Malet coup of 1812
The Malet coup of 1812 was an attempted coup détat in Paris, aimed at removing Napoleon I, campaigning in Russia, from power. The coup was engineered by Republican general Claude François de Malet, the coup failed, and the leading conspirators were executed. Malet, by 1804 a brigadier general, resigned his commission after Napoleon was crowned Emperor of the French, after his resignation, Malet was made governor of Pavia, of Rome, both of which were under French control. After Napoleons stepson, Viceroy of Italy Eugène de Beauharnais, accused Malet of conspiring against Napoleon, in 1812, Malet was allowed to retire to a sanitarium, upon the request of his wife. While at the sanitarium, Malet met with agents of the House of Bourbon. Despite these connections, Malet appears to have had strong republican, rather than royalist, at the sanitarium he began to plan a coup which would topple the emperor. Napoleon was absent from France in 1812, commanding his troops in the invasion of Russia, with several others, he crafted detailed plans for a seizure of power, which was scheduled for late October.
Malet and his co-conspirators even planned a government, to be installed after the coup. Lazare Carnot was to be part of government, serving as interim president. At 4,00 in the morning on October 23,1812, Malet escaped from his captivity and he approached Colonel Gabriel Soulier, who commanded the 10th Cohort of the French National Guard, informing the colonel that Napoleon had died while in Russia. At La Force, Malet ordered the release of two imprisoned generals, Victor Lahorie and Maximilian-Joseph Guidal, the guards obeyed him, and the generals, republicans like Malet, were convinced to join the coup. Guidal, an enemy of Rovigo, insisted that he be allowed to accompany Lahorie, the two generals awoke Rovigo and placed him in La Force, neglecting to arrest the other two officials. Other senior officials, such as the Paris prefect of police, were arrested, as this occurred, Malet confronted General Pierre-Augustin Hulin, the commander of the Paris garrison, in the latters home. The general listened to the conspirator, who informed him that he had relieved of his garrison command and that he was to turn over the seal of the 1st Division.
Hulin demanded to see the papers that would authorize such actions. Malet proceeded to the military headquarters opposite Hulins home, there, he met with the senior officer on duty there, Colonel Jean Doucet. Doucet was suspicious, because the letters presented to him that referenced Napoleons death stated that the Emperor had died on October 7, Doucet had knowledge of letters written by Napoleon that had been sent after that date. The colonel recognized Malet as an inmate, once he was alone in his office with the general
Battle of Philippi
The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred in the first week of October, Brutus faced Octavian, at first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions camp. But to the south, Cassius was defeated by Antony, Brutus rallied Cassius remaining troops and both sides ordered their army to retreat to their camps with their spoils, and the battle was essentially a draw, but for Cassius suicide. A second encounter, on 23 October, finished off Brutuss forces, after the murder of Caesar and Cassius had left Italy and taken control of all Eastern provinces and of the allied Eastern kingdoms. In Rome the three main Caesarian leaders, who controlled almost all the Roman army in the west, had crushed the opposition of the senate and established the second triumvirate. One of their first tasks was to destroy the Liberators’ forces, not only to get control of the Roman world. The triumvirs decided that Lepidus would remain in Italy, while the two partners of the triumvirate moved to Northern Greece with their best troops.
They were able to ferry their army across the Adriatic and sent out a force of eight legions along the via Egnatia. Norbanus and Saxa passed the town of Philippi in eastern Macedonia, Antony was following, while Octavian was delayed at Dyrrachium because of his ill-health. They had spent the previous months plundering Greek cities to swell their war-chest and had gathered in Thrace with the Roman legions from the Eastern provinces and levies from allies. With their superior forces they were able to outflank Norbanus and Saxa, thus and Cassius could position holding the high ground along both sides of the via Egnatia, about 3.5 km west of the city of Philippi. The south position was anchored to a supposedly impassable marsh, while on the north to impervious hills and they had plenty of time to fortify their position with a rampart and a ditch. Brutus put his camp on the north while Cassius on the south of the via Egnatia, Antony arrived shortly and positioned his army on the south of the via Egnatia, while Octavian put his legions north of the road.
