The Burchardi flood was a storm tide that struck the North Sea coast of North Frisia and Dithmarschen on the night between 11 and 12 October 1634. Overrunning dikes, it shattered the coastline and caused thousands of deaths, much of the island of Strand washed away, forming the islands Nordstrand and several Halligen. The Burchardi flood hit Schleswig-Holstein during a period of economic weakness, in 1603 a plague epidemic spread across the land, killing many. The flooding occurred during the Thirty Years War, which did not spare Schleswig-Holstein, fighting had occurred between locals and the troops of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, especially on Strand Island. The people of Strand were resisting changes to their old defence treaties, supported by a Danish expeditionary fleet, they succeeded in repulsing first an imperial army and the dukes men, but were eventually defeated in 1629. The island and subsequently the means of coastal protection suffered from the strife, the Burchardi flood was merely the last in a series of floods that hit the coastline of Schleswig-Holstein in that period.
In 1625, great ice-floats had already caused damage to the dikes. Several storm floods are reported by the chronicles during the prior to 1634. The most comprehensive report is preserved from Dutch hydraulic engineer Jan Leeghwater who was tasked with land reclamation in a part of the Dagebüll bay. He writes and his son fled over the dike towards a manor which was situated on higher terrain while the water had almost reached the top of the dike. At the time there were 38 persons in that manor,20 of whom were refugees from lower lands. m, about two hours past midnight the water had reached its peak level. The water rose so high that not only were the dikes destroyed but houses in the shallow marshlands, some houses collapsed while others were set on fire due to unattended fireplaces. In this night the dikes broke at several hundred locations along the North Sea coastline of Schleswig-Holstein, estimations of fatalities range from 8,000 to 15,000. 8,000 local victims are counted by contemporary sources and from comparisons of parish registers, on Strand alone, at least 6,123 people lost their lives due to 44 dike breaches, which relates to two thirds of the entire population of the island.
Moreover 50,000 pieces of livestock were lost, the water destroyed 1,300 houses and 30 mills. All 21 churches on Strand were heavily damaged,17 of which were completely destroyed, almost the entire new harvest was lost. And the island of Strand was torn apart, forming the smaller islands Nordstrand and Pellworm, the Nübbel and Nieland Halligen submerged in the sea. On the Eiderstedt peninsula,2,107 people and 12,802 items of livestock drowned and 664 houses were destroyed by the according to Heimreichs chronicle
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and in Einsiedeln, in 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent, in his publications, he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, and attacked the use of images in places of worship. In 1525, Zwingli introduced a new liturgy to replace the Mass. Zwingli clashed with the Anabaptists, which resulted in their persecution, historians have debated whether or not he turned Zurich into a theocracy. The Reformation spread to parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted. Zwingli formed an alliance of Reformed cantons which divided the Confederation along religious lines, in 1529, a war between the two sides was averted at the last moment.
Meanwhile, Zwinglis ideas came to the attention of Martin Luther and other reformers and they met at the Marburg Colloquy and although they agreed on many points of doctrine, they could not reach an accord on the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. In 1531 Zwinglis alliance applied an unsuccessful food blockade on the Catholic cantons, the cantons responded with an attack at a moment when Zurich was ill prepared. Zwingli was killed in battle at the age of 47 and his legacy lives on in the confessions and church orders of the Reformed churches of today. The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwinglis time consisted of thirteen states as well as affiliated areas, unlike the modern state of Switzerland, which operates under a federal government, each of the thirteen cantons was nearly independent, conducting its own domestic and foreign affairs. Each canton formed its own alliances within and without the Confederation and this relative independence served as the basis for conflict during the time of the Reformation when the various cantons divided between different confessional camps.
Military ambitions gained an additional impetus with the competition to new territory and resources. The wider political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was volatile, for centuries the relationship with the Confederations powerful neighbour, determined the foreign policies of the Swiss. Nominally, the Confederation formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War in 1499, the Confederation had become de facto independent. During this time the mercenary pension system became a subject of disagreement, the religious factions of Zwinglis time debated vociferously the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars mainly for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities. At the same time, Renaissance humanism, with its universal values, within this environment, defined by the confluence of Swiss patriotism and humanism, Zwingli was born in 1484. Huldrych Zwingli was born on 1 January 1484 in Wildhaus, in the Toggenburg valley of Switzerland, to a family of farmers and his father, played a leading role in the administration of the community
Ordinances of 1311
The Ordinances of 1311 were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king. The twenty-one signatories of the Ordinances are referred to as the Lords Ordainers, just as instrumental to their conception were other issues, particularly discontent with the kings favourite, Piers Gaveston, whom the barons subsequently banished from the realm. Edward II accepted the Ordinances only under coercion, and a struggle for their repeal ensued that did not end until Thomas of Lancaster – the leader of the Ordainers – was executed in 1322. When Edward II succeeded his father Edward I on 7 July 1307, discontent was brewing beneath the surface. Some of this was due to existing problems left behind by the late king, first there was discontent with the royal policy for financing wars. To finance the war in Scotland, Edward I had increasingly resorted to so-called prises – or purveyance – to provision the troops with victuals.
