Siege of Kazan
The Siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of Russo-Kazan Wars. It led to the fall of Khanate of Kazan, however, it was not the last battle on the khanates territory. After the fall of Kazan, rebel governments formed in Çalım and Mişätamaq, and this continuation guerrilla war was ended only in 1556. The Russian forces included streltsy as well as Moscow and Qasim irregular feudal cavalry, at first they faced the Tatar garrison of Kazan,10,000 Nogay horsemen led by the khan of Kazan, Yadegar Mokhammad, who originated from the Nogai Horde. Cheremiss units and Kazan irregular feudal cavalry had bases in forests north and their base was the stronghold of Archa. Before the battle Russians had a fortress on the Volga, known as Sviyazhsk, the Russian military engineer Ivan Vyrodkov had built this wooden fortress in 1551, when after the conclusion of peace, the right bank of the Khanate had passed to Russia. It would serve as a point for the capture of Kazan by the Muscovite army. The 150,000 Muscovite army under Ivan IV came under Kazans walls, Russian cannons shelled the walls from 29 August.
Soon they smothered the fire of large-calibre Tatar cannons, during the period from 30 August to 6 September Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky defeated the inner cavalry under Yapancha and the Ar units and burned Archa. Sappers blew up the way to Kazans underground drinking-water source. Ivan Vyrodkov built out of wood on site a 12-metre high siege tower for mounting siege cannon, on 2 October sappers blew up the wall near the Nogay and Atalıq Gates. The civil population as well as Kazans army opposed them, after desperate slashing some survivors were blockaded in the citadel. Then, after the capture of khan Yadegar Moxammad and of Nogai leader Zaynash, the defenders of the tried to escape to the northern forests. Mikhail Kheraskov recounted the capture of Kazan in his epic poem, the Rossiada
Battle of Rancagua
When Spain heard about the Patriot revolt in Chile, they sent an army of Spanish soldiers and royalists to defeat the rebellion. When OHiggins heard about the army in Rancagua, he went with his army of 1,000 patriots. Outnumbered and with enough supplies, OHiggins did not retreat. The battle began on the morning of 1 October, when the Spanish attacked, the Spanish surrounded the town, trapping the entire Chilean army. The fighting was fierce, with the patriots driving back the Talavera regiment three times, fighting continued on until the evening, when Osorio pulled back his army, suffering heavy casualties. OHiggins knew the battle was lost, with his army being low on ammunition and he was promised reinforcements from Santiago, but they never came. Fighting continued on the day, until OHiggins ordered his men to fight their way out as best as they could and disperse in the countryside. OHiggins managed to make his way past the troops and retreat to the capital. This led to the harsh rule of Chile.
After Rancagua fell, the Spanish quickly captured Santiago a few days defeating the rebellion
United States Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the oftentimes bitter 1787–88 battle over ratification of the U. S, on June 8,1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments to the constitution in the House of Representatives. Among his recommendations Madison proposed opening up the Constitution and inserting specific rights limiting the power of Congress in Article One, Seven of these limitations would become part of the ten ratified Bill of Rights amendments. Contrary to Madisons original proposal that the articles be incorporated into the body of the Constitution. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15,1791, Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5,1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is technically still pending before the states, the door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state, the process is known as incorporation. There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence, One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. However, the government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states. The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded, the convention took place from May 14 to September 17,1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, and George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention, the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution are among the men known as the Founding Fathers of the new nation.
Thomas Jefferson, who was Minister to France during the convention, Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the convention. However, the motion was defeated by a vote of the state delegations after only a brief discussion. Madison, an opponent of a Bill of Rights, explained the vote by calling the bills of rights parchment barriers that offered only an illusion of protection against tyranny. The quick rejection of this motion, endangered the entire ratification process, thirty-nine delegates signed the finalized Constitution. Thirteen delegates left before it was completed, and three who remained at the convention until the end refused to sign it, Gerry, elbridge Gerry wrote the most popular Anti-Federalist tract, Hon. Mr. Gerrys Objections, which went through 46 printings, the essay particularly focused on the lack of a bill of rights in the proposed constitution, many were concerned that a strong national government was a threat to individual rights and that the president would become a king.
Jefferson wrote to Madison advocating a Bill of Rights, Half a loaf is better than no bread, if we cannot secure all our rights, let us secure what we can
Battle of Largs
The Battle of Largs was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland. Since the beginning of the 12th century this region had lain within the Norwegian realm, however, in the mid-13th century, two Scottish kings, Alexander II and his son Alexander III, attempted to incorporate the region into their own realm. Following failed attempts to purchase the islands from the Norwegian king, Haakon responded to the Scottish aggression by leading a massive fleet from Norway, which reached the Hebrides in the summer of 1263. By the end of September, Haakons fleet occupied the Firth of Clyde, on the night of 30 September, during a bout of particularly stormy weather, several Norwegian vessels were driven aground on the Ayrshire coast, near the present-day town of Largs. On 2 October, while the Norwegians were salvaging their vessels, composed of infantry and cavalry, the Scottish force was commanded by Alexander of Dundonald, Steward of Scotland.