The Triumvirs army included nineteen legions, appian reports that the triumvirs’ legions were almost at full complement. Furthermore, they had a large allied cavalry force, the Liberators army had seventeen legions. Only two of the legions were at full strength, but the army was reinforced by levies from the Eastern allied kingdoms, appian reports that the army mustered a total of about 80,000 foot-soldiers. Allied cavalry included a total of 17,000 horsemen, including 5,000 bowmen mounted in the Eastern fashion and this army included the old Caesarean legions present in the East, thus most of these legionaries were former Caesarean veterans. However, at least the XXXVI legion consisted of old Pompeian veterans, the loyalty of the soldiers who were supposed to fight against Caesar’s heir was a delicate issue for the Liberators
War of Jenkins' Ear
The War of Jenkins Ear was a conflict between Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742. Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, despite stories to that effect, there is no evidence that the severed ear was exhibited before the British Parliament. The seeds of conflict began with the separation of an ear from Jenkins following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards in 1731, the war resulted in heavy British casualties in North America. After 1742, the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession, peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. This provided British traders and smugglers potential inroads into the closed markets in Spanish America. But Britain and Spain were often at war during this period, fighting one another in the War of the Quadruple Alliance, the Blockade of Porto Bello and the Anglo-Spanish War. In the Treaty of Seville, following the Anglo-Spanish War, Britain had accorded Spanish warships the right to stop British traders, over time, the Spanish became suspicious that British traders were abusing the contract and began to board ships and confiscate their cargoes.
After very strained relations between 1727 and 1732, the situation improved between 1732 and 1737, when Sir Robert Walpole supported Spain during the War of the Polish Succession. But the causes of the problems remained and, when the opposition against Walpole grew, Walpole gave in to the pressure and approved the sending of troops to the West Indies and a squadron to Gibraltar under Admiral Nicholas Haddock, provoking an immediate Spanish reaction. In response, King Philip V of Spain annulled the right and had all British ships in Spanish harbours confiscated. The Convention of Pardo, an attempt to mediate the dispute, on 14 August, Britain recalled its ambassador to Spain and officially declared war on 23 October 1739. Despite the Pacte de Famille, France remained neutral, Walpole was deeply reluctant to declare war and reportedly remarked of the jubilation in Britain they are ringing their bells, soon they will be wringing their hands. After boarding, Fandiño cut off the ear of the Rebeccas captain, Robert Jenkins.
Fandiño told Jenkins, Go, and tell your King that I will do the same, in March 1738, Jenkins was ordered to testify before Parliament, presumably to repeat his story before a committee of the House of Commons. According to some accounts, he produced the severed ear as part of his presentation, the incident was considered alongside various other cases of Spanish Depredations upon the British Subjects, and was perceived as an insult to Britains honour and a clear casus belli. The conflict was named by essayist and historian Thomas Carlyle, in 1858, one hundred, Carlyle mentioned the ear in several passages of his History of Friedrich II, most notably in Book XI, chap VI, where he refers specifically to the War of Jenkinss Ear. More than one year later, all diplomatic means having been exhausted, on 20 July, Vice Admiral Edward Vernon and a fleet of warships departed Britain, bound for the West Indies, to attack Spanish ships and possessions. Waterhouse spotted several small vessels in the port of La Guaira and decided to attack, the governor of the Province of Venezuela, Brigadier Don Gabriel de Zuloaga had prepared the port defences, and Spanish troops were well-commanded by Captain Don Francisco Saucedo
First Parliament of Great Britain
The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in 1707, after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. No fresh elections were held in England, and the members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts in Westminster. The Parliament of Scotland duly passed an Act settling the manner of electing the sixteen peers, the Kingdom of Great Britain came into existence on 1 May 1707. The last English parliament officially began on June 14,1705, the first session met from 25 October 1705 to 19 March 1706 and the second session from 3 December 1706 to 24 April 1707. After the speech, at Annes command, parliament was prorogued until 30 April, on April 29, as promised in her speech, Anne invoked the clause of the Act of Union reviving the parliament by proclamation.
