Scilly naval disaster of 1707
The Scilly naval disaster of 1707 was the loss of four warships of a Royal Navy fleet off the Isles of Scilly in severe weather on 22 October 1707. 1550 sailors aboard the vessels lost their lives, making the incident one of the worst maritime disasters in the history of the British Isles. The main cause of the disaster was the inability to accurately calculate their positions. During this campaign, which was fought from 29 July to 21 August, the overall campaign was nevertheless unsuccessful and the alliance was ultimately defeated by Franco-Spanish units. The British fleet was ordered to home, and set sail from Gibraltar to Portsmouth in late September. The force under Shovells command comprised fifteen ships of the line as well as four fireships, the sloop Weazel, the passage was marked by extremely bad weather and constant squalls and gales. As the fleet sailed out on the Atlantic, passing the Bay of Biscay on their way to England, the weather worsened and storms gradually pushed the ships off their planned course.
Finally, on the night of 22 October 1707 Old Style, the fleet was thought to be sailing safely west of Ushant, an island outpost off the coast of Brittany. Following behind the Association was St George, whose crew saw the flagship go down in three or four minutes. St George struck rocks and suffered damage but eventually managed to get off, HMS Eagle, a 70-gun third-rate ship of the line commanded by Captain Robert Hancock, hit the Crim Rocks and was lost with all hands on Tearing Ledge amongst the Western Rocks. It is estimated that the HMS Eagle had at least as many crew as the HMS Association, sinking a few hundred metres away from Bishop Rock, her wreck lies in a depth of 130 feet. HMS Romney, a 50-gun fourth-rate ship of the commanded by Captain William Coney, hit Bishop Rock. The sole survivor from the three largest ships was George Lawrence, who had worked as a butcher before joining the crew of Romney as quartermaster. HMS Firebrand, a fireship commanded by Captain Francis Percy, struck the Outer Gilstone Rock like Association, the exact number of officers and marines who were killed in the sinking of the four ships is unknown.
Statements vary between 1,400 and over 2,000, making it one of the greatest maritime disasters in British history, for days afterwards, bodies continued to wash onto the shores of the isles along with the wreckage of the warships and personal effects. Many dead sailors from the wrecks were buried on the island of St Agnes, a small memorial was erected at this site. The circumstances under which the remains were found gave rise to stories. Shovell was temporarily buried on the beach on St Marys, by order of Queen Anne his body was exhumed and taken to London where he was interred in Westminster Abbey
October 22 (film)
October 22 is a 1998 American drama film directed by Richard Schenkman and written by Fred Golan. It premiered at the Ft. Lauderdale Film Festival, a group of disparate patrons in a Los Angeles diner are having breakfast when a psychopath enters with a gun, holds them hostage and has a standoff with the SWAT Team. The film cuts to earlier that day, showing how each character came to be in the diner. The narrative progresses non-sequentially, but working towards the moment when the gunman opens fire, each character is shown going about their daily lives, individually revealing themes of romance and desperation. The film climaxes back in the diner, and features a surprise twist ending, videoHounds DVD Guide compared it to Pulp Fiction and The Life Before This. October 22 at the Internet Movie Database October 22 at AllMovie
Battle of Liaoluo Bay
The Battle of Liaoluo Bay took place in 1633 off the coast of Fujian, China. It involved the Dutch East India Company and the Chinese Ming dynastys navies, the battle was fought at the crescent-shaped Liaoluo Bay that forms the southern coast of the island of Kinmen. This was the largest naval encounter between Chinese and European forces before the Opium Wars two hundred years later, the Ming dynasty of the 17th century had relaxed its age old practice of banning maritime trade, allowing the Chinese coast to bustle with commercial activity. The Ming navy, had been maintained and ineffectual. The pirate leader Zheng Zhilong in particular dominated the Fujian coast, his ships decked with European cannons, the Ming court, in its decline, recruited Zheng Zhilong in 1628 rather than to try and destroy him. Although the more elements of his fleet deserted him after he surrendered to the Ming. He was aided in this campaign by the Dutch under the governor of Formosa. The Dutch had been trying to gain permission to trade freely in China, unbeknownst to Putmans, Zheng Zhilong had not been able to fulfill his promise because he served a new Governor of Fujian, Zou Weilian, who was hostile to the Dutch.