Though a perfectly legitimate method of raising money, the felt that the purveyance had become far too burdensome. In addition, they did not like the fact that Edward II took prises for his household without continuing the war effort against Scotland, while Edward I had spent the last decade of his reign relentlessly campaigning against the Scots, his son abandoned the war almost entirely. In this situation, the Scottish king Robert Bruce soon took the opportunity to regain what had been lost and this not only exposed the north of England to Scottish attacks, but jeopardized the possessions of the English baronage in Scotland. The third and most serious problem concerned the king’s favourite, Piers Gaveston, Gaveston was a Gascon of relatively humble origins, with whom the king had developed a particularly close relationship. Among the honours Edward heaped upon Gaveston was the earldom of Cornwall, the preferential treatment of an upstart like Gaveston, in combination with his behaviour that was seen as arrogant, led to resentment among the established peers of the realm.
The so-called Boulogne agreement was vague, but it expressed concern over the state of the royal court. On 25 February 1308, the new king was crowned, though it is unclear what exactly was meant by this wording at the time, this oath was used in the struggle between the king and his earls. In the parliament of April 1308, it was decided that Gaveston should be banned from the realm upon threat of excommunication, the king had no choice but to comply, and on 24 June, Gaveston left the country on appointment as Lieutenant of Ireland. The king immediately started plotting for his favourites return, at the parliament of April 1309, he suggested a compromise in which certain of the earls petitions would be met in exchange for Gavestons return. The plan came to nothing, but Edward had strengthened his hand for the Stamford parliament in July that year by receiving a papal annulment of the threat of excommunication, the king agreed to the so-called Statute of Stamford, and Gaveston was allowed to return.
The earls who agreed to the compromise were hoping that Gaveston had learned his lesson, yet upon his return, he behaved worse than ever, conferring insulting nicknames on some of the greater nobles. When the king summoned a council in October, several of the earls refused to meet due to Gaveston’s presence
Battle of Camperdown
The Battle of Camperdown was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Dutch Navy fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. In 1795, the Dutch Republic had been overrun by the army of the French Republic and had reorganised into the Batavian Republic. In early 1797, after the French Atlantic Fleet had suffered losses in a disastrous winter campaign. The rendezvous never occurred, the continental allies failed to capitalise on the Spithead and Nore mutinies that paralysed the British Channel forces, by September, the Dutch fleet under De Winter were blockaded within their harbour in the Texel by the British North Sea fleet under Duncan. At the start of October, Duncan was forced to return to Yarmouth for supplies, when the Dutch fleet returned to the Dutch coast on 11 October, Duncan was waiting, and intercepted De Winter off the coastal village of Camperduin. Attacking the Dutch line of battle in two groups, Duncans ships broke through at the rear and van and were subsequently engaged by Dutch frigates lined up on the other side.
The loss of their flagship prompted the surviving Dutch ships to disperse and retreat, en route, the fleet was struck by a series of gales and two prizes were wrecked and another had to be recaptured before the remainder reached Britain. The Dutch fleet was broken as an independent fighting force, losing ten ships, in the winter of 1794–1795, forces of the French Republic overran the neighbouring Dutch Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. The French reorganised the country as a client state named the Batavian Republic, one of the most important Dutch assets of which the French gained control was the Dutch Navy, which had been captured in its frozen harbour in the Texel by French cavalry advancing across the ice. Standing at 64 he was noted for his physical strength and size. In late 1796, after prompting from representatives of the United Irishmen and this too ended in disaster, with twelve ships lost and thousands of men drowned in fierce winter gales. A plan was formulated to merge the French and Dutch fleets, for the Royal Navy, the early years of the war had been successful, but the commitment to a global conflict was creating a severe strain on available equipment and financial resources.