The Norwegians were gathered in two groups, the main force on the beach and a small contingent atop a nearby mound. The advance of the Scots threatened to divide the Norwegian forces, seeing them running from the mound, the Norwegians on the beach believed they were retreating, and fled back towards the ships. Fierce fighting took place on the beach, and the Scots took up a position on the mound formerly held by the Norwegians, late in the day, after several hours of skirmishing, the Norwegians were able to recapture the mound. The Scots withdrew from the scene and the Norwegians were able to reboard their ships and they returned the next morning to collect their dead. The weather was deteriorating, and Haakons demoralised forces turned for home, Haakons campaign had failed to maintain Norwegian overlordship of the seaboard, and his native magnates, left to fend for themselves, were soon forced to submit to the Scots. Although the Battle of Largs was apparently not considered a significant event by contemporaries, most scholars no longer subscribe to such a view, and instead accord it just an important place in the failed Norwegian campaign.
The battle is commemorated in Largs by an early 20th-century monument, the main source for the battle is Hakonar saga Hakonarsonar, a contemporary account of the life of Hakon Haakonarson, King of Norway, composed by the Icelandic historian Sturla Thordarson. A contemporary Scottish perspective of the events is preserved in an entry within the Chronicle of Melrose. First penned at Melrose Abbey in the last quarter of the 12th century and it is an important historical source for the mediaeval Scottish realm. Viking depredations have been recorded in the British Isles since the late 8th century, claims to this region by Norwegian kings date to the turn of the 12th century, when Magnus Olafsson, King of Norway established himself in the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. Direct Norwegian control ended with Magnus death, after which the Hebrides and Mann, known to the Norwegians as the Southern Isles, were controlled by local dynasties for over a century and a half. As part of the far-flung, early 13th century Norwegian realm, the first half of the 13th century was a period of consolidation for both Scottish and Norwegian kings.
The Scots, under Alexander II, King of Scots, extended royal authority into the northern Highlands, the king had wanted to incorporate the western seaboard into the Scottish realm
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was born in 1491 in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-west coast of Brittany, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness, the king had previously invited the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524. Le Veneur cited voyages to Newfoundland and Brazil as proof of Cartiers ability to lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World. On April 20,1534, Cartier set sail under a commission from the king, hoping to discover a western passage to the markets of Asia. In the words of the commission, he was to certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold. It took him twenty days to sail across the ocean, starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, areas that now comprise the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St.
Lawrence. During one stop at Îles aux Oiseaux, his crew slaughtered around 1000 birds, Cartiers first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Bay, most likely the Mikmaq, were brief, some trading occurred. His third encounter took place on the shores of Gaspé Bay with a party of St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the 10-meter cross bearing the words Long Live the King of France took possession of the territory in the name of the king. The change in mood was an indication that the Iroquoians understood Cartiers actions. Here he kidnapped the two sons of their captain, Cartier wrote that they told him this region where they were captured was called by them Honguedo. The natives captain at last agreed that they could be taken, Cartier returned to France in September 1534, sure that he had reached an Asian land. Jacques Cartier set sail for a voyage on May 19 of the following year with three ships,110 men, and his two Iroquoian captives. Reaching the St. Lawrence, he sailed up-river for the first time, and reached the Iroquoian capital of Stadacona, Cartier left his main ships in a harbour close to Stadacona, and used his smallest ship to continue on to Hochelaga, arriving on October 2,1535.
Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, the site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault – where the bridge named after him now stands. The expedition could proceed no further, as the river was blocked by rapids, after spending two days among the people of Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11. It is not known exactly when he decided to spend the winter of 1535–1536 in Stadacona and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, and salting down game and fish. From mid-November 1535 to mid-April 1536, the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St. Charles River, under the Rock of Quebec, ice was over a fathom thick on the river, with snow four feet deep ashore
Edward IV of England
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England, before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood and he bore the title Earl of March before his fathers death and his accession to the throne. Edwards father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henrys son Edward in 1453, Richard carried on a factional struggle with the kings Beaufort relatives. He established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, Henrys Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years.
The Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge, the Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury and Salisburys brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army and this left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimers Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461 and he united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margarets army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edwards father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henrys heir, and he advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461, Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation.
King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England, Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was finally extinguished by Warwicks brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464. Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, Queen Margaret fled abroad with the young Prince Edward and many of their leading supporters. Even at the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen and he had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English, most of Englands leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage. Warwick, acting on Edwards behalf, made arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy.
