Tuskaloosa was a paramount chief of a Mississippian chiefdom in what is now the U. S. state of Alabama. His people were ancestors to the several southern Native American confederacies who emerged in the region. The modern city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama is named for him, Tuskaloosa is notable for leading the Battle of Mabila at his fortified village against the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto. After being taken hostage by the Spanish as they passed through his territory, Tuskaloosa organized an attack on his captors at Mabila. Contemporary records describe the paramount chief as being tall and well built, with some of the chroniclers saying Tuaskaloosa stood a foot. His name, derived from the western Muskogean language elements taska and losa and his chiefdom are recorded in the chronicles of Hernando de Sotos expedition, which arrived in North America in 1539. De Soto had been appointed Governor of Cuba by King Carlos I of Spain, who directed him to conquer Florida, as they traveled, the expedition kidnapped natives to act as bearers and interpreters of the many different language families of the Southeast.
The conquistadors frequently took a local chief hostage to guarantee safe passage through his territory, by October 1540, the Expedition had reached the middle of modern-day Alabama. Tuskaloosas province consisted of a series of villages, mostly along the Coosa, each village had its own chief who was a vassal to Tuskaloosa, the paramount chief. After traveling through the Coosa Province, the De Soto expedition came to the village of Talisi on September 18,1540, near the town of Childersburg. The chief of Talisi and his vassals had fled the town before them, but de Soto sent messages to the chief, De Soto evidently thought Talisi was subject to Coosa, although the village was closer to Tuskaloosa. As such the chief may have had dual allegiances to both chiefdoms and balanced between them, Tuskaloosa sent an envoy led by his son and several head men to meet the Spanish in Talisi. The envoy intended to assess Spanish expedition in order to prepare a trap for them, the Spanish rested at Talisi for several weeks, departed on October 5.
During the next days, they reached about one village of the Tuskaloosa province per day. These included Casiste, situated on a stream, and Caxa, another village on a stream, possibly Hatchett Creek, the next day they camped on the Coosa River, across from the village of Humati, near the mouth of Shoal Creek. On October 8 they came to a newly built settlement named Uxapita, possibly near modern Wetumpka, on October 9, de Soto crossed the Tallapoosa River, and by the end of the day, his party was within a few miles of Tuskalusas village, Atahachi. De Soto sent a messenger to tell the chief he and his army had arrived, the next day de Soto sent Luis de Moscoso Alvarado to tell the chief that they were on their way. The paramount village was a large, recently built, fortified community with a platform mound, upon entering the village, de Soto was taken to meet the chief under a portico on top of the mound
1356 Basel earthquake
The Basel earthquake of 18 October 1356 is the most significant seismological event to have occurred in Central Europe in recorded history and had a moment magnitude in the range of 6. 0–7.1. This earthquake is known as the Séisme de la Saint-Luc. After a foreshock between 19,00 and 20,00 local time, the earthquake struck in the evening at around 22,00. Basel experienced a second, very violent shock in the middle of the night, the town within the ramparts was destroyed by a fire when torches and candles falling to the floor set the wooden houses ablaze. The number of deaths within the town of Basel alone is estimated at 300, all major churches and castles within a 30 km radius of Basel were destroyed. The seismic crisis lasted a year, the modeling of the macroseismic data suggests that the earthquakes source had an east-west orientation, a direction corresponding with the overlapping faults on the Jura Front. On the other hand, recent paleoseismologic studies attribute the cause of this earthquake to a fault, oriented NNE-SSW.
The significant magnitude of the event suggests a possible extension of this fault under the town, due to the limited records of the event, a variety of epicenters have been proposed for the earthquake. Some of the locations include faults beneath the Jura Mountains or along the Basel-Reinach escarpment. Another study placed the epicenter 10 km south of Basel, the earthquake was felt as far away as Zürich and even in Île-de-France. The maximum intensity registered on the Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale was IX–X, the macroseismic map was established on the basis of damage reported by the regions 30 to 40 castles. There are different opinions about which faults were involved, the earthquake destroyed the city of Basel, near the southern end of the Upper Rhine Graben, and caused much destruction in a vast region extending into France and Germany. Though major earthquakes are common at the seismically active edges of plates in Turkey, Greece. According to the Swiss Seismological Service, of more than 10,000 earthquakes in Switzerland over the past 800 years, only half a dozen of them have registered more than 6.0 on the Richter scale
Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)
The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium, the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. Following the Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, the Byzantine emperor, Michael VII Doukas, when Michael was deposed, Robert took this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire in 1081. His army laid siege to Dyrrhachium, but his fleet was defeated by the Venetians, on October 18, the Normans engaged a Byzantine army under Alexios I Komnenos outside Dyrrhachium. The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, Varangian mercenaries joined in the pursuit of the fleeing Normans, but became separated from the main force and were massacred. Norman knights in the centre attacked the Byzantine centre and routed it, after this victory, the Normans took Dyrrhachium in February 1082 and advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. Robert was forced to leave Greece to deal with an attack on his ally, Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece.
Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexios in several battles, but was defeated by Alexios outside Larissa, forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. The Byzantine recovery began the Komnenian restoration, the Normans first arrived in Southern Italy in 1015 from northern France and served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Byzantine Empire. As they were paid with lands, soon they were enough to challenge Papal authority, in 1054, they defeated the Pope at the Battle of Civitate. In 1059, the Pope made Robert Guiscard, of the Hauteville family, Duke of Apulia, however, most of Apulia and Calabria were in Byzantine hands, and Sicily was in Saracen hands. By 1071, together with his brother Roger, had taken over the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, by the next year, they conquered all of Sicily, ending the Islamic Emirate of Sicily. In 1073, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent an envoy to Robert offering the hand of his son Constantine to Roberts daughter Helena, Guiscard accepted the offer and sent his daughter to Constantinople.
However, in 1078, Michael was overthrown by Nicephorus Botaneiates and this gave Robert a motive to invade the empire claiming his daughter had been mistreated, his intervention was delayed by a revolt in Italy. Robert conscripted all men of a fighting age into the army, meanwhile, he sent an ambassador to the Byzantine court with orders to demand proper treatment for Helena and to win over the Domestic of the Schools, Alexios. When the ambassador returned, he urged Robert to make peace, claiming that Alexios wanted nothing, Robert had no intention of peace, he sent his son Bohemond with an advance force towards Greece and Bohemond landed at Aulon, with Robert following shortly after. The Norman fleet of 150 ships including 60 horse transports set off towards the Byzantine Empire at the end of May 1081, the army numbered 30,000 men, backed up by 1,300 Norman knights. The fleet sailed to Avalona in Byzantine territory, they were joined by ships from Ragusa. Robert soon left Avalona and sailed to the island of Corfu, having won a bridgehead and a clear path for reinforcements from Italy, he advanced on the city of Dyrrhachium, the capital and chief port of Illyria
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, a few steps away from the Muristan. The tomb is enclosed by the 18th-century shrine, called the Aedicule, within the church proper are the last four Stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of Jesus Passion. The main denominations sharing property over parts of the church are the Greek Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and to a lesser degree the Egyptian Copts and Ethiopians. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD built a dedicated to the goddess Venus in order to bury the cave in which Jesus had been buried. The first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, ordered in about 325/326 that the temple be replaced by a church, during the building of the Church, Constantines mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered the tomb. Socrates Scholasticus, in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a description of the discovery.
The remains are enveloped by a marble sheath placed some 500 years before to protect the ledge from Ottoman attacks. However, there are several thick window wells extending through the marble sheath and they appear to reveal an underlying limestone rock, which may be part of the original living rock of the tomb. The church was starting in 325/326, and was consecrated on 13 September 335. From pilgrim reports it seems that the housing the tomb of Jesus was freestanding at first. Each year, the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the anniversary of the consecration of the Church of the Resurrection on 13 September and this building was damaged by fire in May of 614 when the Sassanid Empire, under Khosrau II, invaded Jerusalem and captured the True Cross. In 630, the Emperor Heraclius restored it and rebuilt the church after recapturing the city, after Jerusalem came under Arab rule, it remained a Christian church, with the early Muslim rulers protecting the citys Christian sites. A story reports that the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab visited the church and stopped to pray on the balcony and he feared that future generations would misinterpret this gesture, taking it as a pretext to turn the church into a mosque.
