Nero was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor, she dominated Nero's early life and decisions. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus; as time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, his general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was annexed to the empire, the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games.
He made public appearances as an actor, poet and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person and office, his extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes, much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled, he was supported by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor, he committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is associated with tyranny and extravagance. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign.
Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. According to Tacitus he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty; some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" to enlist popular support. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium, he was the only son of Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Agrippina the Elder, he was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia.
The ancient biographer Suetonius, critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius tells that Nero's father was known to be "irascible and brutal", that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."Nero's father, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37." In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had died and Caligula began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina, suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law, was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula banished his two surviving sisters and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea.
According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina. Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41, he died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine Hill. Claudius succeeded Caligula as Emperor. Agrippina became his fourth wife. By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.
Nero formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old. When he turned 16, Nero married Claudius' daughter (
Octavia Lenora Spencer is an American actress and producer. She is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Film Award, a Golden Globe Award, she is one of two black actresses to have received three Academy Award nominations, alongside Viola Davis. Spencer made her film debut in the 1996 drama A Time to Kill. Following a decade of brief roles in film and television, her breakthrough came in 2011, when she played a maid in 1960s America in The Help, for which she won several awards, including the Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actress. For her performance in Ryan Coogler's drama Fruitvale Station, she received the National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress. Spencer went on to appear in such films as Smashed, Get on Up, The Divergent Series, Gifted, she received Academy Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress for playing two more women in 1960s America, the mathematician Dorothy Vaughan in the biographical drama film Hidden Figures, a cleaning woman in the romantic dark fantasy drama film The Shape of Water.
Her film producing credits include being executive producer on Green Book. As an author, Spencer has started a children's book series, titled Randi Rhodes, Ninja Detective, she has published two books in the series, titled The Case of the Time-Capsule Bandit and The Sweetest Heist in History. Octavia Lenora Spencer was born in Montgomery and has six siblings, including sisters Rosa and Areka, her mother, Dellsena Spencer, worked as a maid. Her father died. Spencer graduated from Jefferson Davis High School in 1988, she studied at Auburn University at Montgomery, graduated from Auburn University, where she majored in English with a double minor in journalism and theater. Spencer has dyslexia. Spencer worked as an intern on the set of The Long Walk Home. In 1997 she moved to Los Angeles on the advice of her friend Tate Taylor, the future director of The Help, in which Spencer would star. Spencer made her film debut as a nurse in Joel Schumacher's A Time to Kill, based on the book by John Grisham, she was hired to work on casting, but asked Schumacher if she could audition for a part.
Other film credits include: Never Been Kissed, Big Momma's House, Bad Santa, Spider-Man, Coach Carter, Win a Date with Tad Hamilton! and Pretty Ugly People. She has made a number of guest appearances on television series, including Raising the Bar, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, The Big Bang Theory, Wizards of Waverly Place, Grounded for Life, ER, Becker, 30 Rock and Dharma & Greg, plus a recurring role on the sitcom Mom, she is best known for her starring roles as Serenity Johnson on Comedy Central's Halfway Home, Constance Grady, the amorous INS caseworker on Ugly Betty. In 2003, Spencer made her stage debut in Los Angeles, in Del Shores' play, The Trials and Tribulations of a Trailer Trash Housewife, starring opposite veteran actress Beth Grant, it was her first and only play, as, she once explained, she suffers from what she called "intense stage fright". That year, she starred opposite Allison Janney in Tate Taylor's short feature Chicken Party. In 2008, Spencer's brief appearance in Seven Pounds as Kate, Rosario Dawson's home care nurse, garnered her high praise and media attention.
In April 2009, Entertainment Weekly listed Spencer as among its "25 Funniest Actresses in Hollywood."In August 2009, Spencer appeared in Rob Zombie's Halloween II. She had a role in the American remake of the Danish classic Love at First Hiccup, opposite Scout Taylor-Compton. Spencer starred alongside Beth Grant, Ahna O'Reilly and Byron Lane, she played the voice of "Minny" by Kathryn Stockett. That year, Spencer's short film The Captain was honored by the CICFF as a finalist for the REEL Poetry Award. In August 2010, Spencer joined Viola Davis, Emma Stone and Bryce Dallas Howard in The Help, an adaptation of the novel, she unflappable Minny Jackson. The film was written and directed by Tate Taylor, produced by Brunson Green, Chris Columbus, Michael Barnathan, Mark Radcliffe, she won the 2012 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture for her work in The Help. On February 12, 2012, Spencer won a BAFTA for Best Supporting Actress for her Performance in The Help, on February 26 she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the same performance.
