Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive, for protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, a cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Bookbinding is a trade that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting. A finished book depends on a minimum of two dozen operations to complete but sometimes more than double that according to the specific style. All operations have an order and each one relies on accurate completion of the previous step with little room for back tracking. An extremely durable binding can be achieved by using the best hand techniques, Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, and graphic arts.
It requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly, a working knowledge of the materials involved is required. Bookbinding is a craft of great antiquity, and at the same time. The division between craft and industry is not so wide as might at first be imagined and it is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions, second was Letterpress binding which deals with making new books intended to be read from and includes fine binding, library binding, edition binding, and publishers bindings. A result of the new bindings is a third division dealing with the repair, with the digital age, personal computers have replaced the pen and paper based accounting that used to drive most of the work in the stationery binding industry.
There is a grey area between the two divisions. There are cases where the printing and binding jobs are combined in one shop, a step up to the next level of mechanization is determined by economics of scale until you reach production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory employing a dozen or more workers. The craft of bookbinding probably originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus, the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, and two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book, when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC, similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex, writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls, these were stored in boxes or shelving with small cubbyholes, similar to a modern winerack
The love of books is bibliophilia, and someone who loves to read and collect books is a bibliophile. Bibliophile book collecting is distinct from casual book ownership and the accumulation of books for reading, duke Philip the Good of Burgundy appears to have had the largest private collection of his day, with about six hundred volumes. There was an English antiquarian reaction to Henry VIIIs dissolution of the Monasteries, the commissioners of Edward VI plundered and stripped university and monastic libraries, so to save books from being destroyed, those who could began to collect them. Book collecting can be easy and inexpensive, there are millions of new and used books, and thousands of bookstores, including online booksellers like Abebooks, Alibris and Biblio. com. Only the wealthiest book collectors pursue the great rarities, the Gutenberg Bible and Shakespeares First Folio are, for example, Collectors of average means may collect works by a favorite author, first editions of modern authors, or books on a given subject.
Book prices generally depend on the demand for a book, the number of copies available. There are associations that collectors may join, the Fine Press Book Association is aimed at collectors of modern fine printing, and produces its journal, twice a year. The Private Libraries Association covers modern fine printing too, but is more general in its outlook and produces a quarterly journal. There are millions of books, so collectors necessarily specialize in one or more genres or subgenres of literature, a reader of fiction, who enjoys Westerns, might decide to collect first editions of Zane Greys novels. A lover of modern English poetry might collect the works of W H Auden, a Californian who prefers non-fiction might look for books about the history of the San Francisco Bay Area. Individual interests may include, A particular author or genre or field of study A particular illustrator Award winning books Books as Art Bindings and/or Book design, the Grolier Club has since 1884 been interested in the.
Study of the arts pertaining to the production of books, stages of publication, advance review copies, galley proofs Related collecting interests include collecting bookplates and ephemera. Book prices generally depend on the demand for a book, the number of copies available for purchase. As with other collectibles, prices rise and fall with the popularity of an author, title. Because of the number of books for sale, there is no single comprehensive price guide for collectible books. The prices of the copies listed for sale at the online bookseller sites provide some indication of their current market values, as with other collectibles, the value of a book ultimately depends on its physical condition. Years of handling and storage take their toll on the dust jacket, pages, Books are subject to damage from sunlight and insects. Acid from the process can cause the pages to develop brown spots, called foxing, gradually turn brown, called tanning
The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the Gutenberg Revolution and the age of the book in the West. Widely praised for its aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has an iconic status. Written in Latin, the Catholic Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, in present-day Germany, in the 1450s. Since its publication,49 copies have survived, and they are considered to be among the most valuable books in the even though no complete copy has been sold since 1978. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition and it is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies. The 36-line Bible, believed to be the second printed version of the Bible, is sometimes referred to as a Gutenberg Bible. The Gutenberg Bible, an edition of the Vulgate, contains the Latin version of the Hebrew Old Testament and it is mainly the work of Jerome who began his work on the translation in 380 AD, with emendations from the Parisian Bible tradition, and further divergences.
