|
|Area||Bounded by Fletcher Lake, NJ Route 71, Lake Wesley, and the Atlantic Ocean|
|NRHP reference #||76001170|
|Added to NRHP||April 12, 1976|
The Great Auditorium was constructed in 1894 and is mostly unchanged; the wooden building rests on bridge-like steel trusses laid on stone foundations. Aside from the trusses, it features numerous "barn door" entrances with colored glass, dormers, and panels that open for ventilation. Originally the Auditorium could accommodate an audience of almost 10,000, before many sections of smaller, wooden seats were replaced in later years with cushioned, theater-style seating having armrests; at present it can seat 6,250 persons.
The Auditorium has been called, "the state’s most wondrous wooden structure, soaring and sweeping, alive with the sound of music", its superb acoustics, resulting from its barrel-vaulted wooden ceiling, have been widely acclaimed; famed conductor Leonard Bernstein once compared it to Carnegie Hall. In the days before electronic amplification, this allowed a preacher to be heard throughout the vast space; the building still features lighting systems quite advanced for their time, such as the parallel rows of incandescent bulbs that adorn the varnished wood ceiling paneling. Also novel is a painted American flag (c. 1916) covered with light bulbs that flash in an undulating manner. Illuminated signs, possibly the very oldest surviving examples of that type (1894), proclaim "Holiness to the Lord" and "So be ye holy," a reflection of the emphasis at camp meetings; the illuminated Memorial Cross was placed on the Auditorium's front facade at the end of World War II.
The hall is surrounded by 114 tents, which are occupied from May to September, as has been the case since 1869; each tent is connected to a shed containing a kitchen and bathroom; the sheds are also used to store the tents during the winter. They are in such demand that there is a waiting list of some ten years for summer rentals.
The Auditorium's pipe organ is one of the 20 largest in the world. Installed in 1908 by the organ builder Robert Hope-Jones, its components have been rebuilt and expanded several times, especially since resident organist Gordon Turk and curator John Shaw took their posts in 1974. Additions made in the 21st century include a 14-rank echo division in 2008, in an effort to broaden the resources necessary to play repertoire of many styles and periods, and to restore those stops unique to the instrument as Hope-Jones conceived it. In the 2010s, the organ continues to be further enlarged and revoiced, with additions underwritten by donors; as of July, 2018, the organ has five manuals, 202 ranks, and 12,200 total pipes. About 75 percent of the original Hope-Jones pipework remains extant, according to John Shaw.
Prominent organists to have played the Ocean Grove Auditorium organ include Edwin H. Lemare, Pietro Yon, and Frederick Swann. Celebrated organist Virgil Fox gave his last solo concert in the building in 1980. Turk and guest concert organists play free recitals on most Wednesday evenings and Saturday afternoons in July and August.
A popular organ piece, often played in the early years of the organ, was "The Storm", which featured the stops of the organ for thunder, lightning, rain, and birds singing. An article in the New York Times from 1909 reports on the annoyance of some at the frequent repetition of the performances of the piece.
Performances and other events
The Great Auditorium has over the years featured famed hymn writer Fanny Crosby, band leader John Philip Sousa, and tenor Enrico Caruso. More recently, singers Tony Bennett, Mel Tormé, Kenny Rogers, and Ray Charles have performed.
The Auditorium continues to be the focus of cultural life in Ocean Grove. Among the concerts filling the summer schedule are the acclaimed Summer Stars chamber music programs, which bring some of the finest classical musicians from Philadelphia and New York each Thursday night in July and early August. Saturday nights feature popular entertainment, including appearances by Johnny Mathis, Ronan Tynan, Linda Eder, the Beach Boys, comedian Bill Cosby, and Christian rock stars such as Michael W. Smith, Steven Curtis Chapman, Nichole Nordeman, Hillsong United and Sonic Flood.
Since 1980, the Auditorium has hosted an annual memorial service for New Jersey law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty; the service includes a full Honor Guard, bagpipe procession, and singing by state high school choirs (Princeton High School and both West Windsor-Plainsboro High School choirs have performed in the past). Police, soldiers, National Guardsmen, executive-level officials, and the governor typically attend.
The Auditorium is also used during the month of June for high school graduation ceremonies.
Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association
The OGCMA was founded in 1869, its mission is to "provide opportunities for spiritual birth, growth, and renewal in a Christian seaside setting."