Spencer was given a standing ovation at the ceremony, was moved to tears during her acceptance speech. In June 2012, Spencer was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 2013, she appeared alongside Michael B. Jordan in Fruitvale Station, a film chronicling the last day of Oscar Grant, killed at a Bay Area Rapid Transit station in 2009. In September 2013, it was announced that she would reunite with The Help director Tate Taylor in the biopic on singer James Brown Get On Up, opposite her The Help co-star Viola Davis; the film was released in 2014. From September 2014 until February 2015, she starred in Steven Spielberg's Fox drama television series Red Band Society. Spencer co-starred alongside Kevin Costner in the drama film Black or White and co-starred as Johanna Reyes in the second installment of the Divergent series, The Divergent Series: Insurgent, she reprised the role in The Divergent Series: Allegiant. She voiced Mrs. Otterton, in Disney's Zootopia, which marks her first animated film.
In 2016, she starred alongside Taraji P. Henson and Janelle Monáe in Hidd
Octavia the Younger
Octavia the Younger known as Octavia Minor or Octavia, was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, the fourth wife of Mark Antony. She was the great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero. One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty and humanity, for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. Full sister to Augustus, Octavia was the only daughter born of Gaius Octavius' second marriage to Atia Balba Caesonia, niece of Julius Caesar. Octavia was born in Nola, present-day Italy, her mother remarried, to the consul Lucius Marcius Philippus. Octavia spent much of her childhood travelling with her parents. Marcius was in charge of educating her brother Augustus. Before 54 BC her stepfather arranged. Marcellus was a man of consular rank, a man, considered worthy of her and was consul in 50 BC.
He was a member of the influential Claudian family and descended from Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a famous general in the Second Punic War. In 54 BC, her great uncle Caesar is said to have been anxious for her to divorce her husband so that she could marry Pompey who had just lost his wife Julia; the couple did not want to get a divorce so instead Pompey declined the proposal and married Cornelia Metella. So Octavia's husband continued to oppose Julius Caesar including in the crucial year of his consulship 50 BC. Civil war broke out when Caesar in Gaul invaded Italy in 49 BC. Marcellus, a friend of Cicero, was an initial opponent of Julius Caesar when Caesar invaded Italy, but did not take up arms against his wife's great uncle at the Battle of Pharsalus, was pardoned by him. In 47 BC he was able to intercede with Caesar for his cousin and namesake a former consul living in exile. Octavia continued to live with her husband from the time of their marriage to her husband's death when she was about 29.
They had three children: Claudia Marcella Major, Claudia Marcella Minor and Marcus Claudius Marcellus. All three were born in Italy, her husband Marcellus died in May 40 BC. By a Senatorial decree, Octavia married Mark Antony in October 40 BC, as his fourth wife; this marriage had to be approved by the Senate, as she was pregnant with her first husband's child, was a politically motivated attempt to cement the uneasy alliance between her brother Octavian and Mark Antony. Between 40 and 36 BC, she travelled with Antony to various provinces and lived with him in his Athenian mansion. There she raised her children by Marcellus as well as Antony's two sons; the alliance was tested by Antony's abandonment of Octavia and their children in favor of his former lover Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. After 36 BC, Octavia returned to Rome with the daughters of her second marriage. On several occasions she acted as a political advisor and negotiator between her husband and brother. For example in the spring of 37 BC, while pregnant with her daughter Antonia Minor, she was considered essential to an arms deal held at Tarentum, in which Antony and Augustus agreed to aid each other in their Parthian and Sicilian campaigns.
She was hailed as a "marvel of womankind." Mark Antony divorced Octavia in 32 BC. In 35 BC, after Antony suffered a disastrous campaign in Parthia, she brought fresh troops and funds to Athens. There Antony had left a letter for her. Following Antony's rejection of her, their divorce, his eventual suicide in 30 BC, Octavia became sole caretaker of their children as well as guardian of Antony's children from his unions with both Fulvia and Cleopatra: Iullus Antonius, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemy Philadelphus Octavia did not marry a third time. In 35 BC Augustus accorded a number of honours and privileges to Octavia, Augustus's wife Livia unheard of for women in Rome, they were granted sacrosanctitas. This had been only granted to tribunes. Livia and Octavia were made immune from tutela, the male guardianship which all women in Rome except for the Vestal Virgins were required to have; this meant they could manage their own finances. They were the first women in Rome to have statues and portraits displayed en masse in public places.