Eutychius added that Umar wrote a decree prohibiting Muslims from praying at this location, the building suffered severe damage due to an earthquake in 746. Early in the century, another earthquake damaged the dome of the Anastasis. The damage was repaired in 810 by Patriarch Thomas, in the year 841, the church suffered a fire. In 935, the Orthodox Christians prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent the Church, in 938, a new fire damaged the inside of the basilica and came close to the rotunda. In 966, due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region of Syria, the doors and roof were burnt, and the Patriarch John VII was murdered
Battles of Kawanakajima
The location is in the southern part of the present-day city of Nagano. Five major battles took place there, Fuse in 1553, Saigawa in 1555, Uenohara in 1557, Hachimanbara in 1561, and Shiozaki in 1564. The best known and most severe among them was fought on October 18,1561, the battles were fought after Shingen conquered Shinano, expelling Ogasawara Nagatoki and Murakami Yoshikiyo, who subsequently turned to Kenshin for help. The battles became one of the most cherished tales in Japanese military history, the battles were part of the 16th century Sengoku period, known as the Age of Civil War, and were little different from other conflicts. After the Ōnin War, the system and taxation had increasingly less control outside the province of the capital in Kyoto. Such lords gained power by usurpation, warfare or marriage, any means that would safeguard their position and it was manifested in yamajiro, which overlooked the provinces. In 1541, Shingen began his conquest of Shinano Province, in 1550, Shingen advanced once again into Shinano, and quickly conquered Hayashi Castle and Fukashi Castle.
These had been controlled by Ogasawara Nagatoki, who fled to Murakami Yoshikiyo, in October 1550, Shingen began the Sieges of Toishi Castle, from which position he intended to carry out the final attack on the main Murakami castle of Katsurao. However, in November the siege was abandoned and Shingens army was counterattacked by Murakami, the following year, Murakami was forced to leave the castle, and the successful Siege of Katsurao ensued. In the first battle of Kawanakajima, known as the Battle of Fuse, was fought in 1553, although regarded as the first battle, it is related to the two battles of Hachiman fought in the same year south of the plain. Twelve days after taking Katsurao Castle, Shingen penetrated far into the Kawanakajima plain along the bank of Chikumagawa river. Uesugi Kenshin marched up the bank to support Murakami Yoshikiyo. After Takeda withdrew, Uesugi continued his march and laid siege to Katsura, in September, Takeda returned to crush the remaining Murakami forces around Shioda.
Wada was taken on September 8 and Takashima on the 10th, in both cases, the entire garrison was put to death as a warning to other Murakami hold-outs. Murakami Yoshikiyo retreated from Shioda on 12 September and about 16 of the outposts in Shinano surrendered to Takeda. Shingen pursued Yoshikyo across the Chikumagawa river but was turned back by Kenshins reinforcements at the Battle of Fuse, Kenshin pursued Shingen, winning another battle at Hachiman. The victorious Uesugi forces went on take Arato castle before winter forced both sides to disengage, from August to November 1555, the second battle of Kawanakajima, known as the Battle of Saigawa, began when Takeda Shingen returned to Kawanakajima, advancing up to the Sai River. He made camp on a hill to the south of the river, while Uesugi Kenshin was camped just east of the Zenkō-ji temple, which provided him an excellent view of the plain
Battle of Assandun
The Battle of Assandun was fought between Danish and English armies on 18 October 1016. There is disagreement whether Assandun may be Ashdon near Saffron Walden in north Essex or, as supposed, Ashingdon near Rochford in southeast Essex. It ended in victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, the battle was the conclusion to the Danish reconquest of England. The battle is mentioned briefly in Knýtlinga saga which quotes a verse of poetry by Óttarr svarti. King Knut fought the battle, a major one, against the sons of Æthelred at a place called Ashington. During the course of the battle, Eadnoth the Younger, Bishop of Dorchester, was killed by Cnuts men whilst in the act of saying mass on behalf of Edmund Ironsides men. According to Liber Eliensis, Eadnoths hand was first cut off for a ring, the Ealdorman Ulfcytel Snillingr died in the battle. Following his defeat, Edmund was forced to sign a treaty with Canute. By this treaty, all of England except Wessex would be controlled by Canute and when one of the kings should die the other would take all of England, that kings son being the heir to the throne.
