2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Perryton is a city in Ochiltree County, United States. The population was 8,802 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Ochiltree County. Perryton is located at 36°23′30″N 100°48′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.5 square miles, of which 4.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Perryton has a borderline cool semi-arid climate just short of either a humid subtropical climate or a humid continental climate. Winter mornings are cold: 137.9 mornings will fall to or below freezing and 4.4 mornings each year can be expected to fall so low as 0 °F or −17.8 °C. This indicates heavy continental influence courtesy of its far inland position. Winter weather can be variable, ranging from cold due to Arctic outbreaks from the Yukon to a three-month winter average of six afternoons above 70 °F or 21.1 °C due to hot chinook winds blowing off the Rocky Mountains. In some cases, these chinooks can produce rapid increases in temperature: during February 10, 2017, the temperature rose from 25 °F in the morning to 92 °F in the afternoon and down to 46 °F the following morning.
Summers are hot, but not so intensely so as South Texas, mornings remain mild. Nine mornings each year can be expected to stay above 68 °F or 20 °C, but none stay above 77 °F or 25 °C – although the temperature did not fall below 79 °F or 26.1 °C on July 10, 2016. However, 70.5 afternoons reach 90 °F or 32.2 °C, with 12.3 afternoons topping 100 °F or 37.8 °C, a record high of 113 °F on June 26, 2011. The coldest morning was −17 °F on January 7, 1988 and the coldest maximum 3 °F on December 22 and 23 of 1990. At the 2000 census, there were 7,774 people, 2,785 households and 2,113 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,753.2 per square mile. There were 3,180 housing units at an average density of 717.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.23% White, 0.15% African American, 0.98% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 11.10% from other races, 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.13% of the population. There were 2,785 households of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.1% were non-families.
21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.22. Age distribution was 31.3% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. The median household income was $37,363, the median family income was $45,045. Males had a median income of $31,803 compared with $19,694 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,431. About 9.7% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. The City of Perryton is served by the Perryton Independent School District and the Perryton High School. Caleb Campbell, National Football League player Jeremy Campbell, 2008 Summer Paralympics athlete John Erickson, author of the Hank the Cowdog Series Keith Flowers, NFL player Mickey Gates, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Hot Springs, Arkansas.
Texas's 13th congressional district
Texas District 13 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional District of the U. S. state of Texas that includes most of the Texas Panhandle, parts of Texoma and northeastern parts of North Texas. It winds across the Panhandle into the South Plains runs east across the Red River Valley. Covering over 40,000 square miles, it is the second-largest district geographically in Texas and larger in area than thirteen entire states; the principal cities in the district are Wichita Falls. The current Representative is Republican Mac Thornberry. According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, it is the most Republican district in the country; this district, has not always been Republican. As late as 1976, Jimmy Carter won 33 of the 44 counties in this district, getting 60-70% in many of them. In 2012, this was President Barack Obama's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district, he received 18.5% of the vote. In 2016, this was Hillary Clinton's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district.
She received an lower percentage than President Obama in 2012, receiving only 16.9% of the vote compared to Donald Trump's 79.9%. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Texas State Highway 70
State Highway 70 is a state highway in Texas. The route runs 315 miles from US 277 near Blackwell to US 83 south of Perryton. SH 70 begins in far northeastern Coke County at a junction with US 277 north of Bronte; the highway soon crosses into Nolan County, where it serves as the northern terminus of SH 153. The first large city along SH 70's route is Sweetwater. SH 70 intersects SH 92 in Rotan. Continuing north into Kent County, the route begins a concurrency with US 380 that lasts until Jayton. In Dickens County, SH 70 serves as the northern terminus of SH 208 and passes through the east and north side of Spur before reaching Dickens and an intersection with US 82 / SH 114. After heading due north from here, the route enters Motley County and passes through the town of Roaring Springs; the next major city along the route is Matador, where US 70 intersect one another. After leaving Matador, SH 70 enters Hall County, where it has a brief concurrency with SH 86 through Turkey; the highway briefly turns to the northwest and enters Briscoe County, beginning a brief concurrency with SH 256, before turning to the west and reentering Hall County.
SH 70 resumes a more northerly path into Donley County, has a short concurrency with US 287 through Clarendon. After the two routes separate, SH 70 heads due north to a junction with Interstate 40 at its Exit #124, near the Donley–Gray County line. Northbound SH 70 is concurrent with the freeway for about 3.5 mi before the routes split at IH 40 Exit #121. SH 70 continues north into Pampa, where it intersects US 60 and has a half-mile duplex with SH 152. After leaving Pampa, the route turns more to the north-northeast, enters the sparsely-populated Roberts County, where its only intersections are with a few farm to market roads that connect to the county seat of Miami. SH 70 enters Ochiltree County and reaches its northern terminus at US 83 south of Perryton. While the current official route description of SH 70 indicates a concurrency with US 83 to a junction with SH 15 in Perryton, that roadway is presently signed only as US 83, which agrees with TxDOT's County Map Book, signage in Perryton at the SH 15 junction with US 83 directs traffic to SH 70 using "TO SH 70" markers.
SH 70 was designated on August 21, 1923 from Aspermont to San Angelo along a portion of the original SH 4, shifted farther east. On October 13, 1925, it was routed through Robert Lee. On September 18, 1929, SH 70 was rerouted to bypass Robert Lee. Part became SH 70A, but Robert Lee to San Angelo was cancelled, but restored as SH 208 on July 16, 1934. On December 1, 1930, the route had been rerouted north to Jayton, replacing SH 161 and a small portion of SH 84.. On September 26, 1939, SH 70 was extended north from Jayton to Dickens, absorbing a portion of SH 18. Significant extension came on October 10, 1947, when SH 70 was extended to Perryton in the northern Panhandle. On February 12, 1948, US 277 was rerouted to a more westerly alignment between Abilene and San Angelo and the section from just south of Blackwell to near San Angelo was transferred to that route. On September 27, 1957, SH 70 was shifted to a more westerly alignment in Dickens, Loop 120 was extended along the old route of SH 70 through the city.
A spur, SH 70A, was designated on September 1929 from Robert Lee east to Bronte. This route was renumbered as SH 158 on March 19, 1930. On September 27, 1985, Texas State Highway Loop 549 was designated as a bypass of SH 70 in Sweetwater and was signed, but not designated, as SH 70, the old route was signed as a business route. On June 21, 1990, SH 70 was designated on Loop 549, the old route of SH 70 became a business route, cancelling Loop 549. SH 70 has one business route, Business SH 70-G in Sweetwater, a former alignment of the state highway through that city; the route was designated in 1990, when SH 70 was rerouted along the south and east side of the city to use the I-20 freeway. The business route is concurrent with BL I-20 through downtown Sweetwater. Junction listThe entire route is in Sweetwater, Nolan County
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government