The matter of continuity remains ambiguous in the records, the authoritative 19th-century parliamentary historian William Cobbett considered the First British Parliament a new and distinct parliament, and separated it from the Annes last English parliament. The ambiguity of continuity mattered to the case of John Asgill, a member of parliament for Bramber, elected in 1705, asgills appeal was debated in the British House of Commons shortly after opening. Nonetheless, two days after ordering his release, the House voted to expel Asgill on different grounds, election, On 29 April 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain was proclaimed. The members of the last English House of Commons had been elected between 7 May 1705 and 6 June 1705, the last general election in pre-Union Scotland was in the Autumn of 1702. The Parliament of Scotland met between 6 May 1703 and 25 March 1707, First meeting and maximum legal term, Parliament first met on 23 October 1707. Dissolution, The first and only session the First British Parliament was prorogued on 1 April 1708.
During the recess, it was prorogued again on April 13 and, the concept of party was much looser than it became. Neither contemporaries or subsequent historians could be certain of who belonged in which category. Ambitious noble and gentry families formed themselves into connections of relatives, connections grouped themselves into factions, usually supporting a prominent public figure seeking royal favour and office for himself and his associates. Factions were usually of a Whig or Tory tendency, cross-cutting the Whig and Tory division was the Court and Country one. Court Party supporters were those who tended to support the Queens ministers, Country Party men were inclined to oppose all Ministries. The party divisions in Scotland were similar to those in England, Scottish politics included the Squadrone Volante
Valentinian III was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the dismemberment of the Western Empire. Valentinian was born in the capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia. His mother was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, while his father was at the time a Patrician and the power behind the throne. Through his mother, Valentinian was a descendant both of Theodosius I, who was his grandfather, and of Valentinian I, who was the father of his maternal grandmother. It was through his mothers side of the family that he was the nephew of Honorius and first cousin to Theodosius II, Valentinian had a full sister, Justa Grata Honoria, who was probably born in 417 or 418. When Valentinian was less than two years old, Honorius appointed Constantius co-emperor, a position he would hold until his death seven months later, as a result of all these family ties, Valentinian was the son, great-grandson and nephew of Roman Emperors. In either 421 or 423, Valentinian was given the title of Nobilissimus by Honorius, in 423, Honorius died, and the usurper Joannes took the power in Rome.
To counter this threat to his power, Theodosius belatedly recognised Valentinian’s father as Augustus, Theodosius betrothed him to his own daughter Licinia Eudoxia. Given his minority status, the new Augustus ruled under the regency of his mother Galla Placidia and her regency lasted until 437, for the duration, Theodosius II gave her his full support. This period was marked with an imperial policy and an attempt to stabilize the western provinces as far as the stretched resources of the empire could manage. In 425, the court at Ravenna negotiated with the Huns who had accompanied Flavius Aëtius to Italy in support of Joannes and they agreed to leave Italy, and to evacuate the province of Pannonia Valeria, which was returned to the empire. This allowed Felix and the government to restructure the defences along the Danubian provinces in 427 and 428. In addition, there were significant victories over the Visigoths in Gaul in 426/7 and 430, there were significant problems that threatened the viability of the Roman state in the west.
The Visigoths were a constant presence in south-eastern Gaul and could not be dislodged, the Vandals in Hispania continued their incursions, and, in 429, they commenced their invasion of Mauretania Tingitana. The loss of these territories seriously impacted the ability to function. The burden of taxation became more and more intolerable as Romes power decreased, in 427, Felix accused Bonifacius of being a traitor and demanded that he return to Italy. Bonifacius refused and defeated an army sent by Felix to capture him, Felix was unable to resist Aëtius who, with the support of Galla Placidia, replaced him as Magister militum praesentalis in 429, before having him killed in 430
Battle of Grathe Heath
The Battle of Grathe Heath was fought in 1157 between the Danish armies of Valdemar I and his rival for the Danish throne, Sweyn III. Valdemars forces won the battle, and Sweyn III was slain while attempting to flee, the battle of Grathe Heath on 23 October 1157 marked the end of a civil war between Sweyn III, Canute V and Valdemar I the Great, all contenders for the Danish throne. After Eric III of Denmark had abdicated in 1146, Sweyn III, son of Eric Emune, was declared king of Zealand and Scania, while Canute, son of king Magnus, became king of Jutland. Canute made several attempts to conquer Zealand, but was driven off and fled to Germany, in 1152, a battle was fought at Gedebæk, close to Viborg. Canute lost and appealed to the German king, Frederic I Barbarossa, Frederic confirmed Sweyns rights of kingship, and Sweyn swore fealty to him. The nobles of Denmark were getting worried about the growing German influence, having at first joined Sweyn, who had made him duke of Schleswig, changed sides and was betrothed to Canutes half-sister Sophie.
