Octet (computing)

The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits. The term is used when the term byte might be ambiguous, as the byte has been used for storage units of a variety of sizes; the term octad for eight bits is no longer common. A variable-length sequence of octets, as in Abstract Syntax Notation One, is referred to as an octet string; the international standard IEC 60027-2, chapter 3.8.2, states. However, the unit byte has been platform-dependent and has represented various storage sizes in the history of computing. Due to the influence of several major computer architectures and product lines, the byte became overwhelmingly associated with eight bits; this meaning of byte is codified in such standards as ISO/IEC 80000-13. While byte and octet are used synonymously, those working with certain legacy systems are careful to avoid ambiguity. Octets can be represented using number systems of varying bases such as the hexadecimal, decimal, or octal number systems.

The binary value of all eight bits set is 111111112, equal to the hexadecimal value FF16, the decimal value 25510, the octal value 3778. One octet can be used to represent decimal values ranging from 0 to 255; the term octet is used when the use of byte might be ambiguous. It is used in the Request for Comments publications of the Internet Engineering Task Force to describe storage sizes of network protocol parameters; the earliest example is RFC 635 from 1974. In 2000, Bob Bemer claimed to have earlier proposed the usage of the term octet for "8-bit bytes" when he headed software operations for Cie. Bull in France in 1965 to 1966. In France, French Canada and Romania, octet is used in common language instead of byte when the 8-bit sense is required, for example, a megabyte is termed a megaoctet. In Western Europe, the term octad was used to denote 8 bits. Early examples of usage exist in British and German sources of the 1960s and 1970s, throughout the documentation of Philips mainframe computers.

Similar terms are triad for decade for ten. Unit multiples of the octet may be formed with SI prefixes and binary prefixes as standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission during 1998; the octet is used to represent Internet Protocol computer network addresses. An IPv4 address consists of four octets shown individually as a series of decimal values ranging from 0 to 255, each separated by a full stop. Using octets with all eight bits set, the representation of the highest numbered IPv4 address is An IPv6 address consists of sixteen octets, shown using hexadecimal representation and using a colon character after each pair of octets for readability, like this FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF. If two or more consecutive octets equal zero they may be replaced by two following colon characters but this can be used only once in a given IPv6 address to avoid ambiguity; the given IPv6 address can thus be written as FE80::0123:4567:89AB:CDEF. In addition leading zeroes may be omitted as they are not significant bits in the address.

Applying this to the previous example mentioned will result in an IPv6 address of FE80::123:4567:89AB:CDEF. Variable-width encoding The dictionary definition of octet at Wiktionary

California State Route 76

State Route 76 is a state highway 52.63 miles long in the U. S. state of California. It is a much used east–west route in the North County region of San Diego County that begins in Oceanside near Interstate 5 and continues east; the highway is a major route through the region, passing through the community of Bonsall and providing access to Fallbrook. East of the junction with I-15, SR 76 goes through Pala and Pauma Valley before terminating at SR 79. A route along the corridor has existed since the early 20th century, as has the bridge over the San Luis Rey River near Bonsall; the route was added to the state highway system in 1933, was designated by the California State Legislature as SR 76 in the 1964 state highway renumbering. The section of the highway through Oceanside and Bonsall is a four-lane expressway; the entire highway was two lanes wide. The California Department of Transportation maintained plans to expand the entire length of the highway west of I-15 to an expressway, as of May 2017, construction between Bonsall and I-15 was complete.

The roadway carrying the SR 76 designation begins at County Route S21 in Oceanside, although Caltrans does not consider the road west of I-5 to be part of the route, it is not in the legal definition. There is soon an interchange with I-5, after which SR 76 becomes a four-lane expressway known as the San Luis Rey Mission Expressway. From I-5 to Mission Avenue, the highway parallels the San Luis Rey River until it passes by the Oceanside Municipal Airport. During this stretch, SR 76 intersects Loretta Street, Canyon Drive, Benet Road, Airport Road, Foussat Road. There are two overpasses: one over Mission Avenue, one over El Camino Real, before the road intersects Douglas Drive, the main road to the San Luis Rey gate of Camp Pendleton. After an intersection with Rancho Del Oro Road, SR 76 passes over Mission Avenue again before intersecting with Old Grove Road, Frazee Road, a turnoff into the Towne Center North shopping center, College Boulevard; as it enters rural Oceanside, SR 76 intersects with North Santa Fe Avenue, Guajome Lake Road, Melrose Drive.