The Bible was not Gutenbergs first work, preparation of the Bible probably began soon after 1450, and the first finished copies were available in 1454 or 1455. It is not known exactly how long the Bible took to print, the first precisely datable printing is the Gutenbergs 31-line Indulgence which is known to already exist on 22 October 1454. Gutenberg made three significant changes during the printing process, the first sheets were rubricated by being passed twice through the printing press, using black and red ink. This was soon abandoned, with spaces being left for rubrication to be added by hand, some time later, after more sheets had been printed, the number of lines per page was increased from 40 to 42, presumably to save paper. Therefore, pages 1 to 9 and pages 256 to 265, page 10 has 41, and from there on the 42 lines appear. The increase in number was achieved by decreasing the interline spacing. Finally, the print run was increased, necessitating resetting those pages which had already been printed, the new sheets were all reset to 42 lines per page.
Consequently, there are two settings in folios 1-32 and 129-158 of volume I and folios 1-16 and 162 of volume II. The most reliable information about the Bibles date comes from a letter, in March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition, in Frankfurt. It is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols are retrieved and ordered according to a languages orthography for visual display, typesetting requires the prior process of designing a font. One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more easily, during much of the letterpress era, movable type was composed by hand for each page. The form was placed in a press, and an impression made on paper. During typesetting, individual sorts are picked from a case with the right hand, and set into a composing stick held in the left hand from left to right. This is reputed to be the origin of the expression mind your ps and it might just as easily have been “mind your bs and ds”. The diagram at right illustrates a cast metal sort, a face, b body or shank, wooden printing sorts were in use for centuries in combination with metal type. Not shown, and more the concern of the casterman, is the “set”, set width, like body size, is measured in points.
This was particularly prevalent in book and newspaper work where rotary presses required type forms to wrap an impression cylinder rather than set in the bed of a press, advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art even farther ahead. Still, hand composition and letterpress printing have not fallen out of use. However, it is a small niche within the larger typesetting market. The time and effort required to compose the text led to several efforts in the 19th century to produce mechanical typesetting. Most of the systems involved the in-house casting of the type to be used. The Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, in the Monotype System, a keyboard was used to punch a paper tape, which was fed to control a casting machine. The Ludlow Typograph involved hand-set matrices, but otherwise used hot metal, by the early 20th century, the various systems were nearly universal in large newspapers and publishing houses. Phototypesetting or cold type systems first appeared in the early 1960s and these devices consisted of glass disks that spun in front of a light source to selectively expose characters onto light-sensitive paper.
Originally they were driven by pre-punched paper tapes, they were hooked up to computer front ends. One of the earliest electronic photocomposition systems was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor, the typesetter typed a line of text on a Fairchild keyboard that had no display
Quarto is a book or pamphlet produced from full blanksheets, each of which is printed with eight pages of text, four to a side, folded twice to produce four leaves. Each printed page presents as one-fourth size of the full blanksheet, the earliest known European printed book is a quarto, the Sibyllenbuch, believed to have been printed by Gutenberg in 1452–53, before the Gutenberg Bible, surviving only as a fragment. These terms are discussed in detail in Book sizes. A quarto is a book or pamphlet made up of one or more sheets of paper on which 8 pages of text were printed. Each leaf of a quarto book thus represents one fourth the size of the original sheet, each group of 4 leaves could be sewn through the central fold to attach it to the other gatherings to form a book. Sometimes, additional leaves would be inserted within another group to form, for example gatherings of 8 leaves, quartos have more squarish proportions than folios or octavos. There are variations in how quartos were produced, for example, bibliographers call a book printed as a quarto, but bound in gatherings of 8 leaves each, a quarto in 8s.
The actual size of a quarto book depends on the size of the sheet of paper on which it was printed. The earliest surviving books printed by movable type by Gutenberg are quartos which were printed before the Gutenberg Bible, the earliest known one is a fragment of a medieval poem called the Sibyllenbuch, believed to have been printed by Gutenberg in 1452–53. Quartos were the most common format of books printed in the incunabula period, beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, technology permitted the manufacture of large sheets or rolls of paper on which books were printed, many text pages at a time. As a result, it may be impossible to determine the actual format, the term quarto as applied to such books may refer simply to the size, i. e. books that are approximately 12 inches tall. During the Elizabethan era and through the century, plays. Eighteen of Shakespeares 36 plays included in first folio collected edition of 1623, were separately printed as quartos. Bibliographers have extensively studied these different editions, which refer to by abbreviations such as Q1, Q2.
