Battle of Myeongnyang
Regardless of the size of the Japanese fleet, all sources indicate that the Japanese ships heavily outnumbered the Korean ships, by at least a ten-to-one ratio. In total 30 Japanese warships were sunk or crippled during the battle, Todo Takatora, the commander of the Japanese navy, was wounded during the battle and half of his subordinate officers were wounded or killed. Given the disparity in numbers of ships, the battle is regarded as one of Admiral Yis most remarkable victories. After the Korean navy withdrew, the Japanese navy made an incursion into the western coast of Korea, due to Japanese intrigue taking advantage of the fractious politics of the Joseon Dynasty court, Admiral Yi Sun-sin was impeached and almost put to death. Yi was instead tortured and demoted to the rank of a common soldier, Yis rival, Admiral Won Gyun, took command of the Joseon fleet, which under Yis careful management had grown from 63 heavy warships to 166. Won Gyun was an incompetent military commander who immediately began squandering the Joseon Navys strength through ill-conceived maneuvers against the Japanese naval base at Busan.
In the Battle of Chilchonryang, the Japanese navy, with Todo Takatora in overall command, outmaneuvered the Joseon navy, soon afterwards, the Japanese reinforced their garrisons in Busan and various forts in the southern coast of Korea, and began the second invasion. With the Joseon navy taken out of the scene, the Japanese believed that now had free access to the Yellow Sea. In the 1592 campaigns, Admiral Yi prevented the Japanese from resupplying their troops in this manner, the Japanese army awaited supplies and reinforcements from their navy, who would need to enter the Yellow Sea to reach the western coast of Korea. The army, thus supported by their navy, planned to make a push to recapture Hanyang. Admiral Yi Sun-sin was hastily reinstated as Supreme Commander of the Regional Navies after Won Gyun was killed at the Battle of Chilchonryang. Yi initially only had 10 panokseon ships at his disposal, which had been saved by Gyeongsang Right Naval Commander Bae Seol, Bae Seol had originally saved 12 ships, but lost two while on his retreat towards Hoeryongpo.
Thus, in total, Yi had 13 warships, although Yi only found 120 men initially, some of the survivors of Chilchonryang rallied to him, and he had at least 1,500 sailors and marines by the end of September. Admiral Yi responded with his own letter, Even though our navy is small, before the main body of the Japanese navy advanced into the Yellow Sea, they sent out a few probing missions with armed scouting parties. At this time, Admiral Yis fleet was south of the Myeongnyang Strait near Oranpo, in October 8, an advanced scouting party of eight Japanese vessels staged a surprise attack, which the Joseon fleet drove off. Yi retreated further north to Byeokpajin, on the end of Jindo island. On October 12, Bae Seol fled, on October 17, a Japanese scouting fleet of 13 ships launched a night attack which, after heavy fighting, was repulsed. By this time, through the reports of their scouting forces, well armed scouting forces alone were not going to defeat or scatter the Joseon remnants, so the Japanese began amassing a much larger fleet
Uprising of Asen and Peter
The Uprising of Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October 1185, the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, ruled by the Asen dynasty. Isaac II Angelus, in order to raise money for the wedding of the daughter of King Béla III of Hungary and they sent two leaders to negotiate with the emperor at Kypsella in Thrace. They asked to be added to the roll of the Byzantine army and this was refused, and Peter and Asen were treated roughly. Their response was to threaten revolt, after their return, many of the protesters were unwilling to join the rebellion. This persuaded their followers to attack Byzantine cities, seizing prisoners, capital of the First Bulgarian Empire, was raided, and it was after this symbolic incident that Peter assumed the insignia of Tsar. In the spring of 1186, Isaac started a counter-offensive, during the solar eclipse of 21 April 1186, the Byzantines successfully attacked the rebels, many of whom fled north of the Danube, making contact with the Cumans.
In a symbolic gesture, Isaac II entered Peters house and took the icon of Saint Demetrius, thus regaining the saints favour, still under threat of ambush from the hills, Isaac returned hastily to Constantinople to celebrate his victory. The Emperor now entrusted the war to his uncle, John the sebastocrator and he was replaced with the emperors brother-in-law, John Kantakouzenos, a good strategist but unfamiliar with the guerrilla tactics used by the mountaineers. His army was ambushed, suffering losses, after unwisely pursuing the enemy into the mountains. The third general in charge of fighting the rebels was Alexius Branas, the Byzantines obtained a few minor victories before winter, but the rebels, helped by the Cumans and employing their mountain tactics, still held the advantage. In the spring of 1187, Isaac attacked the fortress of Lovech, the lands between the Haemus and the Danube were now lost to the Byzantine Empire. The Emperors only consolation was to hold, as hostages, Asens wife, van Dieten,2 vols. pp. 368–9, 371-7, 394-9, trans.