As Zheng Zhilong was preparing to attack the pirates Liu Xiang and Li Guozhu, Putmans attacked Zhengs base in Amoy by surprise on July 7,1633. Putmans would write about these ships in admiration, Never before in this land so far as anyone can remember, has seen a fleet like this, with such beautiful, huge. The Dutch fired at the Chinese fleet without warning, the ships, which had not been crewed yet, was filled with workers, who jumped ship. As soon as it was apparent that the Chinese would offer no retaliation, three large junks escaped being burned or hacked to pieces and the Dutch suffered only one casualty — a sailor who had died setting a fire. Following the destruction of Zheng Zhilongs fleet, the Dutch roamed the seas with impunity, pillaging villages, planning a counterattack, Zheng rebuilt his fleet as Zou gathered commanders from all over the Fujian coast. Zheng recruited locals willing to join by rewarding each volunteer with two pieces of silver, if the battle lasted longer than expected, the reward would be increased to five.
Zheng put the locals on 100 small fire boats, manned by 16 people each, if a boat set fire to one Dutch ship, they would be rewarded with 200 pieces of silver. If they presented a Dutch head, they would be rewarded with 50, in this way he learned of the Dutch plans from their replies. His stalling bore fruit, as the season brought gales that hit the Dutch fleet. In October 1633, now ready to strike, Zheng Zhilong sent a message to Putmans
Ferdinand I of Portugal
Dom Ferdinand I, sometimes called the Handsome or occasionally the Inconstant, was the King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1367 until his death in 1383. His death led to the 1383–85 crisis, known as the Portuguese interregnum, Ferdinand was born in Coimbra, the second but eldest surviving son of Peter I and his wife, Constanza Manuel. On the death of Peter of Castile in 1369, Ferdinand, as great-grandson of Sancho IV by the female line, laid claim to the vacant Castilian throne. The kings of Aragon and Navarre, and John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the throne was held by Henry of Trastámara, Peter of Castiles illegitimate brother, who had defeated him in the Castilian Civil War in 1366 and assumed the crown. After one or two campaigns, all parties were ready to accept the mediation of Pope Gregory XI. The conditions of the treaty, ratified in 1371, included a marriage between Ferdinand and Leonora of Castile, but before the union could take place Ferdinand had become passionately attached to Leonor Telles de Meneses, the wife of one of his own courtiers.
Having procured a dissolution of her previous marriage, he lost no time in making Leonor his queen and this conduct, although it raised a serious insurrection in Portugal, did not at once result in a war with Henry. However, the outward concord was soon disturbed by intrigues with the Duke of Lancaster, the war which followed was unsuccessful, and peace was again made in 1373. On the death of Henry in 1379, the Duke of Lancaster once more put forward his claims, according to the Continental annalists, the English proved as offensive to their allies as to their enemies in the field. So Ferdinand made a peace for himself at Badajoz in 1382 and it stipulated that Beatrice, Ferdinands daughter and heiress, would marry King John I of Castile, and thus secure the ultimate union of the two crowns. Ferdinand left no heir when he died at Lisbon on 22 October 1383, and the direct Burgundian line. The stipulations of the treaty of Badajoz were set aside, and John, Grand Master of the order of Aviz, Ferdinands illegitimate brother and this led to a period of war and political indefinition known as the 1383-1385 Crisis.
John became the first king of the House of Aviz in 1385, fernando married Leonor Teles de Meneses, formerly the wife of the nobleman João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro, and daughter of Martim Afonso Telo de Meneses. García Oro, José, Galicia en los siglos XIV y XV, fundación Pedro Barrie de la Maza, Conde de Fenosa, A Coruña
Aguascalientes is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes and is its most populous city, with a metropolitan population of 1,000,000. It is located in North-Central Mexico and it is part of the macroregion of Bajío, which is among the safest and most prosperous regions in Mexico. Aguascalientes has repeatedly recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life in Latin America. Nowadays, Aguascalientes is a vigorous service city that is experiencing a social, economic. It stands on the banks of the Aguascalientes river,1880 meters above sea level and it is the municipal seat for the Aguascalientes Municipality. The Aguascalientes metropolitan area includes the municipality of Jesus María and San Francisco de los Romo and it was a Chichimeca Indian territory. It blossomed as a link between Mexico City and the mines of Zacatecas, while prosperous agriculture and ranching helped feed Spain’s emerging New World cities. OECD has recognized Aguascalientes as having the best business climate standards in the world and it is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region.
Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure have made it a regional hub and its first-class services and hotel industry turn it into one of the most important centers in Mexico with numerous options of entertainment, leisure activities and recreation. When the state separated from Zacatecas, Aguascalientes raced ahead in its development, the historical center of Aguascalientes was born out of four distinct neighborhoods. The oldest of these is the Barrio del Encino, which is older than Aguascalientes proper. Founded in 1565 by the Andalusian Hernán González Berrocal, the neighborhood was originally named Triana after the neighborhood in Seville, the Barrio del Encino is home to the baroque-style Templo del Señor del Encino, a Catholic temple built between 1773 and 1796. The Cristo Negro del Encino, is a venerated religious icon symbolic of this neighborhood. The colonial square and the José Guadalupe Posada Museum, adjacent to the temple, are one of the attractions in the city. The second neighborhood is the Barrio de San Marcos, which has its roots in the early 17th century as a settlement on the outskirts of the then-village of Aguascalientes.
Between 1628 and 1688, some land was allocated to the community. Meanwhile, they organized the construction of a hospital and a chapel. The neighborhoods iconic Templo de Guadalupe was built between 1767 and 1789, its recognized for its Spanish Baroque façade and its dome lined with Talavera tiles, gravediggers established homes near the cemetery, and others took advantage of the open land to establish orchards
The Ladoga Canal was one of the first major canals constructed in Russia. It was one of the projects of Peter the Great, who ordered its construction in 1718, rapid economic development in Russia required a significant expansion of routes, especially waterways. One part of the Vyshny Volochek waterway linking the Volga river to the Baltic Sea, the Ladoga section of the route was one of the most difficult and dangerous because the lake is prone to winds and storms which destroyed hundreds of cargo ships. Peter the Great decided to avoid the navigation in the huge, prince Menshikov put his friend General Skornyakov-Pisarev in charge of the project, but he eventually had to step down amid charges of incompetence and procrastination. The task of completing the canal was taken from private hands, a 29-kilometre long section between the Volkhov River and the village of Chornoe was completed and opened to traffic in 1726. This greatly accelerated work, as the section was used to deliver supplies to the construction site.
The locks were constructed at Shlisselburg and Novaya Ladoga to maintain the depth needed for navigation, construction of the canal was completed on October 22,1730, and in spring 1731 the first boats were able to sail along the canal between the Volkhov River and the Neva River. It turned out that the canal had a depth of less than one metre and this was a major disappointment to the government. Although the canal was one of the largest hydroengineering facilities in 18th-century Europe, catherine the Great decided to expand the canal by building another section between the Volkhov and Syas Rivers. This project was implemented between 1765 and 1802, the third part of the Ladoga Canal, connecting the Syas and the Svir, was built over the years 1802 to 1810. The New Ladoga Canal was built closer to Lake Ladoga between 1866 and 1883, the Old Ladoga Canal was overgrown with grass and had become disused by 1940. The New Ladoga Canal is still used by small boats, history of Ladoga and Shlisselburg Волхов и южный берег Ладоги. Староладожский и Новоладожский каналы ПЕРВЫЕ ИСКУССТВЕННЫЕ ВОДНЫЕ ПУТИ, ВЫШНЕВОЛОЦКАЯ СИСТЕМА город ШЛИССЕЛЬБУРГ3 map on www. clubneva. ru Маршрут №17, Река Свирь и Староладожские каналы от города Лодейное Поле до города Новая Ладога // Плечко Л. А
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, to the current site nine years later, Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. The university has graduated many notable alumni, two U. S. Presidents,12 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princetons alumni body. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in order to train ministers, the college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governors interest, gov. Jonathan Belcher replied, What a name that would be.