The texts of some of the Shakespeare quartos are highly inaccurate and are full of errors and omissions. Bibliographer Alfred W. Pollard named those editions Bad quartos, and it is speculated that they may have produced, not from manuscript texts. Other playwrights in this period published their plays in quarto editions. Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus, for example, was published as a quarto in 1604, the same is true of poems, Shakespeares poem Venus and Adonis being first printed as a quarto in 1593, with a second quarto edition in 1594
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called booksellers, bookwomen, or bookmen, the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, and Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade. The spread of Christianity naturally created a demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing, in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed dramatically with the advent of the Internet, with major websites such as Amazon, eBay, and other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than ever, been put in the hands of the small business owner. Bookstores may be part of a chain, or local independent bookstores.
Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousands of titles and they may be brick-and-mortar stores or internet only stores or a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles, bookstores often sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps, additional product lines may vary enormously, particularly among independent bookstores. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used, a range of titles are available in used bookstores, including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores, large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe and these scribes were the earliest booksellers, and supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed an extensive library, and Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean.
When the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, in Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade and their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, and in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the posts, was a list of the books on sale, and Martial. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii, according to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written, this may be the beginnings of the modern law of copyright. All references had to be certified by the local mayor, if the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime
History of printing
The history of printing goes back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times. In both China and Egypt, the use of stamps for seals preceded the use of larger blocks. In China and Europe, the printing of cloth certainly preceded the printing of paper or papyrus, the process is essentially the same - in Europe special presentation impressions of prints were often printed on silk until the seventeenth century. Block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia both as a method of printing on textiles and later, under the influence of Buddhism, on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about 220, ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print. Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the term woodcut, the worlds earliest printer printed fragments to survive are from China and are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty.
It reached Europe, via the Islamic world, and by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints, the third oldest wood-block printed book ever found after Mugujeonggwang great Dharani sutraand Hyakumantō Darani is the Diamond Sutra. It carries a date of the 13th day of the moon of the ninth year of the Xiantong era. A number of printed dhāraṇīs, predate the Diamond Sūtra by about two hundred years, in Buddhism, great merit is thought to accrue from copying and preserving texts. The fourth-century master listed the copying of scripture as the first of ten essential religious practices and this ‘cult of the book’ led to techniques for reproducing texts in great numbers, especially the short prayers or charms known as dhāraṇīs. Stamps were carved for printing these prayers on clay tablets from at least the seventh century, especially popular was the Pratītyasamutpāda Gāthā, a short verse text summing up Nāgārjunas philosophy of causal genesis or dependent origination. Nagarjuna lived in the centuries of the current era and the Buddhist Creed.
This tradition was transmitted to China and Tibet with Buddhism, Printing text from woodblocks does not, seem to have been developed in India. Printing with a press was practiced in Christian Europe as a method for printing on cloth and these prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onwards. Around the mid-century, block-books, woodcut books with text and images, usually carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts. These were all heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions, the Ars moriendi. In Europe, from about 1450 they were commonly used to colour old master prints printed in black and white. This was especially the case with playing-cards, which continued to be coloured by stencil long after most other subjects for prints were left in black, stenciling back in the 27th century BCE was different
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
A book cover is any protective covering used to bind together the pages of a book. This article is concerned with modern mechanically produced covers, before the early nineteenth century, books were hand-bound, in the case of luxury medieval manuscripts using materials such as gold and jewels. For hundreds of years, book bindings had functioned as a device for the expensively printed or hand-made pages. In the 1820s great changes began to occur in how a book might be covered, not only were the new types of book-covers cheaper to produce, they were printable, using multi-colour lithography, and later, half-tone illustration processes. Techniques borrowed from the nineteenth-century poster-artists gradually infiltrated the book industry, the book cover became more than just a protection for the pages, taking on the function of advertising, and communicating information about the text inside. Some of the first radically modern cover designs were produced in the Soviet Union during the 1920s by avant-gardists such as Alexander Rodchenko, another highly influential early book cover designer was Aubrey Beardsley, thanks to his striking covers for the first four volumes of The Yellow Book.