From May to September of each year, 114 tents are erected around the Great Auditorium; these tents form "Tent City," a tradition of the Camp Meeting Association that dates back to 1869. Each tent is connected to a shed containing a kitchen and bathroom; the sheds are also used to store the tents during the winter. Tents are in such demand that there is a waiting list of over ten years for summer rentals. Rent runs from $4,000 to $6,000 per summer. All prospective tent inhabitants are interviewed. Subletting of tents is not allowed; dogs, cats, and barbecuing are also prohibited. Tent inhabitants do not have to be Methodist, but they do have to support the association's spiritual missions.
The Camp Meeting offers traditional and contemporary worship programs throughout the summer. Sunday worship services are held in the Great Auditorium; these services have featured preachers such as Billy Graham, Norman Vincent Peale, Robert H. Schuller, Billy Sunday, Ralph W. Sockman, David H. C. Read, Tony Campolo, James A. Forbes, D. James Kennedy, Charles Stanley, William Jennings Bryan, Booker T. Washington, and Rodney "Gipsy" Smith.
The music is led by a volunteer choir, along with professional soloists Monica Ziglar, Martha Bartz, Jeremy Galyon, and Ronald Naldi. Gordon Turk accompanies at the Hope-Jones organ. Jason C. Tramm is the musical director. Lewis A. Daniels Sr. (1927–2012), was director of music from 1966 to 2004. Since 1955, the annual Choir Festival held in July has gathered thousands of church choir singers, predominantly from the northeastern U.S., to sing "to the glory of God". In 1986, New York television station WNET featured the Choir Festival on its Summerfare program; the Choir Festival is also a regular feature on the Sacred Classics radio broadcast.
The Camp Meeting also offers a contemporary worship service, "Pavilion Praise," in the beach's Boardwalk Pavilion each Sunday morning. A Bible Hour is held each weekday morning in the Bishop Janes Tabernacle, built in 1877, adjacent to the Great Auditorium.
In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive damage in Ocean Grove. Over half of the town's boardwalk was destroyed, and the town's fishing pier was significantly damaged. Ocean Grove was denied Federal Emergency Management Agency funding because the Camp Meeting Association is a nonprofit organization. While nonprofit organizations are eligible to receive FEMA funding, Ocean Grove was denied funding because the boardwalk was classified as being used solely for recreational purposes; the town formed a group called "Together" to address storm recovery. The group includes the Camp Meeting Association, the chamber of commerce, the homeowners association, the beautification committee, the historic society, the fishing club, and Ocean Grove United, a gay and lesbian group.
Hurricane repairs are estimated to cost $3.5 million. The "Together" campaign raised $1.5 million, including $750,000 for the boardwalk, $100,000 for the roof of the Great Auditorium, and $500,000 for architectural and structural repairs to Thornley Chapel. The Camp Meeting Association has appealed FEMA's funding rejection three times. Federal officials also denied the Camp Meeting Association's request for funding in the wake of Hurricane Irene.
In 2013, members of the gay-rights group Ocean Grove United and the OGCMA joined up to co-sponsor an event aimed at raising funds to rebuild Ocean Grove's hurricane-damaged boardwalk.
The third appeal by OGCMA to FEMA, supported by some NJ politicians, was accepted; as MaryAnn Spoto elucidated on NJ.com 7/3/14: "Sandy destroyed about a third of Ocean Grove's nearly half-mile of boardwalk....FEMA's $2.3 million to Ocean Grove includes $1.13 million for that project as well as money for three other recovery projects."
From the late 1990s through 2000s, Ocean Grove saw the opening of a large number of gay-owned restaurants, hotels, and stores. According to the New York Times, Ocean Grove's gay and Methodist populations coexisted peacefully until a 2007 controversy over whether gay couples could conduct civil unions at the Camp Meeting Association's Boardwalk Pavilion; also according to The New York Times, "Ocean Grove has long been considered a community that embraced gay residents." In 2007, a representative of Garden State Equality, a LGBT rights advocacy organization, said: "I'm hearing from gay people all over the country who thought Ocean Grove was the leading light for gay tolerance and that's not the case anymore."
In 2012, Christian actor Kirk Cameron gave a lecture in Ocean Grove on the subject of strengthening marriage. Cameron's lecture sparked a protest by gay rights activists. After Cameron's speech, a lunch was arranged between members of the Camp Meeting Association and members of the gay community. Camp Meeting Association President Dale Whilden said, "This is an opportunity to show that we respect them." Democratic congressman Frank Pallone attended the event. Steven Goldstein of Garden State Equality, noted: "We may not agree on everything, but we are, today, starting to see each other as human beings."