After Edmunds death on 30 November, Canute built a church, a few years in 1020 the completion took place of the memorial church known as Ashingdon Minster, on the hill next to the presumed site of the battle in Ashingdon. The church still stands to this day, Canute attended the dedication of Ashingdon Minster with his bishops and appointed his personal priest, Stigand, to be priest there. There is another location of the battle, Ashdon, in Essex. There have been finds of Roman and Anglo-Saxon coins in the area. Historians have argued inconclusively over the two sites for years, there is some strong evidence, a couple of Anglo-Saxon wills that definitely show Ashdon as the battle site. Unfortunately little remains of the structures, which were largely obliterated by the construction of the current church of All Saints during the late 13th to early 15th centuries
Dagobert I was the king of Austrasia, king of all the Franks, and king of Neustria and Burgundy. He was the last king of the Merovingian dynasty to wield any real royal power, Dagobert was the first of the Frankish kings to be buried in the royal tombs at Saint Denis Basilica. Dagobert was the eldest son of Chlothar II and Haldetrude, Chlothar had reigned alone over all the Franks since 613. In 623, Chlothar was forced to make Dagobert king of Austrasia by the nobility of that region, the rule of a Frank from the Austrasian heartland tied Alsace more closely to the Austrasian court. Dagobert created a new duchy in southwest Austrasia to guard the region from Burgundian or Alemannic encroachments, the duchy comprised the Vosges, the Burgundian Gate, and the Transjura. Dagobert made his courtier Gundoin the first duke of this new polity that was to last until the end of the Merovingian dynasty, upon the death of his father in 629, Dagobert inherited the Neustrian and Burgundian kingdoms. His half-brother Charibert, son of Sichilde, claimed Neustria but Dagobert opposed him, brother of Sichilde, petitioned Dagobert on behalf of his young nephew, but Dagobert assassinated him and gave the Aquitaine to his own younger sibling.
Charibert and his son Chilperic were assassinated in 632, Dagobert had Burgundy and Aquitaine firmly under his rule, becoming the most powerful Merovingian king in many years and the most respected ruler in the West. In 631, Dagobert led three armies against Samo, the ruler of the Slavs, but his Austrasian forces were defeated at Wogastisburg, in 632, the nobles of Austrasia revolted under the mayor of the palace, Pepin of Landen. As king, Dagobert made Paris his capital, during his reign, he built the Altes Schloss in Meersburg, which today is the oldest inhabited castle in that country. Devoutly religious, Dagobert was responsible for the construction of the Saint Denis Basilica and he appointed St. Arbogast bishop of Strasbourg. Dagobert died in the abbey of Saint-Denis and was the first Frankish king to be buried in the Saint Denis Basilica, the author of the Chronicle of Fredegar criticises the king for his loose morals in having three queens almost simultaneously, as well as several concubines.
The chronicle names the queens and the otherwise obscure Wulfegundis and Berchildis, in 625/6 Dagobert married Gormatrude, a sister of his fathers wife Sichilde, but the marriage was childless. After divorcing Gormatrude in 629/30 he made Nanthild, a Saxon servant from his personal entourage and she gave birth to, Clovis II king of Neustria and Burgundy. Shortly after his marriage to Nanthild, he took a girl called Ragnetrude to his bed and it has been speculated that Regintrud, abbess of Nonnberg Abbey, was a child of Dagobert, although this theory does not fit Regintruds supposed date of birth between 660 and 665. She married into the Bavarian Agilolfing family
Edict of Paris
It is the last of the Merovingian capitularia, a series of legal ordinances governing church and realm. The Edict was decreed hard on the heels of the canons promulgated at the Fifth Synod of Paris, to which it should be compared. Chlothar had recently assumed the kingship of the Franks, in 613, when he deposed his cousin Sigebert II, king of Austrasia. The Edict has been seen as a series of concessions to the Austrasian nobility. In Der Staat des hohen Mittelalters, Heinrich Mitteis compared the Edict to the English Magna Carta and it cannot be known how much of the Edicts language and ideas stem from the king and his officers and courtiers and how much from the nobles. Some of its clauses were designed to amend decisions of the prelates at the synod that had just finished sitting, despite the exclusion of Jews from high office, their right to bring legal actions against Christians was preserved. Similarly, the right of a not to be married against her will was affirmed. The Edict of Paris remained in force during the reign of his successor, the Rise of the Carolingians or the Decline of the Merovingians.
Immunity and the Edict of Paris, Speculum,69, 18–39
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr, better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh, was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam. Histories of al-Hakim can prove controversial, as views of his life. Born in 985 CE, Abu Ali Mansur was the first Fatimid ruler to have born in Egypt. Al-Ḥākim had blue eyes flecked with reddish gold, Al-Ḥākim was born on Thursday,3 Rābi‘u l-Awwal in 985. His father, Caliph Abū Mansūr al-‘Azīz bil-Lāh, had two consorts, one was an umm al-walad who is only known by the title as-Sayyidah al-‘Azīziyyah or al-‘Azīzah. She was a Melkite Christian whose two brothers were appointed patriarchs of the Melkite Church by Caliph al-‘Azīz, different sources say either one of her brothers or her father was sent by al-‘Azīz as an ambassador to Sicily. Al-‘Azīzah is considered to be the mother of Sitt al-Mulk, one of the most famous women in Islamic history, such as the Crusader chronicler William of Tyre, claimed that al-‘Azīzah was the mother of Caliph al-Ḥākim, though most historians dismiss this.