Both Canute and Sweyn were hailed as kings at the Landsting in Viborg in 1154, the three contenders agreed to share power, so that Valdemar would rule Jutland, Canute would rule the islands of Zealand and Funen, and Sweyn would rule Scania. Then a reconciling feast was agreed upon, and it was held in Roskilde 9 August 1157, according to Saxo Grammaticus, Sweyn ordered his men to kill the two other kings. Canute was slain, but Valdemar, though wounded, managed to turn over some great candlesticks and escape in the following fire and he fled out in the darkness and managed to return to Jutland. People flocked to Valdemars banner when Sweyns treachery was revealed, Sweyn landed at Grenå, but his fleet was destroyed by a combination of force and guile. Sweyn marched upon Randers and Valdemar retreated to the side of the Gudenå river. At the end of September Valdemar felt that he was enough to face Sweyns army. The battle was short, but vicious, Sweyn failed to locate Valdemars main force, and was suddenly attacked with such force that he fled his army.
He blundered into the areas at one end of the Hauge Lake. Shortly afterwards, he was captured and killed with an axe, according to tradition, after his death, Sweyn was nicknamed Grathe, after the place where he lost both his crown and his life. Valdemar, having outlived all his rival pretenders, became the sole King of Denmark and he reorganized and rebuilt war-torn Denmark. Thor Lange has put up a cross at the site of the battle
Battle of Edgehill
The Battle of Edgehill was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday,23 October 1642, all attempts at constitutional compromise between King Charles and Parliament broke down early in 1642. Both King and Parliament raised large armies to gain their way by force of arms, in October, at his temporary base near Shrewsbury, King Charles decided to march on London in order to force a decisive confrontation with Parliaments main army, commanded by the Earl of Essex. Late on 22 October, both armies unexpectedly found the enemy to be close by, the next day, the Royalist army descended from Edge Hill to force battle. After the Parliamentary artillery opened a cannonade, the Royalists attacked, both armies consisted mostly of inexperienced and sometimes ill-equipped troops. Many men from both sides fled or fell out to loot enemy baggage, and neither army was able to gain a decisive advantage. After the battle, King Charles resumed his march on London, the inconclusive result of the Battle of Edgehill prevented either faction gaining a quick victory in the war, which eventually lasted four years.
When it appeared to King Charles I that no agreement with Parliament over the government of the Kingdom was possible, he left London on 2 March 1642, both Parliament and King realised that armed conflict was inevitable, and prepared to raise forces. Charles attempted to seize the port of Kingston-upon-Hull where arms, in the Siege of Hull, the Parliamentarian garrison defied the Kings authority and drove his forces away from the city. In early August the King moved south, to Lincoln and Leicester, on 22 August, he took the decisive step by raising the royal standard in Nottingham, effectively declaring war on Parliament. Having learned of the Kings actions in Nottingham, Parliament dispatched its own army northward under the Earl of Essex, Essex marched first to Northampton, where he mustered almost 20,000 men. Learning of the Kings move westwards, Essex marched north-westwards towards Worcester, lacking infantry, the Royalists abandoned Worcester. By early October, the Kings army was almost complete at Shrewsbury and he held a council of war, at which two courses of action were considered.
