Flavius Ricimer was a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472. Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimers military office and his dominance over the empire led to historians such as J. B. Bury to conclude that he was a link between previous magistri militum, such as the Vandal Stilicho, and the Germanic King of Italy, Odoacer deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476, in an act often considered to mark the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Ricimer was the son of Rechila, the Suevic King of Galicia and his mother was the daughter of Wallia, King of the Visigoths. As entry into the Western Empires military was an option for losers of struggles for leadership among the barbarians. Ricimers younger sister married Gondioc, the King of the Burgundians, according to Sidonius Apollinaris, Ricimer served under the magister militum Flavius Aetius alongside the comes domesticorum Majorian, whom he befriended.
After the assassinations, the Roman Senator Petronius Maximus proclaimed himself emperor, however, was killed by a Roman mob immediately prior to the Vandal sacking of the city in 455. After the sack, the Visigothic King Theodoric II proclaimed as Emperor Avitus, in return for Theodorics support, Avitus agreed to allow the Visigoths to enter Suevi-controlled Hispania. Theodoric consented to Avituss offers and the new emperor, with the Visigoths under his command, Avitus named the Visigoth Remistus as magister militum, a position which had been vacant since Aetiuss death. Following the arrival of Avitus in Rome, Majorian gave his support, albeit reluctantly, Avitus subsequently appointed Ricimer as a comes, or count of the empire, a prominent military position. By this point, the Western Empire encompassed only the Italian Peninsula and portions of southern Gaul, Ricimer raised an army and navy from the Germanic mercenaries available to him, and commenced campaigns directed against barbarian tribes in conflict with the empire.
Ricimer achieved his first important victory in 456, when he defeated the Vandals in a naval battle, although Priscus wrote that Avitus had sent him to Sicily to engage the Vandals, Hydatius states he defeated the Vandals near Corsica. Ricimer used his new position to assist his colleague Majorian in plotting against Avitus, who had not yet recognized as Emperor of the West by Marcian. Ricimer and Majorian convinced the Roman Senate to authorize an expedition against Avitus. The two led an army against a force commanded by the magister militum Remistus and defeated it at Piacenza on October 16,456. They besieged Avitus in Ravenna, which fell, Avitus was captured, forced to assume the bishopric of Piacenza, and finally executed. With the Western throne vacant, the new Eastern Emperor, Leo I, granted Ricimer the title of patrician, Leo appointed Majorian to replace Ricimer in his Italian command. Without a Western Emperor, Leo hoped to use Ricimer as his effective viceregent in the West, as a Germanic tribesman, Ricimer could not assume the imperial throne himself, but as magister militum he gained influence over the Germanic peoples occupying Gaul and Northern Africa
Carlo Gesualdo di Venosa, Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza, was an Italian Renaissance composer. For this reason, Gesualdo has gained fame and acclaim. Gesualdo is known for his characteristic of possible mental illness, including lewdness, violence. Gesualdo is believed to have engaged in practices and possibly to have ordered his own death. This has led to rumors and legends about him over the centuries. Gesualdos family had acquired the principality of Venosa in what is now the Province of Potenza, Southern Italy and he was born on March 8,1566, three years after his older brother Luigi. His uncle was Carlo Borromeo, Saint Charles Borromeo, in addition, Gesualdos mother, Geronima Borromeo, was the niece of Pope Pius IV. Older sources give a year of 1560 for Carlo. Most likely Carlo was born at Venosa, part of the Kingdom of Naples, but little else is known about his early life. His mother died when he was seven, and at the request of his uncle, Carlo Borromeo for whom he was named. There he was placed under the protection of his uncle, dean of the College of Cardinals, unsuccessful pretender to the papacy, and ultimately Archbishop of Naples.
His brother Luigi was to become the next Prince of Venosa, abandoning the prospect of an ecclesiastical career he married his first cousin, Donna Maria dAvalos, the daughter of the Marquis of Pescara, in 1586. Gesualdo had a relationship with Pomponio Nenna, though whether it was student to teacher. Regardless of this, however, he had a devotion to music from an early age. In addition to the lute, he played the harpsichord. Some years into her marriage with Gesualdo, Donna Maria began an affair with Fabrizio Carafa, third Duke of Andria and seventh Count of Ruovo. In the night of October 16,1590, at the Palazzo San Severo in Naples, the day after the killing, a delegation of Neapolitan officials inspected the room in Gesualdos apartment where the killings had taken place, and interrogated witnesses. The Gran Corte della Vicaria found Gesualdo had not committed a crime, about a year after the gruesome end of his first marriage Gesualdos father died and he thus became the third Prince of Venosa and eighth Count of Conza
Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne.
Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over him
Jadwiga of Poland
Jadwiga, known as Hedwig, reigned as the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, known in Poland as Louis the Hungarian, King of Hungary and Poland, Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but had more close ancestors among the Polish Piasts. She was canonized in the Roman Catholic Church in 1997 and her marriage to William of Austria was planned in 1375 and she lived in Vienna between 1378 and 1380. However, Louis died and Mary was crowned King of Hungary on the demand of her mother in 1382, Sigismund of Luxemburg tried to seize Poland, but the Polish noblemen countered that they would only obey a daughter of King Louis if she settled in their country. Queen Elizabeth nominated Jadwiga to reign in Poland, but did not send her to Kraków to be crowned, during the interregnum, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, became a candidate for the Polish throne. The nobles of Greater Poland especially favoured him, proposing he marry Jadwiga, the noblemen of Lesser Poland opposed his election and persuaded Queen Elizabeth to send Jadwiga to Poland.
Jadwiga was crowned king in Kraków on 16 October 1384 and her crowning either reflected the Polish lords opposition to her intended future husband, adopting the royal title without a further Act or only emphasized that she was a queen regnant. With her mothers consent, Jadwigas advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo, promising to convert to Roman Catholicism and to promote his pagan subjects conversion. Meanwhile, William of Habsburg hurried to Kraków to demand the consummation of his marriage with Jadwiga. Jogaila, who received the baptismal name Władysław, married Jadwiga on 15 February 1386, legend says that she had only agreed to marry him after long prayers, seeking divine inspiration. Władysław-Jogaila was crowned king on 4 March, as her co-ruler, Władysław closely cooperated with his wife. She acted as mediator between her husbands quarreling kinsmen, and between Poland and the Teutonic Knights, after her sister, Mary died in 1395, Jadwiga and Władysław-Jogaila laid claim to Hungary against the widowed Sigismund of Luxemburg, but the Hungarian lords did not support them.
Jadwiga was the third and youngest daughter of Louis I, King of Hungary and Poland, both her grandmothers were Polish princesses, connecting her to the native Piast dynasty of Poland. Historian Oscar Halecki concluded that Jadwigas genealogical tree shows that had more Polish blood than any other. The date of her birth is unknown and she was probably born after 3 October 1373, on this day, her father issued a charter which listed her two older sisters and Mary, without mentioning Jadwiga. Her name was first recorded in her fathers instructions to his envoys to France on 17 April 1384, if by then, Jadwiga had reached twelve years, she must have been born before 18 February 1374. She was named after her distant ancestor, Saint Hedwig of Silesia, King Louis who had not fathered any sons, wanted to ensure his daughters right to inherit his realms. Therefore, European royals regarded his three daughters as especially attractive brides, Leopold III, Duke of Austria, proposed his eldest son, William, to Jadwiga already on 18 August 1374
Wu was the only Empress regnant of China in more than four millennia. Wu was the concubine of Emperor Taizong, after his death, she married his successor—his ninth son, Emperor Gaozong, officially becoming Gaozongs huanghou in 655, although having considerable political power prior to this. After Gaozongs debilitating stroke in 660, Wu Zetian became administrator of the court, besides her career as a political leader, Wu Zetian had an active family life. One of her grandsons became the renowned Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, in Chinese history and literature, Wu Zetian was known by various names and titles. Mention of her in the English language has increased their number. The exact birth name of Wu Zetian is no longer retrievable and she changed her name to Wu Zhao after rising to power, often written as 武曌, with 瞾 being one of the invented characters by Wu. Wu was her surname, which she retained, according to traditional Chinese practice, after marriage to Gaozong. Emperor Taizong gave her the art name Wu Mei, meaning glamorous, during her life, and posthumously, Wu Zetian was awarded various official titles.
