Siuslaw National Forest
The Siuslaw National Forest is a national forest in western Oregon in the United States. Established in 1908, the Siuslaw is made up of a wide variety of ecosystems, ranging from coastal forests to sand dunes; the Siuslaw National Forest encompasses more than 630,000 acres along the central Oregon Coast between Coos Bay and Tillamook, in some places extends east from the ocean, beyond the crest of the Oregon Coast Range reaching the Willamette Valley. The forest lies in Lane County and Lincoln County, it includes the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area. The Forest Supervisor's office is located in Corvallis, the Siuslaw is broken up into two ranger districts—the Hebo Ranger District, with 151,000 acres, the Central Coast Ranger District, with 479,000 acres; the forest contains the highest point in the Oregon Coast Range at 4,097 feet. Numerous aquatic habitats are found in the forest: marine shore and streams—1,200 miles, including the Alsea, Nestucca and Umpqua rivers—and 30 lakes; the terrestrial environment can be regarded as two major vegetation zones, one near the coast dominated by Sitka spruce, the other dominated by western hemlock and Douglas fir.
Western hemlock grows in the shade under Douglas fir. Other major tree species in the forest are western red cedar, red alder, bigleaf maple. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated; the Cummins Creek Wilderness and the Rock Creek Wilderness preserve some of this old growth. Recreational activities in the Siuslaw National Forest include fishing, hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, exploring tide pools, riding off highway vehicles. There are three designated wilderness areas within the Siuslaw National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, all established in 1984: Drift Creek Wilderness - Lincoln County Cummins Creek Wilderness - Lane County Rock Creek Wilderness - Lane County Beaver Creek Falls in the heart of the forest Siuslaw National Forest official website Media related to Siuslaw National Forest at Wikimedia Commons
Crook County, Oregon
Crook County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,978; the county seat is Prineville. The county is named after George Crook, a U. S. Army officer who served in the American Civil War and various Indian Wars. Crook County comprises the Prineville, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Bend-Redmond-Prineville, OR Combined Statistical Area. Crook County was established on October 1882, by an act of the Oregon State Legislature; the county was named after General George Crook, a veteran of various battles against the indigenous peoples of Eastern Oregon in the middle of the 19th century. The county was formed from territory part of Wasco County, including the hilly region where the foothills of the Blue Mountains intersect the Cascade Mountain Range. Access into the region at first was difficult; the first effort to develop routes into the area was in 1862 when a supply train with cattle crossed the Scott Trail. This was the first group of non-natives to spend the winter in central Oregon.
The discovery and development of the Santiam Pass in the 1860s improved access into the area. Prineville, incorporated in 1880 and the only incorporated town in the county, was established as the county seat; this decision confirmed by the voters in the 1884 general election. From the start cattle ranching has been one of the primary industries of the county, with huge herds grazing the countryside from the 1880s. Farming was developed in certain valley regions friendly to agriculture. Logging in the Ochoco Mountains and the timber mills that accompanied greatly contributed to the economic and population growth of the county; the first recorded mention of a sawmill was made by George Barnes, speaking about the Swartz sawmill on Mill Creek, circa 1867. The county is located in the geographic center of Oregon. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,987 square miles, of which 2,979 square miles is land and 8.2 square miles is water. The largest body of water in Crook County is the Prineville Reservoir.
The county has been reduced from its original size of 8,600 square miles by the creation of Jefferson County in 1914 and Deschutes County in 1916. The present boundaries were established in 1927; the oldest geological formation in Oregon is in the southeastern corner of Crook County, near its boundary with Grant County. This formation is an outcropping of Devonian limestone created from a larger reef when most of Oregon was covered by water. Deschutes County - southwest Jefferson County - north Wheeler County - north Grant County - east Harney County - southeast Ochoco National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,182 people, 7,354 households, 5,427 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 8,264 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.95% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 1.30% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.81% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races.
5.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 26.2 % were of 14.8 % German, 9.7 % English and 8.9 % Irish ancestry. There were 7,354 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.50% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,186, the median income for a family was $40,746. Males had a median income of $32,166 versus $22,580 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $16,899. About 8.10% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.90% of those under age 18 and 8.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,978 people, 8,558 households, 6,025 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,202 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.7% white, 1.4% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.2% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.7% were German, 14.6% were English, 12.6% were Irish, 6.2% were American. Of the 8,558 households, 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families, 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 45.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,059 and the median income for a family was $52,477. Males had a median income of $41,375 versus $29,545 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,275. About 10.6% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. Prineville Though Crook County is the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Grant County, Oregon
Grant County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,445; the county seat is Canyon City. It is named for President Ulysses S. Grant, who served as an army officer in the Oregon Territory, at the time of the county's creation was a Union general in the American Civil War. Grant County is included in the 8 county definition of Eastern Oregon. Grant County was established on October 1864, from parts of old Wasco and old Umatilla counties. Prior to its creation, cases brought to court were tried in The Dalles, county seat of the vast Wasco County; the great distance to The Dalles made law enforcement a difficult problem, imposed a heavy burden on citizens who had a need to transact business at the courthouse. In 1889, more than half of the southern part of the original Grant County was taken to form Harney County. In 1899, a small part of northwestern Grant County was taken to form Wheeler County. After gold was discovered in 1862 on Whiskey Flat, it has been estimated that within ten days 1,000 miners were camped along Canyon Creek.