Only one woman, mother of the Gracchi, had been part of the public statues displayed in Rome. In Augustus's rebuilding of Rome as a city of marble, Octavia featured. In all her representations she wore the "nodus" hairstyle, which at the time was considered conservative and dignified, worn by women from many classes.. Augustus adored, but never adopted, her son Marcellus; when Marcellus died of illness in 23 BC unexpectedly, Augustus was thunderstruck, Octavia disconsolate beyond recovery. Aelius Donatus, in his Life of Vergil, states that Virgil recited three whole books for Augustus: the second and sixth—this la
Warframe is a free-to-play cooperative third-person shooter video game developed and published by Digital Extremes. Released for Microsoft Windows in March 2013, it was ported to the PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch. In Warframe, players control members of the Tenno, a race of ancient warriors who have awoken from centuries of cryosleep to find themselves at war in a planetary system with different factions; the Tenno use their powered Warframes along with powerful weapons and abilities to complete missions. While many of the game's missions use procedurally-generated levels, newer updates have included large open world areas similar to other massively multiplayer online games as well as some story-specific missions that don't use procedural generation; the game includes elements of shooting and melee games and role-playing to allow players to advance their Tenno character with improved gear. The concepts for Warframe had been in place at Digital Extremes since 2000 under the name Dark Sector.
The company reintroduced Dark Sector in 2004 in preparation for release on the upcoming seventh generation consoles but could not find a publisher due to its theme. Digital Extremes released a game called Dark Sector in 2008, far different from their original plan. By 2012, looking at the success of free-to-play games, the developers took their earlier Dark Sector ideas and art assets, to present it as Warframe; the growth of Warframe was slow, hindered by moderate critical reviews and low player counts. However, since its release, the game has experienced positive growth through development by Digital Extremes over the years; the game saw nearly 50 million players in 2019 and it is now one of Digital Extremes' most successful titles, with it receiving a large chunk of developer attention through the introduction of new game content and modes. The game is supported by microtransactions, which lets player purchase in-game items for real money that would otherwise be obtained through grinding.
Set in an far future, players control the members of the Tenno, a race of ancient warriors who have awoken from a century long cryosleep to find themselves at war with the Grineer, a matriarchal race of militarized and deteriorated human clones built upon metal and war. To fight back, the Tenno use bio-mechanical suits to channel their unique abilities – the eponymous Warframes. All of the factions encountered in the game, including the Tenno, were created by or are splinter groups of the old Orokin Empire, an ancient civilization and former reigning power in the Solar system, led by an elite caste of trans-humans known as the Orokin. Although most of them are long dead by the time of the Tenno's awakening, their lingering presence can be still be felt throughout the Solar system. Warframe is an online action game that includes elements of shooters, stealth games; the player creates their Tenno character, which includes a basic armor unit called a "Warframe" which provides the player with special abilities, basic weapons, a ship.
Through the ship's console, they can select any of the available missions to them. A main storyline set of missions requires players to complete certain missions across planets and moons in the solar system, to be able to access relays that they can progress to other planets or locations. Other missions rotate over time as part of the game's living universe. Aboard the ship, the player can manage all other functions for their Tenno, including managing their arsenal of equipment, customizing their Warframe and weapons, crafting new equipment, access the in-game store. Missions can be played alone or with up to four players in a player versus environment cooperative manner; each mission is given a ranking. Missions are played on randomly generated maps composed of "tiles" of map sections. Missions have various objectives, such as defeating a certain number of enemies, collecting data from terminals without activating alarms, rescuing prisoners, or defending points on the map for set periods of time.