In 2013, the Human Rights Campaign, a LGBT rights advocacy group, included Ocean Grove in its Municipal Equality Index, a study that scores 291 American cities based on their inclusivity of LGBT people. Ocean Grove scored 77 out of 100, representing the second highest score for cities located in New Jersey.
Civil union controversy
In 2007, two lesbian couples asked to have their civil union ceremonies at the OGCMA's Boardwalk Pavilion. According to the New York Times, "the couples' requests were rejected, and they complained to the state's Division on Civil Rights, which began a discrimination investigation." The complaint stated that Scott Rasmussen, on behalf of the OGCMA, informed the couple it would not permit them to use the OGCMA's facilities for a civil union. In 2008, the New Jersey Division of Civil Rights found that there was probable cause to credit one of the two couples' complaints, but rejected the other.
In an attempt to halt the state's investigation, the OGCMA filed a federal suit. In the suit, the OGCMA wrote that it would be "thrust into government compelled expressive association with those who promote same-sex 'civil unions'" if it is forced to allow them at its facilities, and "such forced association would severely compromise the Association's desire to communicate to the general public a message consistent with its religious views on marriage and family." The OGCMA's motion was dismissed.
Complicating the dispute over civil unions was the fact that Ocean Grove's boardwalk and beachfront were held in a 1908 ruling to be exempt from property tax because they "had been dedicated years ago by the association as a public highway." The Boardwalk Pavilion lost its tax-exempt status in 2007 because the state ruled that it no longer met the requirements as a place open to all members of the public. From 1989 until the Pavilion lost its tax-exempt status, the OGCMA had received $500,000 in annual tax breaks through the state's Green Acres program; the boardwalk and beach remain tax-exempt.
On January 12, 2012, Administrative Law Judge Solomon Metzger ruled that the Camp Meeting had violated the state's law against discrimination; the OGCMA discontinued use of the pavilion for weddings after the controversy started. The Association no longer offers any of its property to the general public as wedding venues.
Roads and highways
Interstate 195 provides highway access to Ocean Grove from the New Jersey Turnpike, Philadelphia, and points west; the nearby Garden State Parkway connects Ocean Grove with points north and south, such as New York City and Atlantic City.
Frequent rail passenger service to New York City is provided by NJ Transit on the North Jersey Coast Line from the nearby Asbury Park station. New Jersey Transit offers service between Ocean Grove and Philadelphia on the 317 route and local bus service on the 830 route. Additionally, Academy Bus has regular service to area shore towns and the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan.
The nearest airport having scheduled commercial airline service is Newark Liberty International Airport, 45 miles (72 km) north, while Monmouth Executive Airport for general aviation airplanes is just 6 miles (10 km) away.
According to the Köppen climate classification system, Ocean Grove, New Jersey has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). Cfa climates are characterized by all months having an average mean temperature > 32.0 °F (> 0.0 °C), at least four months with an average mean temperature ≥ 50.0 °F (≥ 10.0 °C), at least one month with an average mean temperature ≥ 71.6 °F (≥ 22.0 °C) and no significant precipitation difference between seasons. During the summer months at Ocean Grove, a cooling afternoon sea breeze is present on most days, but episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values ≥ 95 °F (≥ 35 °C). On average, the wettest month of the year is July which corresponds with the annual peak in thunderstorm activity. During the winter months, episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < 0 °F (< -18 °C); the plant hardiness zone at Ocean Grove Beach is 7a with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of 3.8 °F (-15.7 °C). The average seasonal (Nov-Apr) snowfall total is between 18 and 24 inches (46 and 61 cm), and the average snowiest month is February which corresponds with the annual peak in nor'easter activity.
|Climate data for Ocean Grove Beach (1981-2010 Averages)|
|Average high °F (°C)||40.1
|Daily mean °F (°C)||32.4
|Average low °F (°C)||24.8
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.62
|Average relative humidity (%)||64.6||61.7||60.3||61.8||65.7||70.0||69.6||71.2||71.3||69.4||67.3||65.3||66.5|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||21.8
|Climate data for Sandy Hook, NJ Ocean Water Temperature (18 N Ocean Grove)|
|Daily mean °F (°C)||37
According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. potential natural vegetation types, Ocean Grove, New Jersey would have an Appalachian Oak (104) vegetation type with an Eastern Hardwood Forest (25) vegetation form.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Ocean Grove include:
- Perdita Buchan (born 1940), author
- Thomas Chisholm (1866–1960), Christian songwriter who wrote Great Is Thy Faithfulness.
