Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline was a Scottish lawyer and politician. He served as Lord President of the Court of Session from 1598 to 1604, Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1604 to 1622, born at Seton Palace, East Lothian, Alexander was the son of George Seton, 7th Lord Seton and Isobell Hamilton. The Setons remained a Roman Catholic family after the Scottish Reformation of 1560, Alexander was educated at the German and Roman College in Rome from June 1571 to December 1578. The family historian Viscount Kingston heard it said that he was skilled in mathematics and architecture, in 1583, Alexander joined his fathers embassy to France. William Schaw, the Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland was his companion and they left from Leith in Andrew Lambs ship. According to the Jesuit Robert Parsons, Lord Seton even considered sending the youthful Alexander back to Scotland as his representative at one point, Alexander became a Privy Councillor in 1585 and was appointed a Lord of Session as Lord Urquhart in 1586.
He rose to be Lord President of the Court of Session and was created Lord Fyvie on 4 March 1598, Anne of Denmark in her capacity as Lady of Dunfermline made him bailie and justiciary of the regality of Dunfermline on both sides of Forth on 15 February 1596. At the end of August 1596 according to James Melville, the King arranged a Convention of the Estates at Falkland Palace which included the allies of the forfeited earls. Alexander Seton made a speech like those of Coriolanus or Themistocles calling for the re-instatement of these earls to strengthen the country. The reference to Themistocles, who spoke about naval power to the Athenians, perhaps refers to the forfeited Lord High Admiral of Scotland, Francis Stewart, on 7 November 1598 he was made burgess, Guild-brother and Provost of Edinburgh. In March 1598 he took delivery of Spanish and Bordeaux wine, probably for the banquet for Ulrik, the younger brother of Anne of Denmark at Riddles Court. Other notes in the records include a dozen torches supplied by a waxmaker for the baptism of Princess Margaret in April 1599.
His was regarded as one of the finest legal minds of the time, after the Union of the Crowns, Seton remained on the committee supervising Annes Scottish incomes, while James VI went to England, and the infant Charles remained with Seton at Dunfermline Palace. On 14 March 1604 Seton wrote to Robert Cecil on the subject of the union and opinion in Scotland, This Union is the most at this time of all mens hearts and speeches. I find none of any account here but glad in heart to embrace the same in general and this is all I can write even of our thoughts here-away, I doubt not there are divers apprehensions there also. In 1604 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland and was created Earl of Dunfermline in 1605, Alexander Seton brought Prince Charles, Duke of Albany, to England in August 1604. He stayed in London till January 1605 in London, co-inciding with the visit of the Ulrik, Duke of Holstein, and had a tour of armouries of the Tower of London. Alexander returned to Scotland with more funding to reward his keeping of Prince Charles, made Duke of York on Twelfth Night, in 1616 he was required by the Privy Council of Scotland to declare what remained of the Scottish Royal tapestry collection at Dunfermline Palace
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury and he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, in 1890 he became joint editor, and on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary, mainly on Elizabethan authors or statesmen and his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentlemans Magazine, in 1884, he published a book about Stratford-on-Avon, with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lees article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature, there are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F.
Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester, John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Lee, Sidney. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive
Charles I of England
Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England. He became heir apparent to the English and Scottish thrones on the death of his brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead, after his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent and he supported high church ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War, after his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament.
Charles refused to accept his captors demands for a constitutional monarchy, re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwells New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried and executed for treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored to Charless son, Charles II, in 1660, the second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, in mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. His speech development was slow, and he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereigns second son, Thomas Murray, a Presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor.
Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, mathematics, in 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Eventually, Charles apparently conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets and he became an adept horseman and marksman, and took up fencing. Even so, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid, who turned 12 two weeks later, became heir apparent
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, in 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617 and he was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland.
In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonization of the Americas began, at 57 years and 246 days, Jamess reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. James himself was a scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies. He sponsored the translation of the Bible that would be named after him, Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed the wisest fool in Christendom, an epithet associated with his character ever since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise Jamess reputation and treat him as a serious, James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, Marys rule over Scotland was insecure, and she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and he was baptised Charles James or James Charles on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. His godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as a pocky priest, spit in the childs mouth, as was the custom. The subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, Jamess father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o Field, perhaps in revenge for Rizzios death. James inherited his fathers titles of Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross, Mary was already unpopular, and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her. In June 1567, Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle and she was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.
The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, to be conserved and upbrought in the security of Stirling Castle
John Spottiswoode was an Archbishop of St Andrews, Primate of All Scotland and historian of Scotland. He was born in 1565 in Mid Calder, West Lothian, Scotland and he was educated at the University of Glasgow, and succeeded his father in the parish of Calder in 1583. In 1601 he attended Ludowick, Duke of Lennox, as his chaplain, in an embassy to the court of France, returning in 1603. He followed James to England on his accession, but was the year nominated to the see of Glasgow, his consecration in London, however. He was therefore ready to co-operate with James in curtailing the powers of the Kirk which encroached on the royal authority, on 30 May 1605 he became a member of the Scottish Privy Council. In 1610 he presided as moderator over the assembly in which the supremacy of presbytery was abolished, in 1614, he was instrumental in the arrest and subsequent trial and condemnation to death of John Ogilvie. In 1633 he crowned Charles I at Holyrood, in 1635 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland, an office which he retained till 1638.