Newer updates have added space-bound combat using Archwings, a large open-field environment where numerous bounties can be completed. Players can use their weapons, special abilities, a number of parkour style moves to navigate through and overpower forces within these missions. Downed players may choose to revive themselves up to a maximum of six times, or can be revived by other players an infinite number of times. Once complete, players are rewarded with in-game items, as well as in-game currency and items picked up while exploring the map. In addition to cooperative missions, the game includes player versus player content through the multiplayer "Conclave", which rewards the player for placing high in such matches. Players and their equipment gain experience and level up from successful missions. Mods are dropped by enemies during missions and may be part of the rewards, are given out following a rarity distribution, w
Octavia (effects pedal)
The Octavia was an effects pedal designed for Jimi Hendrix by his sound technician, Roger Mayer. It reproduces the input signal from a guitar one octave higher and/or lower in pitch, mixes it with the original and added distortion fuzz; the Octavia consisted of an analog electronic circuit, which included a frequency doubler, envelope generator and amplitude modulator, together with additional frequency-shaping filter circuitry. The effect generated varied depending on use. For example, a clean tone from an electric guitar produced ring modulated overtones The effect was used by Jimi Hendrix, can be heard in guitar solos on the song "Purple Haze". Hendrix preferred to call the device the “Octavio”, it is referred to as such. After Hendrix's death in 1970 one of the original Octavias became the basis for the redesigned "Octavia", manufactured by Tycobrahe Sound Company in Hermosa Beach, during the mid-1970s. A limited number of the devices were produced, today a used one in good condition sells for over $1,000 on eBay.
Stevie Ray Vaughan owned nine of these devices
The Panacea Society was a millenarian religious group in Bedford, England. Founded in 1919, it followed the teachings of the Devonshire prophetess Joanna Southcott, who died in 1814, campaigned for Southcott's sealed box of prophecies to be opened according to her instructions; the society believed Bedford to be the original site of the Garden of Eden. The Society's inspiration was the teachings of the Devonshire prophetess Joanna Southcott, it was founded by Mabel Barltrop in 1919 at Bedford. A clergyman's widow, Barltrop declared herself the'daughter of God', took the name Octavia and believed herself to be the Shiloh of Southcott's prophecies, she and 12 apostles founded the Society called the Community of the Holy Ghost. A central purpose of the Society was to persuade 24 Anglican bishops to open Southcott's sealed box of prophecies, to this end, advertisements were placed in newspapers, both national and local. In the late 1920s and early 1930s the Society generated over 100,000 petitions for the box to be opened.
The Society claimed. Some have claimed that it was opened in 1927 and found to contain a broken horse pistol and a lottery ticket. Despite this setback, the group continued placing adverts in newspapers calling for action from the Church of England. In the 1970s the Society rented billboards which proclaimed "War, disease and banditry, distress of nations and perplexity will increase until the Bishops open Joanna Southcott's box." The Society had its headquarters on Albany Road, close to the remains of Bedford Castle. Another property, an end-of-terrace house on Albany Road named The Ark, was maintained as a residence for the Messiah after the Second Coming. Although small in size, the Society was wealthy, owning several properties in the Castle Road area of Bedford. By 2001, when the Society started to sell off some of its property in order to retain its status as a charity, it was reported to have assets valued at £14m. In the 1930s, about 70 members were said to be living in the Bedford community.
In 1967, the Bedfordshire Times reported about 30 members living there. The last member of the Society, Ruth Klein, died in 2012, when the Society ceased to exist as a religious community. Whilst the religious society is no longer functioning, there still exists a charity whose main remit is to sponsor academic research into the history and development of prophetic and millenarian movements, as well as provide financial assistance to support the work of registered charities and recognised groups concerned with poverty and health in the Bedford area; the charity changed its name to The Panacea Charitable Trust in 2012. In late 2012, it was announced that the charitable trust would be opening a museum detailing the history of the society, at 9 Newnham Road, Bedford; the Panacea Museum is in ‘Castleside’, a Victorian house, part of the community's headquarters. It tells the story of other similar religious groups; the museum incorporates several other buildings, set within the gardens, that formed the original community's ‘campus’.