Both hou and huangdi are titles, born Wu Zhao, she is not properly known as Wu Hou until receiving this title in 655, nor is she properly known as Wu Zetian, her regnal name, until 690, when she took the title, huangdi. Various Chinese titles have been translated into English as empress, including empress in both the sense of empress consort and empress regnant, generally the emperor was male and his chief spouse was given a title such as Huanghou, often translated as empress or more specific empress consort. Since the time of Qin Shi Huang the Emperor of China used the title Huangdi, Wu Zetian was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Huangdi. Wu Zetian is said to be the woman in Chinese history to wear the yellow robe as a monarch. The Wu family clan originated in Wenshui County, the birthplace of Wu Zetian is not documented in preserved historical literature and remains controversial. Some argue that Wu Zetian was born in Lizhou, while others insist she was born in the imperial capital of Changan.
She lived from 17 February 624 –16 December 705, Wu Zetian was born in the seventh year of the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Tang. In the same year, an eclipse of the sun was visible across China. Her father Wu Shihuo was engaged in the business and the family was relatively well off. Her mother was from the powerful Yang family, during the final years of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan stayed in the Wu household many times and became close to the Wu family, whilst holding appointments in both Hedong and Taiyuan
William Whiston was an English theologian and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton. He is now probably best known for helping to instigate the Longitude Act in 1714 and his important translations of the Antiquities of the Jews and he was a prominent exponent of Arianism and wrote A New Theory of the Earth. Whiston succeeded his mentor Newton as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, having lost the position over his theological views, he spent the rest of his life as a lecturer and writer. Whiston was born to Josiah Whiston and Katherine Rosse at Norton-juxta-Twycross, in Leicestershire and he was educated privately, for his health, and so that he could act as amanuensis to his blind father. He studied at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, after his fathers death, he entered Clare College, Cambridge as a sizar on 30 June 1686. He applied himself to study, was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and AM. William Lloyd ordained Whiston at Lichfield in 1693, in 1694, claiming ill health, he resigned his tutorship at Clare to Richard Laughton, chaplain to John Moore, the bishop of Norwich, and swapped positions with him.
He now divided his time between Norwich and London, in 1698 Moore gave him the living of Lowestoft where he became rector. In 1699 he resigned his Fellowship of Clare College and left to marry, in 1701 Whiston resigned his living to become Isaac Newtons substitute, giving the Lucasian lectures at Cambridge. He succeeded Newton as Lucasian professor in 1702, there followed a period of joint research with Roger Cotes, appointed with Whistons patronage to the Plumian professorship in 1706. Students at the Cotes–Whiston experimental philosophy course included Stephen Hales, William Stukeley and this move was intended to undermine arguments of deists and sceptics. The Boyle lectures dwelt on the connections between biblical prophecies, dramatic events such as floods and eclipses, and their explanations in terms of science. On the other hand, Whiston was alive to possible connections of prophecy with current affairs, the War of the Spanish Succession, Whiston supported a qualified biblical literalism, the literal meaning should be the default, unless there was a good reason to think otherwise.
This view again went back to Augustine, Newtons attitude to the cosmogony of Thomas Burnet reflected on the language of the Genesis creation narrative, as did Whistons alternative cosmogony. Moses as author of Genesis was not necessarily writing as a philosopher, nor as a law-giver. The new cosmogonies of Burnet and John Woodward were all criticised for their disregard of the account, by John Arbuthnot, John Edwards. The title for Whistons Boyle lectures was The Accomplishment of Scripture Prophecies, rejecting typological interpretation of biblical prophecy, he argued that the meaning of a prophecy must be unique. His views were challenged by Anthony Collins
Council of Vienne
The Council of Vienne was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne. Its principal act was to withdraw support for the Knights Templar on the instigation of Philip IV of France. The Knights Templar were founded after the First Crusade of 1096 to ensure the safety of European pilgrims to Jerusalem, in the following centuries the order grew in power and wealth. In the early 14th century, Philip IV of France needed money urgently to continue his war with England and so he accused the Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques De Molay, of corruption and heresy. In 1307 Philip had many French Templars arrested, charged with heresies and this action released Philip from his obligation to repay loans from the Templars and allowed him to confiscate the Templars assets in France. Pope Clement V was under the control of Philip, one of the Popes predecessors, Boniface VIII, had claimed supremacy over Philip and had attempted to excommunicate him when Philip disagreed.