John re-built the castle and founded a new church at Dairsie, the castle has recently been rebuilt from a ruin, and his family crest is visible inside and outside the buildings. He was opposed to the new liturgy as inexpedient, but when he could not prevent its introduction he took part in enforcing it. Spottiswoode published in 1620 Refutatio libelli de regimine ecclesiae scoticanae, an answer to a tract of Calderwood, the only other writing published during his lifetime was the sermon he preached at the Perth assembly. His most considerable work was The History of the Church and State of Scotland and it displays considerable research and sagacity, and even when dealing with contemporary events gives a favorable impression, upon the whole, of the authors candour and truth. The opposite side can be studied in Calderwoods History, Spottiswoode married Rachel, daughter of David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, with issue a daughter and two sons, Anne Spottiswoode Sir John Spottiswoode of Dairsie in Fife.
He was appointed one of the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to Charles I of England when a young man and he died before the restoration of King Charles II. His only son was, John, a staunch loyalist, who joined James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and was taken prisoner with him and executed immediately after him, on 21 May 1650. Sir Robert, Lord President of the Court of Session, who was captured at the battle of Philiphaugh in 1645, the accounts prefixed to the first edition of Spottiswoodes History of Scotland the accounts published by the Spottiswoode Society in 1851 David Calderwoods History of the Kirk of Scotland. Alexander Spotswood - the noted Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, who was grandson of Robert Spottiswoode and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Spottiswoode, John. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Cousin. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, London, J. M. Dent & Sons
Thomas Hamilton, 1st Earl of Haddington
He was admitted an Advocate in 1587, a Lord of Session in 1592, appointed Lord Advocate in 1596, Lord Clerk Register in 1612, and in 1616 became Lord President of the Court of Session. He was on friendly terms with James VI, his legal talents being useful to the king. Widely regarded as an administrator, Hamilton was entrusted with a large share in the government of Scotland when James removed to London in 1603. In 1612 he was appointed Lord Clerk Register to the Privy Council to succeed Lord Curriehill, after the death of James VI the earl resigned his offices, but served Charles I as Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland. Thomas was referred familiarly to his friends as Tam o the Cowgate, on 19 November 1613, he was created a Lord of Parliament as Lord Binning. Further, on 20 March 1619, he was created Earl of Melrose, in 1628 The Earl of Haddington purchased the Tyninghame estate for 200,000 merks. The 1st Earl of Haddington married, c,1588, only child of James Borthwick of Newbyres, by whom he had two daughters.
Married with issue who died young, Lady Jean Hamilton, who married John Kennedy, 6th Earl of Cassilis, and had issue, including Lady Margaret Burnet, who married c.1672 Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury. Brown, publisher, The Peerage of Scotland, Edinburgh,1834, Charles, Burkes Peerage & Baronetage, 106th edition,1999, vol.1, p.1262, ISBN 2-940085-02-1
John Maitland, 1st Lord Maitland of Thirlestane
John Maitland, 1st Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, of Lethington, was Lord Chancellor of Scotland. He was the son of Sir Richard Maitland of Thirlestane and Lethington, who settled the lands of Thirlestane upon him. This transaction was ratified by Mary, Queen of Scots on 20 April 1567, upon the death of his father, he was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, on 20 April 1567. He supported Regent Murray, and sat in his parliaments in December 1567, on 2 June 1568 he was created a Senator of the College of Justice as an Ordinary Lord on the spiritual side. He retained the endowment of Coldingham until 1570. Following the Regent Murrays assassination, Maitland joined the Lords who met on the Queens behalf at Linlithgow, John Maitland was deprived of all his offices and benefices, and took refuge in Edinburgh Castle. Upon its surrender on 29 May 1573 he was sent as a prisoner to Tantallon Castle in Haddingtonshire, after nine months confinement there he was removed to Hugh, Lord Somervilles house of Cowthallie, under house-arrest with bail at £10,000 Scots.
In 1574/5 a Letter of Rehabilitation in his favour, as Commendator of Coldingham, on 26 April 1581 he was reappointed Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland and returned to the Bench. He was shortly afterwards made a Privy Counsellor, and upon the dismissal of Abbot Pitcairn, appointed Secretary of Scotland on 18 May 1584. In the parliament which met on the 22nd of that month his doom of forfeiture was reduced, and he was restored to all the honours, heritages and he was appointed Vice-Chancellor on 31 May 1586. He was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland in 1586, following Arrans disgrace, in 1589 a powerful combination, headed by the Earls of Huntly and Bothwell, &c. was formed against Maitland. It was intended to meet at Quarryholes, between Leith and Edinburgh, to march in a body to Holyroodhouse, make themselves master of the Kings person, the King and Maitland were not, however, at Holyroodhouse and the plot failed. Several other plots were formed against him shortly afterwards, but they were all defeated, yet the conquest he made of the barony of Liddington from his brothers son, James Maitland, was not thought lawful nor conscientious.
He was buried in St. Marys, where a monument, with an epitaph. The Commendatorship of Coldingham was bestowed upon Francis Stewart, 1st Earl of Bothwell, eldest son of the late Prior, re-edited at Edinburgh in 1849, pps, 140–146. The Royal Families of England and Wales, with their Descendants, etc. by Messrs and John Bernard Burke, volume 1 pedigree XV, and volume 2, pedigree LXXXIV. History of the Priory of Coldingham, by William King Hunter of Stoneshiel, Edinburgh & London,1858, miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, edited by Joseph Jackson Howard, LL. D. F. S. A. Volume 2, London,1876, p.206