Wages had not been increased since 1653, and were usually months late, rations were terrible, shore leave forbidden and discipline harsh. For a month the fleet remained at stalemate, until Lord Howe was able to negotiate a series of improvements in conditions that enabled the strikers to return to regular service. The mutiny had achieved almost all of its aims, increasing pay, removing unpopular officers and improving conditions for the men serving in the Channel Fleet and, the whole navy. While the upheaval continued at Spithead, Duncan had retained order in the North Sea Fleet at Yarmouth by the force of his personality. Calmed by his subordinates, he assembled his officers and the Royal Marines aboard his ship. Despite his initial success, Duncan was unable to control in the face of a more widespread revolt on 15 May among the ships based at the Nore
Battle of Valcour Island
The naval Battle of Valcour Island, known as the Battle of Valcour Bay, took place on October 11,1776, on Lake Champlain. The main action took place in Valcour Bay, a strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. The battle is regarded as one of the first naval battles of the American Revolutionary War. Most of the ships in the American fleet under the command of Benedict Arnold were captured or destroyed by a British force under the direction of General Guy Carleton. However, the American defense of Lake Champlain stalled British plans to reach the upper Hudson River valley, the Continental Army had retreated from Quebec to Fort Ticonderoga and Fort Crown Point in June 1776 after British forces were massively reinforced. They spent the summer of 1776 fortifying those forts, and building ships to augment the small American fleet already on the lake. General Carleton had a 9,000 man army at Fort Saint-Jean, the Americans, during their retreat, had either taken or destroyed most of the ships on the lake.
By early October, the British fleet, which significantly outgunned the American fleet, was ready for launch, on October 11, Arnold drew the British fleet to a position he had carefully chosen to limit their advantages. In the battle followed, many of the American ships were damaged or destroyed. That night, Arnold sneaked the American fleet past the British one, beginning a retreat toward Crown Point, unfavorable weather hampered the American retreat, and more of the fleet was either captured or grounded and burned before it could reach Crown Point. Upon reaching Crown Point Arnold had the buildings burned and retreated to Ticonderoga. The British fleet included four officers who became admirals in the Royal Navy, Thomas Pringle, James Dacres, Edward Pellew and John Schank. Valcour Bay, the site of the battle, is now a National Historic Landmark, as is Philadelphia, which shortly after the October 11 battle. The underwater site of Spitfire, located in 1997, is on the National Register of Historic Places, the province was viewed by the Second Continental Congress as a potential avenue for British forces to attack and divide the rebellious colonies, and was at the time lightly defended.
The invasion reached a peak on December 31,1775, when the Battle of Quebec ended in disaster for the Americans. In the spring of 1776,10,000 British and German troops arrived in Quebec, and General Guy Carleton, Carleton launched his own offensive intended to reach the Hudson River, whose navigable length begins south of Lake Champlain and extends down to New York City. Control of the upper Hudson would enable the British to link their forces in Quebec with those in New York and this strategy would separate the American colonies of New England from those farther south and potentially quash the rebellion. Lake Champlain, a long and relatively narrow lake formed by the action of glaciers during the last ice age and its 120-mile length and 12-mile maximum width creates more than 550 miles of shoreline, with many bays and promontories
1138 Aleppo earthquake
The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was among the deadliest earthquakes in history. Its name was taken from the city of Aleppo, in northern Syria, the quake occurred on 11 October 1138 and was preceded by a smaller quake on the 10th. It is frequently listed as the third deadliest earthquake in history, following on from the Shensi, the first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century. Aleppo is located along the part of the Dead Sea Transform system of geologic faults. The first sequence affected areas around Aleppo and the part of the region of Edessa. During the second an area encompassing north-western Syria, northern Lebanon, in the mid-twelfth century, northern Syria was a war-ravaged land. A contemporary chronicler in Damascus, Ibn al-Qalanisi, recorded the main quake on Wednesday,11 October 1138, Kemal al-Din, an author writing later, recorded only one earthquake on 19–20 October, which disagrees with al Qalanisis account. Given that al Qalanisi was writing as the earthquakes occurred and that accounts from other historians support a 10 or 11 October date, the worst hit area was Harem, where Crusaders had built a large citadel.
Sources indicate that the castle was destroyed and the fell in on itself. The fort of Atharib, occupied by Muslims, was destroyed, the citadel collapsed, killing 600 of the castle guard, though the governor and some servants survived, and fled to Mosul. The town of Zaradna, already sacked by the forces, was utterly obliterated. The residents of Aleppo, a city of several tens of thousands during this period, had been warned by the foreshocks. The walls of the citadel collapsed, as did the walls east and west of the citadel, numerous houses were destroyed, with the stones used in their construction falling in streets. Contemporary accounts of the damage simply state that Aleppo was destroyed, further damage is recorded at Azrab, Tell Khalid and Tell Amar. The main quake and its aftershocks were felt in Damascus, but not in Jerusalem