SR 76 intersects the southern segment of CR S13, known as East Vista Way, passes over the San Luis Rey River on parallel bridges before an intersection at North River Road. The highway passes through Bonsall, intersecting Via Montellano, Olive Hill Road, Throughbred Lane. SR 76 meets the northern segment of CR S13, known as South Mission Road, while heading north into Fallbrook. Here, SR 76 becomes known as Pala Road, it intersects Via Monserate and Gird Road south of Fallbrook before crossing the former routing of US 395 and the current routing of I-15 in the community of Pala Mesa Village. SR 76 goes through Pala and the Pala Indian Reservation, providing access to the Pala Casino and intersecting CR S16, the turnoff to the Pala Mission and Temecula. Continuing to parallel the San Luis Rey River, SR 76 passes by the Wilderness Gardens County Park before entering the community of Pauma Valley and meeting the southern terminus of CR S7, a dirt road leading into Palomar Mountain State Park. SR 76 intersects the southern leg of CR S6, leading to Valley Escondido.

East of the small Yuima Indian Reservation, it encounters the northern leg of CR S6, the southern approach to the Palomar Observatory and Palomar Mountain State Park, as well as the community of La Jolla Amago. It briefly passes through the Cleveland National Forest and meets the eastern terminus of CR S7, the eastern approach to Palomar Mountain. SR 76 passes along the shores of Lake Henshaw before terminating at the intersection with SR 79 at Morettis Junction, southeast of Lake Henshaw. From I-5 to I-15, SR 76 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, but is not part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 76 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation; the part of the highway from the western terminus to Douglas Drive is named for Tony Zeppetella, an Oceanside police officer killed while on duty performing a traffic stop in 2003.

In 2014, SR 76 had an annual average daily traffic of 1,400 between East Palomar Road and the eastern terminus at SR 79, 55,000 between Airport Road and El Camino Real in Oceanside, the latter of, the highest AADT for the highway. The road through the San Luis Rey Valley was planned as early as 1889, was constructed during the early 20th century, it was added to the state highway system in 1933, while the condition of the highway continued to improve. The San Luis Rey Mission Expressway was constructed during the 1990s and 2000s, efforts to extend the expressway east to I-15 were completed during the 2010s. Plans by the City of Oceanside for a road east through the San Luis Rey Valley to Fallbrook date from June 1889, included a bridge over the San Luis Rey River. Construction on the bridge over the river at Bonsall had commenced by October 1906, the bridge was to be 250 feet long. In November, the road to the bridge was under construction. A survey was commissioned in 1908 to replace the road along the south bank of the river with one along the north bank to Pala, as

Radio-frequency skin tightening

Radio-frequency skin tightening is an aesthetic technique that uses radio frequency energy to heat skin with the purpose of stimulating cutaneous collagen and hyaluronic acid production in order to reduce the appearance of fine lines and loose skin. The technique induces tissue production of new collagen and elastin; the process provides an alternative to facelift and other cosmetic surgeries. By manipulating skin cooling during treatment, RF can be used for heating and reduction of fat; the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin, as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, body contouring. Several companies manufacture RF devices, including D-Finitive Thermage by Solta Medical, Evo by Beco Medical V-Form by Viora, Venus Freeze Plus, Venus Legacy by Venus Concept, VelaShape by Syneron, Exilis by BTL, 3DEEP by Endymed. Microneedle radiofrequency is the latest form of delivery and devices include Profound by Candela lasers, Intensif, Thermia Ablative RF Fractional by Melorin Group and Genius by Lutronic.

Alternative techniques include certain Ultrasound alternatives. Novel non-invasive versions of radiofrequency delivery include tripolar devices such as Tripolar by Lumenis and Triactive by DEKA. Devices have different penetration depths depending on the number of electrodes; the ideal target temperature in the dermis for inducing dermal remodeling and wrinkle and laxity reduction was shown to be 67 degrees Centigrade. By delivering radiofrequency power until this target temperature is attained, clinical outcomes are optimized. Microneedle radiofrequency has been FDA approved for cellulite reduction using vertically penetrating needles that target the subnormal plane. Due to radiation of high-energy radio frequency, several patients have reported pain requiring sedation during the procedure; the process requires extreme care in its execution for improper application may result in dents on the skin surface due to uneven healing responses on the skin. Many effects including fat necrosis and atrophic scarring have been reported, although several new techniques have overcome this obstacle.

With the application of a vacuum at the point of application, the burning and crusting was reduced