In the post-war era, book covers have become important as the book industry has become commercially competitive. Covers now give detailed hints about the style and subject of the book and this can differ from country to country because of other tastes of the markets. So translated books can have different book-accessories such as belonging to childrens books. The era of internet sales has not diminished the importance of the book cover, as it now continues its role in a two-dimensional digital form, helping to identify. The Book Cover Archive *Decorated Publishers Bindings-Grand Valley State University Archives, on the topic of cover art
A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves, often in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials. Bookcases are used in homes and university libraries and bookstores. Bookcases range from small, low models the height of a table to high models reaching up to ceiling height, shelves may be fixed or adjustable to different positions in the case. In rooms entirely devoted to the storage of books, such as libraries, a bookcase may be fitted with glass doors that can be closed to protect the books from dust or moisture. Bookcase doors are almost always glazed with glass, so as to allow the spines of the books to be read, especially valuable rare books may be kept in locked cases with wooden or glazed doors. A small bookshelf may stand on some other piece of such as a desk or chest. Larger books are more likely to be kept in horizontal piles, in Latin and Greek the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of which mean library in many modern languages. A bookcase is known as a bookshelf, a bookstand, a cupboard, in a library, large bookshelves are called stacks.
Revolving bookcases, known as zhuanluntang, have been documented in imperial China, descriptions of revolving bookcases have been found in 8th- and 9th-century Chinese texts. Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Taizu, an illustration of a revolving bookcase is depicted in Li Jies architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi. When books were written by hand and were not produced in great quantities, as manuscript volumes accumulated in religious houses or in homes of the wealthy, they were stored on shelves or in cupboards. These cupboards are the predecessors of todays bookcases, the doors were removed, and the evolution of the bookcase proceeded. Even then, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion and they were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was used for the inscription of the title.
Titles were commonly written onto the fore-edge, early bookcases were usually of oak, which is still deemed by some to be the most appropriate wood for an elegant library. Long ranges of book-shelves are somewhat severe in appearance, and many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and these attempts were most successful as in the hands of the English cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century. Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed many bookcases, mostly glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames, often of great charm, in the eyes of some, the grace of some of Sheratons satinwood bookcases has rarely been equalled. The French cabinetmakers of the period were highly successful with small ornamental cases
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972.
Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley.
It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library holds the Asia and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
Bibliography, as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects, in this sense, it is known as bibliology. Carter and Barker describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books and Barker describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books and the systematic, description of books as physical objects. These two distinct concepts and practices have separate rationales and serve differing purposes and originators in the field include W. W. Greg, Fredson Bowers, Philip Gaskell, G. Thomas Tanselle. Bowers refers to enumerative bibliography as a procedure that identifies books in “specific collections or libraries, ” in a discipline, by an author, printer. He refers to descriptive bibliography as the description of a book as a material or physical artifact. Analytical bibliography, the cornerstone of descriptive bibliography, investigates the printing and all features of a book that yield evidence establishing a books history.
Descriptive bibliographers follow specific conventions and associated classification in their description and title pages are transcribed in a quasi-facsimile style and representation. The thought expressed in this book expands substantively on W. W. Gregs groundbreaking theory that argued for the adoption of formal bibliographic principles, D. F. McKenzie extended previous notions of bibliography as set forth by W. W. Greg, Bowers and Tanselle. He describes the nature of bibliography as the discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, mcKenzies perspective contextualizes textual objects or artifacts with sociological and technical factors that have an effect on production, transmission and, ideal copy. Bibliography, concerns the conditions of books how they are designed, printed, reprinted, collected. In earlier times, bibliography mostly focused on books, both categories of bibliography cover works in other media including audio recordings, motion pictures and videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs and websites.
An enumerative bibliography is a systematic list of books and other such as journal articles. Bibliographies range from works cited lists at the end of books and articles, to complete, a notable example of a complete, independent publication is Gows, A. E. Housman, A Sketch, Together with a List of His Classical Papers. As separate works, they may be in volumes such as those shown on the right. A library catalog, while not referred to as a bibliography, is bibliographic in nature, Bibliographical works are almost always considered to be tertiary sources. Enumerative bibliographies are based on a unifying principle such as creator, date, an entry in an enumerative bibliography provides the core elements of a text resource including a title, the creator, publication date and place of publication. The enumerative list may be comprehensive or selective, one noted example would be Tanselles bibliography that exhaustively enumerates topics and sources related to all forms of bibliography. A more common and particular instance of an enumerative bibliography relates to specific sources used or considered in preparing a paper or academic term paper