as O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates, by H. J. Magoulias. Foreign policy of the Angeli from A History of the Byzantine Empire by Al, vasilief Paul Stephenson, Byzantiums Balkan Frontier. A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204 pp. 289–300, R. L. Wolff, The Second Bulgarian Empire. Its origin and history to 1204, george Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State
Battle of the Chateauguay
The Battle of the Chateauguay was an engagement of the War of 1812. The Battle of the Chateauguay was one of the two battles which caused the Americans to abandon the Saint Lawrence Campaign, their major effort in the autumn of 1813. Late in 1813, United States Secretary of War John Armstrong devised a plan to capture Montreal, one would descend the St. Lawrence River from Sacketts Harbor on Lake Ontario, while the other would advance north from Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain. The two divisions would unite in front of the city for the final assault, the Americans around Lake Champlain were led by Major General Wade Hampton, who had taken command on 4 July 1813. Hampton had several misgivings about the plan and his own troops, encamped at Burlington, were raw and badly trained, and his junior officers themselves lacked training and experience. There were insufficient supplies at his base at Plattsburgh as the British had controlled the lake since 3 June. The British had taken over the sloops and used them in a raid against many settlements around Lake Champlain, in particular, they captured or destroyed quantities of supplies in and around Plattsburgh.
The two men, who were the two generals in the United States Army after the effective retirement of Major General Henry Dearborn on 6 July 1813, had been feuding with each other since 1808. Hampton at first refused to accept orders from Wilkinson, until Armstrong arranged that all correspondence regarding the expedition was to pass through the War Department and he decided that the British forces were too strong in this sector. The garrison of Ile aux Noix, where the British sloops and gunboats were based, numbered about 900 and there were other outposts, Hamptons force marched west instead to Four Corners, on the Chateauguay River. As Wilkinsons expedition was not ready, Hamptons force waited at Four Corners until 18 October, Hampton was concerned that the delay was depleting his supplies and giving the British time to muster forces against him. Hearing from Armstrong that Wilkinsons force was almost ready to set out, he began advancing down the Chateauguay River. A brigade of 1,400 New York militia refused to cross the frontier into Canada, large numbers of loaded wagons accompanied the force.
Hamptons advance was slowed because the bridges across every stream had been destroyed, the Swiss-born Major-General Louis de Watteville was appointed commander of the Montreal District on 17 September. In response to reports of the American advance, he ordered several units of militia to be called up, reinforcements were moving up the St. Lawrence from Quebec. Already though, the commander of the outposts, Lieutenant Colonel Charles de Salaberry, had been organising his defences. In addition to his own corps, the Canadian Voltigeurs, and George MacDonnells 1st Light Battalion, he had called in several units of the Select Embodied Militia, the road along which Hampton was advancing followed the north bank of the Chateauguay. Facing a ravine where a creek joined the Chateauguay, de Salaberry ordered abatis to be constructed, De Salaberry commanded the front line in person, while the reserves were commanded by Lieutenant Colonel MacDonnell
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. Originally, it ran about 363 miles from Albany, on the Hudson River, to Buffalo and it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. First proposed in the 1780s, re-proposed in 1807, a survey was authorized, proponents of the project gradually wore down opponents, its construction began in 1817. The canal has 35 numbered locks, plus the Federal Black Rock Lock, and it opened on October 26,1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals and it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement and it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canals peak year was 1855, when 33,000 commercial shipments took place. In 1918, the part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which ran parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal.
Mainly used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large ship, the Day Peckinpaugh in 1994. This was not unique to the Americas, and the still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An equally ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — things in the water weighed far less and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads. In 1800, it typically took 2.5 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, the principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, which was a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast. Frequently it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers and this was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, and the Whiskey Rebellion. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Pennsylvania, the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, and Eiderkanal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain canal mania.
Two men, Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson, were proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies in 1792, by 1788, Washingtons Potomac Company was successful in constructing five locks which took boats 4,500 feet past the Potomac Great Falls. However, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal superseded the Potomac Canal in 1823, christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, and made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario. The proposal drew attention and some action, but was never implemented, jesse Hawley finally got the canal built
Royal Charter (ship)
Royal Charter was a steam clipper which was wrecked off the beach of Porth Alerth in Dulas Bay on the north-east coast of Anglesey on 26 October 1859. The precise number of dead is uncertain as the passenger list was lost in the wreck although an incomplete list is retained in the Victorian Archives Centre in. About 450 lives were lost, the highest death toll of any shipwreck on the Welsh coast and it was the most prominent victim among about 200 ships wrecked by the Royal Charter Storm. The Royal Charter was built at the Sandycroft Ironworks on the River Dee and was launched in 1855. She was a new type of ship, a 2719-ton iron-hulled steam clipper, built in the way as a clipper ship. The ship was used on the route from Liverpool to Australia, there was room for up to 600 passengers, with luxury accommodation in the first class. She was considered a very fast ship, able to make the passage to Australia via Cape Horn in under 60 days, in late October 1859 Royal Charter was returning to Liverpool from Melbourne.