The first was to attack Essexs army at Worcester, which had the drawback that the country around the city would put the superior Royalist cavalry at a disadvantage. The second course, which was adopted, was to advance towards London, the intention was not to avoid battle with Essex, but to force one at an advantage. In the Earl of Clarendons words, it was considered more counsellable to march towards London, the army left Shrewsbury on 12 October, gaining two days start on the enemy, and moved southeast. Essex followed, but neither army had much information on the location of their enemy, by 22 October, the Royalist army was quartered in the villages around Edgcote, and was threatening the Parliamentarian post at Banbury. The garrison of Banbury sent messengers pleading for help to the Parliamentarian garrison at Warwick Castle, who had just reached there, ordered an immediate march to Kineton to bring relief to Banbury, even though his army had straggled and not all his troops were present
The Auld Alliance was the alliance between the kingdoms of Scotland and France. The alliance played a significant role in the relations between Scotland and England from its beginning in 1295 to the 1560 Treaty of Edinburgh, the alliance was renewed by all the French and Scottish monarchs of that period except Louis XI. By the late 14th century, the renewal occurred regardless of either kingdom was involved in a conflict with England. The alliance dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295 against Edward I of England. The terms of the treaty stipulated that if either country was attacked by England, by 1295 it was clear that Edward was on a course for total subjugation of Scotland. In response the Council of Twelve who had taken over the government of Scotland temporarily, with France and England close to war following Philippe IVs declaration of Englands possession of Gascony forfeit in 1293, alliance with France was a clear course to take. In October 1295, a Scottish embassy to Philippe agreed to the Treaty of Paris, as with all subsequent renewals of what became the Auld Alliance, the treaty slightly favoured France more than Scotland.
The French were required to do no more than continue their struggle against the English in Gascony, the cost of any outright war between Scotland and England was to be borne entirely by the Scots. Nevertheless, Scotland, as remote and impoverished as it was, was now aligned to a major European power, even if more symbolic than actual, the benefits of the alliance mattered greatly to Scotland. In the short term however, the treaty proved to have no protection against Edward, whose swift and devastating invasion of Scotland in 1296 all but eradicated its independence. Scotland, in the end, owed its survival to the military acumen and inspiration of Robert the Bruce. In 1326, Robert the Bruce renewed the alliance, with the Treaty of Corbeil, the motive for this renewal was precautionary more than anything, neither realm seemed to have much to fear from England at the time. This, rapidly changed after 1330 when Edward III set out to complete his conquest of Scotland, for the first time the Franco-Scottish alliance had been given a sense of emergency.
In 1346, Edward overwhelmed French forces at the Battle of Crécy, two months later, David II of Scotland was captured at the Battle of Nevilles Cross, in a botched invasion of Northern England. His 11-year absence as Edwards prisoner only increased the internal turmoil, David II was forced to reach a deal with Edward III to gain his freedom. Even after his release in 1357, David spent most of his reign attempting to further English interests in Scotland. The alliance was renewed between the two kingdoms in 1371, with the embassy of the Bishop of Glasgow and the Lord of Galloway to France. The treaty was signed by Charles V at the Château de Vincennes on 30 June, the accession of pro-French Robert II led to the immediate renewal of the alliance, the benefits to Scotland were mixed
Pope Symmachus was Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over who was elected pope by the citizens of Rome. Symmachus was baptized in Rome, where he became Archdeacon of the Roman Church under Pope Anastasius II, Symmachus was elected pope on 22 November 498 in the Constantinian basilica. Both factions agreed to allow the Gothic King Theodoric the Great to arbitrate and he ruled that the one who was elected first and whose supporters were the most numerous should be recognized as pope. This was a political decision. An investigation favored Symmachus and his election was recognized as proper, Symmachus proceeded to call a synod, to be held at Rome on 1 March 499, which was attended by 72 bishops and all of the Roman clergy. Afterwards he was assigned the diocesis of Nuceria in Campania, in 501, the Senator Rufius Postumius Festus, a supporter of Laurentius, accused Symmachus of various crimes. The initial charge was that Symmachus celebrated Easter on the wrong date, the king Theodoric summoned him to Ariminum to respond to the charge.