He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, Edwards marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynasty
Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
The Siege of Jerusalem was a siege on the city of Jerusalem that lasted from September 20 to October 2,1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin. Citizens wishing to leave paid a ransom, the defeat of Jerusalem signalled the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Europe responded in 1189 by launching the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, weakened by internal disputes, was defeated at the Battle of Hattin on 4 July 1187. Most of the nobility were taken prisoner, including King Guy, thousands of Muslim slaves were freed. By mid-September, Saladin had taken Acre, Jaffa, Sidon, the survivors of the battle and other refugees fled to Tyre, the only city able to hold out against Saladin, due to the fortuitous arrival of Conrad of Montferrat. In Tyre, Balian of Ibelin had asked Saladin for safe passage to Jerusalem in order to retrieve his wife Maria Comnena, Queen consort of Jerusalem and their family. Heraclius, who argued that he must stay for the sake of Christianity, offered to him of the oath.
As the highest ranking lord remaining in Jerusalem, according to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Balian found the situation in Jerusalem dire. The city was filled with refugees fleeing Saladins conquests, with more arriving daily, there were fewer than fourteen knights in the whole city, so he created sixty new knights from the ranks of the squires and burgesses. He prepared for the siege by storing food and money. The armies of Syria and Egypt assembled under Saladin, and after a brief and unsuccessful siege of Tyre, negotiations were carried out between Saladin and Balian, through the mediation of Yusuf Batit, one of the Eastern Orthodox clergy. Saladins army was facing the Tower of David and the Damascus Gate and his archers continually pelted the ramparts with arrows. Siege towers/belfries were rolled up to the walls, but were pushed back each time, for six days, skirmishes were fought with little result. Saladins forces suffered casualties after each assault, while the Crusaders lost only a few men.
On September 26, Saladin moved his camp to a different part of the city, the walls were constantly pounded by the siege engines, mangonels, Greek fire and arrows. A portion of the wall was mined, and it collapsed on September 29, the crusaders were unable to push Saladins troops back from the breach, but at the same time the Muslims could not gain entrance to the city. Soon there were only a few dozen knights and a handful of remaining men-at-arms capable of bearing arms and defending the wall, the civilians were in great despair. At Mount Calvary, women cropped their childrens hair, after immersing them chin-deep in basins of cold water and these penances were aimed at turning away Gods wrath from the city, but …Our Lord did not deign to hear the prayers or noise that was made in the city
Theophilos was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. He was the emperor of the Amorian dynasty and the last emperor to support iconoclasm. Theophilos personally led the armies in his war against the Arabs. Theophilos was the son of the Byzantine Emperor Michael II and his wife Thekla, Michael II crowned Theophilos co-emperor in 822, shortly after his own accession. Unlike his father, Theophilos received an education from John Hylilas, the grammarian. On 2 October 829, Theophilos succeeded his father as sole emperor, Theophilos continued in his predecessors iconoclasm, though without his fathers more conciliatory tone, issuing an edict in 832 forbidding the veneration of icons. He saw himself as the champion of justice, which he served most ostentatiously by executing his fathers co-conspirators against Leo V immediately after his accession. His reputation as a judge endured, and in the literary composition Timarion Theophilos is featured as one of the judges in the Netherworld, at the time of his accession, Theophilos was obliged to wage wars against the Arabs on two fronts.
Sicily was once invaded by the Arabs, who took Palermo after a year-long siege in 831, established the Emirate of Sicily. The invasion of Anatolia by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mamun in 830 was led by the Emperor himself, in 831 Theophilos retaliated by leading a large army into Cilicia and capturing Tarsus. The Emperor returned to Constantinople in triumph, but in the autumn he was defeated in Cappadocia, another defeat in the same province in 833 forced Theophilos to sue for peace, which he obtained the next year, after the death of Al-Mamun. During the respite from the war against the Abbasids, Theophilos arranged for the abduction of the Byzantine captives settled north of the Danube by Krum of Bulgaria, the rescue operation was carried out with success in c. 836, and the peace between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire was quickly restored, however, it proved impossible to maintain peace in the East. Theophilos had given asylum to a number of refugees from the east in 834, including Nasr and he baptized Theophobos, who married the Emperors aunt Irene and became one of his generals.
As relations with the Abbasids deteriorated, Theophilos prepared for a new war, in 837 Theophilos led a vast army of 70,000 men towards Mesopotamia and captured Melitene and Arsamosata. The Emperor took and destroyed Zapetra, which some sources claim as the birthplace of Caliph al-Mutasim, Theophilos returned to Constantinople in triumph. Eager for revenge, Al-Mutasim assembled a vast army and launched an invasion of Anatolia in 838. Theophilos decided to strike one division of the army before they could combine