- Michelle Davidson (born 1970), English Channel swimmer and U.S. Master Swimmer All-American.
- Southside Johnny (born 1948 as John Lyon), singer songwriter.
- Tali Esen Morgan (1858-1941), longtime music director at Ocean Grove
- Shep Pettibone (born 1959), record producer, remixer, songwriter and club DJ, who was most prolific in the 1980s.
- Haydn Proctor (1903–1996), member of the New Jersey Senate.
- Scott Rasmussen (born 1956), co-founder of ESPN and political analyst.
- George A. Sheehan (1918–1993), cardiologist and running advocate.
- David Spelman (born 1966), curator and music producer.
- Maxx Briard (1995-2009), Briard who was deemed "too Briard for Ocean Grove" and was forced to move to West Allenhurst.
- Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 21, 2016.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ocean Grove Census Designated Place, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- DP-1 – Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Ocean Grove CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for Ocean Grove, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 17, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Ocean Grove, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 17, 2013.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- New Jersey: 2010 – Population and Housing Unit Counts – 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH-2-32), United States Census Bureau, August 2012. Accessed December 16, 2012.
- GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 16, 2012.
- Genovese, Peter (July 21, 2013). "Tent City: Life in Ocean Grove's one-of-a-kind community - but no barbecues or dogs, please". NJ.com. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
- Wayne T. Bell (2000). Images of America: Ocean Grove. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-0425-4.
- Page, Tim. Summerfare' Offers Choir Festival", The New York Times, July 30, 1986. Accessed June 30, 2015. "Ocean Grove, about six miles south of Long Branch, was founded in 1869 as a Methodist camp meeting ground; by the early 20th century it had been dubbed the 'Queen of Religious Resorts.'"
- Home page, Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association. Accessed November 6, 2007.
- "The Story of Ocean Grove". Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association. Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- Perdita Buchan, Tracing a Jersey Shore Town's Secret Spiritual History dated July 15, 2015, at curbed.com, accessed 14 January 2016
- Amico, Ross (July 26, 2013). "Organist Gordon Turk to headline concert at Ocean Grove's Great Auditorium". NJ.com. Trenton Times. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Gilinsky, Robert. Asbury Park and Neptune, p. 64. Arcadia Publishing, 2011. ISBN 9780738575360 Accessed July 16, 2019. "An infamous blue law prohibited Sunday driving is documented here a few years before the courts determined that the statute was illegal in 1981. Not only was it illegal to drive in Ocean Grove, but it was illegal to have a car parked on the street there."
- Capuzzo, Jill (September 3, 2007). "Civil Union Dispute Pits Methodist Retreat Against Gays Who Aided in Its Rebirth". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Michelle Sahn, "New life at old hotel site", Asbury Park Press, March 23, 2006.
- Steven Froias (January 27, 2008). "Split Decision or technical knockout from the Planning Board?". Ocean Grove Record. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Report on Population of the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Part I, p. 240. United States Census Bureau, 1895. Accessed October 20, 2016.
- DP-1 – Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Ocean Grove CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606–1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 114. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- Sullivan, Joseph F. "Ocean Grove tries to retain ideals, but not some civic burdens", The New York Times, August 22, 1982. Accessed August 8, 2012. "In 1979, however, the New Jersey Supreme Court found its charter unconstitutional because it decreed 'that in Ocean Grove the church shall be the state and the state shall be the church.' Since then, Ocean Grove has had to disband its police department and municipal court and to rely more on its parent community, Neptune Township. It has also had to drop a series of Sunday blue laws designed to enforce observance of the Sabbath and take down the chains that blocked automobiles from its entrances on that day."
- Gordon, Bill. "Soapbox; Can't We All Get Along? Evidently So.", The New York Times, May 30, 2004. Accessed August 8, 2012. "Ocean Grove is a dry town: No alcohol can be bought or sold. Although that can sometimes mean more drinking (people seem to bring their own bottles just about everywhere), the lack of readily available liquor and the lack of a commercial boardwalk tend to keep things quiet and relatively safe."