The pope arrived only to discover a number of charges, including unchastity. Symmachus panicked, fleeing from Ariminum in the middle of the night only one companion. His flight proved to be a miscalculation, as it was regarded as an admission of guilt, Laurentius was brought back to Rome by his supporters, but a sizeable group of the clergy, including most of the most senior clerics, withdrew from communion with him. A visiting bishop, Peter of Altinum, was appointed by Theodoric to celebrate Easter 502 and assume the administration of the See, pending the decision of a synod to be convened following Easter. Presided over by the other Italian metropolitans, Peter II of Ravenna, Laurentius of Milan, and Marcellianus of Aquileia, although the majority of the assembled bishops agreed with this, the Apostolic Visitor could not be made to withdaw without Theodorics permission, this was not forthcoming. In response to this deadlock, rioting by the citizens of Rome increased, causing a number of bishops to flee Rome, King Theodoric refused their request to move the Synod, ordering them instead to reconvene on 1 September.
On 27 August the King wrote to the Bishops that he was sending two of the Majores Domus nostrae and Bedeulphus, to see to it that the Synod assembled in safety, upon reconvening, matters were no less acrimonious. Symmachus retreated to St. Peters and refused to come out, the Life of Symmachus, presents these killings as part of the street-fighting between the supporters of Senators Festus and Probinus on the one side, and Senator Faustus on the other. The attacks were directed particularly against clerics, including Dignissimus a priest of S. Pietro in Vinculis, giovanni e Paolo, though the rhetoric of the passage extends the violence to anyone who was a supporter of Symmachus, man or woman, cleric or layperson. It was unsafe for a cleric to walk about in Rome at night, at this point, the synod petitioned king Theodoric once again, asking permission to dissolve the meeting and return home
Irish Rebellion of 1641
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into a conflict between native Irish Catholics on one side, and English and Scottish Protestant settlers on the other. This began a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars, in turn, the rebels suspected association with Charles helped start the English Civil War. The English and Scottish Parliaments refused to raise an army to put down the rebellion unless it was under their command rather than the Kings. The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English administration, the subsequent Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwells New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists, and re-conquered the country. The roots of the 1641 rebellion lay in the failure of the English State in Ireland to assimilate the native Irish elite in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest and plantation of the country.
The pre-Elizabethan Irish population is divided into the Old Irish. These groups were historically antagonistic, with English settled areas such as the Pale around Dublin, south Wexford, by the seventeenth century, the cultural divide between these groups, especially at elite social levels, was declining. Many English lords not only spoke the Irish language, but extensively patronised Irish poetry and music, the 16th and early 17th century English conquest of Ireland was marked by large scale confiscation and colonisation of land, known as the Plantations, notably in Ulster and Munster. These were mass dispossessions of Irish landowners who had rebelled against the crown, and sometimes their workers, and the granting of their land to colonists from England and Scotland. The main effect of this was the dispossession of formerly powerful Irish clan leaders, such as the ONeills and the ODonnells, other Catholic lords, such as the Magennis clan in County Down, sold much of their land to new settlers by the 1630s.
Many of the exiles found service as mercenaries in the Catholic armies of Spain, in Ireland itself, though the resentment caused by the plantations was one of the principal causes for the outbreak and spread of the rebellion. In 1641 60% of land belonged to Catholics. This was prevented by two factors, firstly their religious dissidence, and secondly the threat posed to them by the extension of the Plantations, the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605 curtailed the rights of wealthy Irish Catholics, who had not been involved in the plot. Anglicanism was the only approved form of worship of the Three Kingdoms, non-attendance at Protestant church services was punishable by recusant fines and the public practice of unapproved faiths by arrest. Catholics could not hold senior offices of state, or serve above a rank in the army. The Irish privy council was dominated by English Protestants, the constituencies of the Irish House of Commons were increased, giving Protestants a majority of 108–102 in it, from the session of 1613.
The Irish House of Lords still had a considerable Catholic majority that enabled it to block most, the Irish Parliaments legislation had to be approved by the English Parliament under a 15th-century ordinance known as Poynings Law