The museum is open every Thursday, Friday and Sunday between February half term and the end of October. Shaw, Jane. Octavia, Daughter of God. Random House. ISBN 978-0-224-07500-8. Brown, Frances. Joanna Southcott's Box of Sealed Prophecies. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830415. Lockley, Philip. Panacea Museum, Bedford: a souvenir guide. Panacea Charitable Trust; the market town of Bedford, England was once home to a cult of women who thought they could avert Armageddon at the BBC The Panacea Charitable Trust – official site Details on the Charity Commission website Report on Channel 4's 2003 documentary Review of Jane Shaw: Octavia, Daughter of God. The Guardian, 02.07.11 Review of Jane Shaw: Octavia, Daughter of God. The Times Higher, 25.08.11
Jilly Cooper, CBE is an English author. She began her career as a journalist and wrote numerous works of non-fiction before writing several romance novels, the first of which appeared in 1975, she is most famous for writing the Rutshire Chronicles. Jilly Sallitt was born in Hornchurch, England, to Mary Elaine and Brigadier W. B. Sallitt, OBE, she grew up in Ilkley and Surrey, was educated at the Moorfield School in Ilkley and the Godolphin School in Salisbury. After unsuccessfully trying to begin a career in the British national press, Cooper became a junior reporter for The Middlesex Independent, based in Brentford, she worked for the paper from 1957 to 1959. Subsequently, she worked as an account executive, publisher's reader and receptionist, her break came with a chance meeting at a dinner party. The editor of The Sunday Times Magazine asked her to write a feature about her experiences; this led to a column in which Cooper wrote about marriage and housework. That column ran from 1969 to 1982, when she moved to The Mail on Sunday, where she worked for another five years.
Cooper’s first column led to the publication of her first book, How to Stay Married in 1969 and, followed by a guide to working life, How to Survive from Nine to Five in 1970. Some of her journalism was collected into a single volume, Jolly Super, in 1971; the theme of class dominates much of her writing and her non-fiction, written from an explicitly upper middle-class British perspective, with emphasis on the relationships between men and women, matters of social class in contemporary Britain. She was in favour of the Iraq War; as with her non-fiction works, Cooper draws on her own point of view and experiences. For example, her own house is the model for Rupert Campbell-Black's: both are old, his overlooks. She draws on her love of animals: dogs and horses feature in her books. Woods, fields and rivers feature frequently. In 1975, Cooper published her first work of Emily, it was based on a short story she wrote for a teenage magazine, as were the subsequent romances, all titled with female names: Bella, Prudence and Octavia.
Octavia is one of Cooper's "name" books, which each bear a female character's name and has been made into a television adaptation. It is set in Britain during the 1970s; the broadcast ITV adaptation was produced with a screenplay, written by Jonathan Harvey. One character was modelled on George Humphreys, a Welshman with whom Cooper had an affair in the late 1950s; the Times noted that Cooper avoids the traditional romantic convention in which the heroine remains a virgin until the last page. Elizabeth Grey found the jokes annoying but still funny, confessed to falling in love with the character of Octavia. An excerpt was included in The Dirty Bits For Girls, a collection of favourite "dirty bits" from novels Knight read as a teenager. Octavia Brennan is a flawed young woman, living the high life in 1970s London. Though she is flirtatious and has - by her own admission - slept with many men, she has never found happiness with any of them. After bumping into an old school friend and falling for her fiancé, Octavia is invited to spend the weekend with them on their canal boat.
Characteristically, she convinces herself that Jeremy cannot have real affection for the overweight and clumsy Gussie, she is determined to win Jeremy by the end of the weekend. But when Jeremy invites Welsh firebrand Gareth Llewellyn along for the ride, Octavia finds her plans disrupted in more ways than one. Production began on 17 September 2007, in London. Jilly Cooper was invited to make a cameo appearance as a guest at a party, its broadcast was delayed according to a Broadcast Now article in early 2009 as a consequence of the recession - ITV put many of their dramas'on ice'. The Guardian reported early in 2009 Octavia had no transmission slots for the forthcoming year and said, for accountancy purposes, its cost would not counted until the show was broadcast. Octavia had its first UK screening in 2009 with Tamsin Egerton taking the title role; the cast was: Tamsin Egerton as Octavia Brennan Patrick Baladi as Jeremy West Richard Coyle as Gareth Llewellyn Tom McKay as Xander Brennan Alice Glover as Lorna Hamilton Joel Fry as Charlie Mancini However, Cooper's best-known works are her long novels.
The first of these was Riders, an international bestseller, the first volume of Rutshire Chronicles. The first version of Riders was written by 1970, but shortly after Cooper had finished it, she took it with her into the West End of London and left the manuscript on a bus; the London Evening Standard put out an appeal. She was, she says, "devastated", it took her more than a decade to start it again. Riders and the following books are characterised by intricate plots, featuring multiple story lines and a large number of characters. Although the books do not always follow each other sequentially - Rivals and Polo chronologically overlap, for example - they are linked by recurring characters and books make reference to events of previous books; the stories feature adultery/ infidelity and general betrayal, melodramatic misunderstandings and emotions, money worries and domestic upheavals. Each book of the Rutshire Chronicles is set in a glamorous and wealthy