- National Register of Historic Places
- Ocean Grove Summer Calendar of Events 2007. Ocean Grove, NJ: Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association, 2007.
- "The Top 20 – The World's Largest Pipe Organs". Sacred Classics. September 28, 2012.
- Shaw, John R. (2008). The Great Auditorium Organ. Ocean Grove, NJ: Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association. pp. 15, 17.
- Walton, Mary (June 28, 2012). "With New Pipes, a Great Organ Gets Even Better". Blogfinger.net. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Specification of the Great Auditorium Organ, Ocean Camp Meeting Association (July, 2018)
- "Organ Recital Too Noisy: Ocean Grove Cottages Say 'The Storm' Disturbs Their Naps", The New York Times, July 16, 1909. Accessed September 17, 2013. "Ocean Grove, July 15. – Ocean Grove's new pipe organ, the largest in the world, is causing trouble for its owners, the Camp Meeting Association. : An organ recital is one of the daily events of the Summer's musical programme and its feature is the daily playing by Will C. Macfarlane of "The Storm," a composition that shows of the organ to its best advantage. : But the cottagers and the hotel guests in the vicinity of the Auditorium have become surfeited with the organ's noise. They complain that it disturbs their afternoon naps and annoys them at tea-time. : They will appeal to the association and suggest that for "The Storm" be substituted something more soothing."
- An Historic Theme Study of the New Jersey Heritage Trail Route: Religious Resorts, National Park Service. Accessed November 6, 2007. "Known for its fine acoustics, the auditorium has attracted the noted and the celebrated during its century of use, and remains the focus of cultural life in Ocean Grove."
- "About Us". Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- 2009 Summer Events, Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association, p. 1.
- Sudol, Valerie (April 2012). "Ocean Grove Tent City Rises Again". Inside New Jersey. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Genovese, Peter (July 15, 2013). "Tent City: Life in Ocean Grove's one-of-a-kind community - but no barbecues or dogs, please". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Chesler, Caren (May 7, 2010). "Where Time Stands Still". New Jersey Monthly. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- 2013 Summer Events, Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association, pages 16–17.
- "Lewis A. Daniels Sr. (obituary)". Asbury Park Press. September 6, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Bridgefest Beach Festival website
- Wanko, Lauren (March 20, 2013). "As Shore Towns Repair Boardwalks, Ocean Grove at a Standstill Because of FEMA's Denial". NJ Today. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Di Ionno, Mark (April 22, 2013). "Despite FEMA denial, Ocean Grove bands together for Sandy rebuilding". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Chesler, Caren (February 8, 2013). "FEMA Won't Fund New Boardwalk for Ocean Grove". NJ Spotlight. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Panissidi, Anthony (October 22, 2013). "Ocean Grove tries again to gain FEMA funding". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Bowman, Bill (February 7, 2013). "Feds say no to N.J. boardwalk request". USA Today. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Walton, Mary (July 23, 2013). "Methodists and gay residents reconcile at Ocean Grove fund-raiser". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Capuzzo, Jill (September 18, 2007). "Group Loses Tax Break Over Gay Union Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Spoto, MaryAnn (July 28, 2012). "Kirk Cameron appearance in Ocean Grove draws protests from gay supporters". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Moore, Chadwick (August 1, 2012). "In Methodist Stronghold, a Dialogue on Gay Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Municipal Equality Index 2013". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Bartlett, Jill (November 19, 2013). "Asbury ranks low on list of state's LGBT friendly cities Ocean Grove rated more LGBT friendly in comparison". Asbury Park Sun. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Schwebber, Nate (June 24, 2007). "The Week in New Jersey". New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Fleming, James; McLain, Linda (2013). Ordered Liberty: Rights, Responsibilities, and Virtues. Harvard University Press. p. 323.
- Spoto, MaryAnn (December 30, 2008). "State sides with lesbian couple in fight against Ocean Grove association". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Capuzzo, Jill (August 14, 2007). "Church Group Complains of Civil Union Pressure". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Gallagher, Mary Pat (November 8, 2007). "U.S. Court Won't Hear Suit by Church That Barred Same-Sex Ceremonies". National Organization for Women of New Jersey. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Sagara, Eric (June 1, 2013). "Ocean Grove boardwalk appeal for FEMA aid denied". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- LaPlaca, Charlie (January 13, 2012). "Judge: Ocean Grove Church Violated Law by Preventing Civil Union". Manasquan-Belmar Patch. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Judge Rules in Favor of Same-Sex Couple in Discrimination Case". American Civil Liberties Union. January 13, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Spahr, Rob (October 24, 2012). "Lesbian couple discriminated against by Ocean Grove association, state says". NJ.com. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Monmouth County Bus / Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 26, 2010. Accessed August 8, 2012.