The sage wrote the entire Quran in the surface of a bowl. When al-Ḥākim recovered, she demanded the release of the sage in gratitude and her request was granted and the sage and his associates were freed from prison. Druze sources claim that al-Ḥākims mother was the daughter of ‘Abdu l-Lāh, one of al-Mu‘īzz li Dīn al-Lāhs sons, historians such as Delia Cortese are critical of this claim, t is more likely that this woman was in fact a wife of al-Hakim, rather than his mother. In 996, al-Ḥākims father Caliph al-‘Azīz began a trip to visit Syria, the Caliph fell ill at the beginning of the trip at Bilbeis and lay in sickbed for several days. He suffered from stone with pains in the bowels, when he felt that his end was nearing he charged Qadi Muhammad ibn an-Nu‘man and General Abū Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Ammar to take care of al-Ḥākim, who was only eleven. He spoke to his son, Al-Ḥākim recalled the event, I found him with nothing on his body but rags and bandages. I kissed him, and he pressed me to his bosom, How I grieve for thee, beloved of my heart and he said, Go, my master, and play, for I am well. I obeyed and began to amuse myself with such as are usual with boys.
Barjawan hastened to me, and seeing me on the top of a tree, Come down, my boy, may God protect you. When I descended he placed on my head the turban adorned with jewels, kissed the ground before me and he led me out in that attire and showed me to all the people, who kissed the ground before me and saluted me with the title of Khalif. On the following day, he and his new court proceeded from Bilbays to Cairo, behind the camel bearing his fathers body and they arrived shortly before evening prayer and his father was buried the next evening next to the tomb of his predecessor al-Mu‘īzz
Pappus of Alexandria
Pappus of Alexandria was one of the last great Alexandrian mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge or Collection, and for Pappuss hexagon theorem in projective geometry. Nothing is known of his life, other than, that he had a son named Hermodorus, his best-known work, is a compendium of mathematics in eight volumes, the bulk of which survives. It covers a range of topics, including geometry, recreational mathematics, doubling the cube, polygons. Pappus flourished in the 4th century AD, in a period of general stagnation in mathematical studies, he stands out as a remarkable exception. In this respect the fate of Pappus strikingly resembles that of Diophantus, in his surviving writings, Pappus gives no indication of the date of the authors whose works he makes use of, or of the time at which he himself wrote. If no other information were available, all that could be known would be that he was than Ptolemy, whom he quotes, and earlier than Proclus. The Suda states that Pappus was of the age as Theon of Alexandria.
A different date is given by a note to a late 10th-century manuscript, which states, next to an entry on Emperor Diocletian. This works out as October 18,320 AD, and so Pappus must have flourished c.320 AD. The great work of Pappus, in eight books and titled Synagoge or Collection, has not survived in complete form, the first book is lost, and the rest have suffered considerably. The Suda enumerates other works of Pappus, Χωρογραφία οἰκουμενική, commentary on the 4 books of Ptolemys Almagest, Ποταμοὺς τοὺς ἐν Λιβύῃ, Pappus himself mentions another commentary of his own on the Ἀνάλημμα of Diodorus of Alexandria. Pappus wrote commentaries on Euclids Elements, and on Ptolemys Ἁρμονικά and these discoveries form, in fact, a text upon which Pappus enlarges discursively. Heath considered the systematic introductions to the books as valuable, for they set forth clearly an outline of the contents. From these introductions one can judge of the style of Pappuss writing, heath found his characteristic exactness made his Collection a most admirable substitute for the texts of the many valuable treatises of earlier mathematicians of which time has deprived us.
The portions of Collection which has survived can be summarized as follows and we can only conjecture that the lost Book I, like Book II, was concerned with arithmetic, Book III being clearly introduced as beginning a new subject. The whole of Book II discusses a method of multiplication from a book by Apollonius of Perga. The final propositions deal with multiplying together the values of Greek letters in two lines of poetry, producing two very large numbers approximately equal to 2*1054 and 2*1038. Book III contains geometrical problems and solid, on the arithmetic and harmonic means between two straight lines, and the problem of representing all three in one and the same geometrical figure