In 1756, the moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England, following the untimely deaths of Princetons first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college, in 1812, the eighth president the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey. Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include such as cross-registration. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the sole building.
The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17,1754, during the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the countrys capital for four months. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, Nassau Halls bell rang after the halls construction, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855, James McCosh took office as the colleges president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. McCosh Hall is named in his honor, in 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides
The Longitude Act was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in July 1714 at the end of the reign of Queen Anne. It established the Board of Longitude and offered rewards for anyone who could find a simple. The Act of 1714 was followed by a series of other Longitude Acts that revised or replaced the original, as transoceanic travel grew in significance, so did the importance of accurate and reliable navigation at sea. Scientists and navigators had been working on the problem of measuring longitude for a long time, while determining latitude was relatively easy, early ocean navigators had to rely on dead reckoning to find longitude. This brought the problem of measuring longitude at sea into sharp focus once more, following the Merchants and Seamen Petition, which called for finding an adequate solution and was presented to Westminster Palace in May 1714, the Longitude Act was passed in July 1714. For details on many of the efforts towards determining the longitude, the Longitude Act offered a series of rewards, rather than a single prize.
The rewards increased with the accuracy achieved, £10,000 for anyone who could find a way of determining longitude at sea to an accuracy of not greater than one degree of longitude. The reward was to be increased to £15,000 if the accuracy was not greater than 40 minutes, many rewards were paid out over the 114 years of the Board of Longitudes existence. John Harrison received more money than any individual, with several rewards from the 1730s-1750s. Subsequent Longitude Acts offered different rewards, in 1820 £5,000 was paid to the officers and crews of HMS Hecla and HMS Griper under this Act. Alexi Baker, Longitude Acts, Board of Longitude project, University of Cambridge Digital Library
Emperor Kanmu was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kanmu reigned from 781 to 806 and he was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe, and was born prior to Shirakabes ascension to the throne. According to the Shoku Nihongi, Yamabes mother, Yamato no Niigasa, was a 10th generation descendant of Muryeong of Baekje, after his father became emperor, Kanmus half-brother, Prince Osabe was appointed to the rank of crown prince. His mother was Princess Inoe, a daughter of Emperor Shōmu, after Inoe and Prince Osabe were confined and died in 775, Osabes sister – Kanmus half-sister Princess Sakahito – became Kanmus wife. Later, when he ascended to the throne in 781, Kanmu appointed his brother, Prince Sawara, whose mother was Takano no Niigasa. In 785 Sawara was expelled and died in exile, Kanmu had 16 empresses and consorts, and 32 imperial sons and daughters. Among them, three sons would eventually ascend to the throne, Emperor Heizei, Emperor Saga and Emperor Junna.
Some of his descendants took the Taira hereditary clan title, examples include Taira no Masakado, Taira no Kiyomori, and the Hōjō clan. The waka poet Ariwara no Narihira was one of his grandsons, Kanmu is traditionally venerated at his tomb, the Imperial Household Agency designates Kashiwabara no Misasagi, in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, as the location of Kanmus mausoleum. Kanmu was an emperor who attempted to consolidate government hierarchies. Kanmu appointed Sakanoue no Tamuramaro to lead an expedition against the Emishi. 773, Received the title of crown prince, april 30,781, In the 11th year of Kōnins reign, he abdicated, and the succession was received by his son Kanmu. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kanmu is said to have ascended to the throne, during his reign, the capital of Japan was moved from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō in 784. Shortly thereafter, the capital would be moved again in 794, july 28,782, The sadaijin Fujiwara no Uona was involved in an incident that resulted in his removal from office and exile to Kyushi.
Claiming illness, Uona was permitted to return to the capital where he died, posthumously, in the same general time frame, Fujiwara no Tamaro was named Udaijin. During these days in which the offices of sadaijin and udaijin were vacant, the major counselors,783, The udaijin Tamaro died at the age of 62 years. 783, Fujiwara no Korekimi became the new udaijin to replace the late Fujiwara no Tamaro,793, Under the leadership of Dengyō, construction began on the Enryaku Temple. 794, The capital was relocated again, this time to Heian-kyō, november 17,794, The emperor traveled by carriage from Nara to the new capital of Heian-kyō in a grand procession