- "Academy Bus – Commuter Bus from New Jersey to New York City". Academy Bus LLC. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Monmouth Executive Airport website
- "USDA Interactive Plant Hardiness Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University". Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Water Temperature Table of All Coastal Regions". Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "U.S. Potential Natural Vegetation, Original Kuchler Types, v2.0 (Spatially Adjusted to Correct Geometric Distortions)". Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- Burke's Peerage, vol. 3 (2003), p. 3,965
- Staff. "Rev. Thomas Chisholm, 93, Dies; Wrote 1,200 Protestant Hymns", The New York Times, March 2, 1960. Accessed August 8, 2012. "Ocean Grove, N.J., March 1 – The Rev. Thomas O. Chisholm, author of 1,200 Protestant hymns and devotional verse, died tonight at the Methodist Home here.... In 1916, Mr. Chisholm moved to Vineland, where he went into the insurance business."
- Staff. "New Jersey paddleboarder Michelle Davidson salutes Diana Nyad's Cuba to U.S. swim" Archived 2013-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, News 12 New Jersey, September 5, 2013. Accessed November 10, 2013. "Ocean Grove – A New Jersey woman has a special appreciation for Diana Nyad's recent accomplishment.Michelle Davidson, 43, paddled from Cuba to Florida as part of a relay team back in 2004.... The Neptune resident teaches business classes at Holmdel High School now, and says she plans on talking to her students about Nyad's triumph."
- Minor, E. Kyle. "Music; A Bar Band Once Again Takes to The Road", The New York Times, June 18, 2000. Accessed December 16, 2012. "That association was made in Mr. Lyon's youth, growing up Ocean Grove, N.J., half a mile from Asbury Park."
- Wayne T. Bell, Ocean Grove (Arcadia Publishing 2000): 56. ISBN 9780738504254
- Capuzzo, Jill P. "An Active Night Scene Is a Major Attraction", The New York Times, August 6, 2000. Accessed June 1, 2018. "Born in nearby Ocean Grove, Mr. Pettibone got started in the music business spinning discs at CJ's record store here in the 1970's."
- Thomas Jr., Robert McG. "Haydn Proctor, 93, a Judge And New Jersey State Senator", The New York Times, October 5, 1996. Accessed February 10, 2011. "Haydn Proctor, a longtime New Jersey official who operated at the highest levels of all three branches of state government, died on Wednesday at a hospital near his home in Lakewood, N.J."
- Harris, John F. "In Such a Tight Race, Pollster Sees a ProfitN.J.-Based Business Uses 'Robo Calling'", The Washington Post, October 31, 2004. Accessed August 8, 2012. "That would be Scott Rasmussen, who is following this anxious election with contentment from his home town of Ocean Grove, N.J., confident that he is divining the mysteries of democracy with the help of a computerized phone bank in Texas and several pleasant-voiced women in the Midwest."
- Litsky, Frank. "Dr. George Sheehan, Running Figure, Dies at 74", The New York Times, November 2, 1993. Accessed December 6, 2012. "Dr. George Sheehan, a cardiologist who became the philosopher of the recreational running movement in the 1970's and 1980's, died yesterday at his home in Ocean Grove, N.J."
- Junior, Chris M. "Boss Caps Guitar Fest Opener", Asbury Park Press, January 20, 2006. Accessed June 1, 2018. "The brainchild of festival co-founder and artistic director David Spelman of Ocean Grove (below, second from left), The Nebraska Project, held at the World Financial Center's Winter Garden, featured various artists performing the songs from Springsteen's 1982 solo album, plus other Springsteen tunes that were written around the same time period."
- "Tent City: Life in Ocean Grove's one-of-a-kind community - but no barbecues or dogs, please"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ocean Grove, New Jersey.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ocean Grove.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Ocean Grove.|
- Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association official website – the founding organization
- Robert Hope-Jones and the building of the Auditorium organ
- Chautauqua Network
- Ocean Grove Chamber of Commerce
- Neptune Township website
- Ocean Grove Historical Society
- Ocean Grove Record
|Beaches of New Jersey||Succeeded by|