However Boniface was seized at Anagni by a party of horsemen under the command of Philips men, though he was released, the elderly Boniface died shortly after. Bonifaces successor, Pope Benedict XI, lasted less than a year before he too died, the Frenchman Pope Clement thereafter was strongly pressured to follow Philips directions. Pope Clement V caused the Council to meet by issuing the bulls Faciens misericordiam, the city chosen was Vienne, which is on the Rhône River in the south of modern France and at the time was outside the direct control of Philip IV. The neutral setting was intended to give the impression of independent action, the main item on the agenda of the Council not only cited the Order of Knights Templar itself, but its lands, which indicated that further seizures of property were proposed. However the agenda invited archbishops and prelates to bring proposals for improvements in the life of the Church, special notice were sent to the Templars directing them to send suitable defensores to the Council.
The Grand Master Jacques de Molay and others had commanded to appear in person. However, Molay was already imprisoned in Paris and trials of other Templars were already in progress and this delayed the opening of the Council, which finally convened on 16 October 1311. The attendees consisted of twenty cardinals, four patriarchs, about one hundred archbishops and bishops, plus several abbots and priors. The acts of the Council have disappeared, with the exceptions of a fragment in a manuscript in the National Library in Paris, the pope and the cardinals negotiated with the members of this commission respecting the matter. A commission of cardinals was appointed in order to investigate grievances, the discussion of Knights Templar was put in abeyance. The topic changed to the need for an expedition to the Holy Land, the delegates of the King of Aragon wanted the city of Granada to be attacked, to attack the Muslims on the flank, others wanted a crusade to the east only. In February 1312 envoys from the Philip IV negotiated with the Pope without consulting the Council, and Philip held an assembly in Lyon to put pressure on the Pope
Great Hurricane of 1780
The Great Hurricane of 1780, known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, and the 1780 Disaster, is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Between 20,000 and 22,000 people died throughout the Lesser Antilles when the storm passed through them from October 10–16, specifics on the hurricanes track and strength are unknown since the official Atlantic hurricane database only goes back to 1851. The hurricane struck Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 320 km/h, before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British and French fleets contesting for control of the area. The hurricane passed near Puerto Rico and over the portion of Hispaniola. There, it caused damage near the coastlines. It ultimately turned to the northeast and was last observed on October 20 southeast of Atlantic Canada, the death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that of many entire decades of Atlantic hurricanes.
Estimates are marginally higher than for Hurricane Mitch, the second-deadliest Atlantic storm, the hurricane was part of the disastrous 1780 Atlantic hurricane season, with two other deadly storms occurring in October. The exact origin of the hurricane is unknown but it developed, as do many hurricanes. The system strengthened and expanded as it tracked westward and first began affecting Barbados late on October 9. Late on October 10, the worst of the passed over the island. Early on October 11, the hurricane turned north-northwest about 90 kilometres east of Saint Lucia, the cyclone gradually weakened as it passed to the southwest of Dominica early on October 12 and subsequently struck the island of Guadeloupe. After hitting Guadeloupe, the hurricane turned west-northwest, passing about 145 kilometres southwest of Saint Kitts, the hurricane steadily neared Puerto Rico as it paralleled the southern coastline, and on October 14 made its closest point of approach, to the southwest portion of the island.
It subsequently turned to the northwest, hitting the island of Mona in the Mona Passage before making landfall near the present-day Dominican Republic province of Samaná. Late on October 15, it reached the Atlantic Ocean and after passing about 260 kilometres east of Grand Turk Island, it is estimated to have recurved to the northeast. The hurricane passed 240 kilometres southeast of Bermuda on October 18, on October 19, strong winds and high tides were reported in the British province of East Florida. One modern historian suggests the hurricane passed much closer to the province than previously thought, another possibility considered was an extension to a hurricane in the western Caribbean Sea. Because of lack of data, the track of the Great Hurricane is unknown. The Great Hurricane first began affecting Barbados with rain late on October 9, northwesterly winds increased through the day on October 10