This increased population created a need for county government. Grant County’s government operates in accordance with the Oregon Constitution, ratified by the People of Oregon in November 1857, the revised Statutes of Oregon, it employs the old-western county government system: the County Court, with a County Judge and two Commissioners. While the County Court no longer exercises much judicial authority, it serves as the executive branch of county government. There are no parishes or villages in Grant County, while the term "town" is used locally to describe one of the incorporated cities, surveyed townships have nothing to do with political divisions or organization in Oregon; the third man to serve as County Judge of Grant County was Cincinnatus Hiner "Joaquin" Miller, the noted poet and western naturalist, called the "Poet of the Sierras" and the "Byron of the Rockies." The county seat is Canyon City. In 1864, when the county was organized, Canyon City is said to have boasted the largest population of any community in Oregon.
Mining and ranching, along with timber and the service and public works that followed, brought people into the area and communities grew around the natural centers of industry and agriculture. Canyon City hosts an annual summer festival called "'62 Days" to celebrate its history and residents. Since the 1930s, the city of John Day has served as the main economic center of the county, boasts the largest population. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,529 square miles, of which 4,529 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. 63% of the land area of the county is controlled by the Federal Government, most of, controlled by the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management. Grant County contains most of the Malheur National Forest and sections of the Wallowa–Whitman and Ochoco National Forests, has more than 150,000 acres of federally designated Wilderness Areas. Grant County contains the headwaters of the John Day River, which has more miles of Wild and Scenic River designation than any other river in the United States.
The elevation of the county varies from 1,820 on the John Day River near Kimberly, to 9,038 feet at the summit of Strawberry Mountain. The terrain of the county varies from grassland steppes and rangelands in open or rolling hills and valleys, to steep, rocky high-alpine landscapes. Between these, the county contains timbered land, many rolling hills and mountainous terrain. Portions of the county are technically high desert, dominated by sparse grasses. Grant County includes the southern part of the Blue Mountains. One unique characteristic of the typical forestland of the area is the low density of underbrush. Travelers and emigrants of the 19th century remarked that the absences of underbrush, the wide spacing of the trees, made it possible to drive a wagon and team of horses anywhere the grade would permit; the forested land of the county vary from sparse stands of Western Juniper in more arid, open, or rocky ground, to Sub-Alpine and High-Alpine fir stands in the highest terrain. Other forested areas are marked by stands of Ponderosa Pine, Douglas Fir, White Fir, Western Larch, Lodgepole Pine, Spruce stands in some higher elevation sites and a few stands of White Pine, as well as Cottonwood trees along some rivers and streams, Birch and Quaking Aspen groves at higher elevations.
There is a rare and isolated stand of Alaskan Yellow Cedar in the Aldrich Mountains. Other flora includes a wide variety of native grasses and wildflowers, wild strawberries, several types of edible mushrooms and Oregon Grape, the state plant. Non-native Russian Cheatgrass is prevalent in many areas of the county. Grant County is home to what may be one of the largest living organism in the world, a giant fungus of the species Armillaria solidipes that lives within the Malheur National Forest, it was found to span 8.9 square kilometres. Its total mass has been estimated to be between 8,500 and 10,500 tons, its age at somewhere between 2,000 and 8,500 years; the physical terrain one encounters today is far different than in prehistoric times. Fossil records show that, in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, much of the county was an ancient seabed. After emerging, the abse
Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Newberry National Volcanic Monument was designated on November 5, 1990, to protect the area around the Newberry Volcano in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was created within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service, it includes 50,000 acres of lakes, lava flows, spectacular geologic features in central Oregon. Newberry National Volcanic Monument consists of four primary visitor destinations: Lava Butte, Lava River Cave, Lava Cast Forest, Newberry Caldera; the highest point within the monument is the summit of Paulina Peak at 7,985 ft, with views of the Oregon Cascades and the high desert. Paulina Peak may be accessed by road during the summer months, as the road is both steep and rough, with hairpin turns towards the summit, trailers or long vehicles are discouraged; the summit area of Newberry Volcano holds two alpine lakes full of trout, East Lake and Paulina Lake. The Big Obsidian Flow, created 1,300 years ago, covers 700 acres; the black, shiny obsidian field is accessible from good roads within the caldera, or a trail that traverses the flow.
Lava Cast Forest is 25 miles south of Bend, accessible via a 9-mile gravel road from U. S. Highway 97. Lava Cast Forest contains a 6,000-year-old lava flow. Lava Butte is 11 miles south of Bend, Oregon. Lava Butte is a cinder cone volcano, it can hiking up a paved road. Interpretive signs, views of the surrounding lava flow and mountains, an active fire lookout are found on top. Lava River Cave is 13 miles south of Bend. Lava River Cave is open to visitors from May through September. Lava River Cave is the largest uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon, may be explored by lantern. Temperatures in the cave average 42 °F. White-nose syndrome has not yet affected resident bats in the cave. Newberry Caldera is 37 miles from Bend and 19 miles from La Pine. Newberry Caldera is the largest developed area within the national monument; the caldera was formed. Over time the caldera filled up with water that created Paulina Lake and East Lake. Newberry Caldera has many natural tourism opportunities. Visitors have access to campgrounds, water recreation, lodging and interpretive guides with Forest Service staff.
Newberry Caldera has medium use most of the year with some high usage during peak times of the year.'There are twelve trails within Newberry Caldera ranging from 0.25 miles to 21 miles. These trails offer a variety of uses from hiking only to multiuse with hiking and horse allowed. Along the trails you can find access to fishing, interpretive signs, picnic areas, hot springs. There are seven boat launches for water recreationists; the Caldera offers nine camp sites accommodating both tent and RV camper. Newberry Caldera offers a variety of winter activates such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, rooms for rent at the resorts.' List of National Monuments of the United States Official Website Volcanic Vistas: Guide to Newberry National Volcanic Monument