Her complement of about 371 passengers, included many gold miners, a consignment of gold was being carried as cargo. He decided to continue on to Liverpool however, off Point Lynas the Royal Charter tried to pick up the Liverpool pilot, but the wind had now risen to Storm force 10 on the Beaufort scale and the rapidly rising sea made this impossible. During the night of 25/26 October the wind rose to Hurricane force 12 on the Beaufort Scale in what known as the Royal Charter gale. As the wind rose its direction changed from E to NE and NNE, at 11 pm she anchored, but at 1.30 am on the 26th the port anchor chain snapped, followed by the starboard chain an hour later. Despite cutting the masts to reduce the drag of the wind, Royal Charter was driven inshore, battered against the rocks by huge waves whipped up by winds of over 100 mph, she quickly broke up. Most of the passengers and crew, a total of over 450 people, many of them were killed by being dashed against the rocks by the waves rather than drowned.
Others were said to have drowned, weighed down by the belts of gold they were wearing around their bodies, the survivors,21 passengers and 18 crew members, were all men, with no women or children saved. A large quantity of gold was said to have thrown up on the beach at Porth Alerth, with some families becoming rich overnight. Many of the bodies recovered from the sea were buried nearby at St Gallgos Church, where the graves, there is a memorial on the cliff above the rocks where the ship struck, which is on the Anglesey Coastal Path. The fact that English-speaking press representatives must have encountered a barrier when attempting to gather information can only have served to further misunderstandings. Almost exactly a century in October 1959 another ship, the Hindlea and this time there was a different outcome, with the Moelfre lifeboat under its coxswain, Richard Evans, succeeding in saving the crew
Tvrtko I of Bosnia
Stephen Tvrtko I was the first King of Bosnia, and is widely considered one of the countrys greatest medieval rulers. A member of the House of Kotromanić, Tvrtko succeeded his uncle Stephen II as Ban of Bosnia in 1353, as he was a minor at the time, his father, briefly ruled as regent, followed by his mother, Jelena. Early in his personal rule Tvrtko quarreled with Roman Catholic clergy, after initial difficulties – the loss of large parts of Bosnia to his overlord, King Louis I of Hungary, and a brief deposition by magnates – Tvrtkos power grew considerably. He conquered some remnants of the neighbouring Serbian Empire in 1373, after the death of its last ruler and his distant relative, in 1377 he had himself crowned King of Bosnia and of Serbia, claiming to be the heir of the extinct Serbian Nemanjić dynasty. The expansion of the Kingdom of Bosnia continued, with the King focusing on the coast, the death of King Louis and accession of Queen Mary in 1382 allowed Tvrtko to take advantage of the ensuing succession crisis in Hungary and Croatia.
After bitter fighting from 1385 to 1390, Tvrtko succeeded in conquering large parts of Slavonia and Croatia proper. Following the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, his tenuous claim to Serbia became a mere fiction, the Ottoman Turks launched their first attacks on Bosnia during Tvrtko Is reign, but his army was able to repel them. Tvrtkos sudden death in 1391 prevented him from solidifying the Kotromanić hold on Croatian lands, Tvrtko I extended medieval Bosnias borders to their farthest limits, left a strong economy and improved the living standards of his subjects. He was survived by at least one son, Tvrtko II, Tvrtko was the elder son of Vladislav Kotromanić and Jelena Šubić, likely born within a year of their marriage, which was celerated in 1337. The couple were the brother of the Bosnian ban Stephen II, Tvrtko was most likely raised as a Roman Catholic, his mother belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, and his uncle Stephen joined it shortly after Tvrtkos birth. Stephen died in September 1353, leaving no sons.
Although Vladislav was still alive, Stephens title passed directly to Tvrtko, however, was only about fifteen years old at the time, so his father assumed the government as regent. Soon after his accession, Tvrtko was taken by his father through the realm to settle relations with his vassals, Jelena replaced Vladislav as regent upon his death in 1354. She immediately traveled to Hungary to obtain consent to Tvrtkos accession from King Louis I, his overlord. Following her return, Jelena held an assembly in Mile, with mother and son confirming the possessions and privileges of the noblemen of all of Bosnia, Donji Kraji and the Hum land. The death of Tvrtkos maternal uncle, Mladen III Šubić, in 1348 led to a decline of the noble family. In May 1355, Jelena and Tvrtko marched with an army to Duvno in order to claim his share of his uncles patrimony, the state assembled by Tvrtkos uncle Stephen broke apart on Tvrtkos accession, much to the satisfaction of his overlord Louis. The Hungarians were keen to encourage Stephens vassals to act independently from Tvrtko, Louis posed a more direct threat as well, he was determined to enlarge the royal domain and throughout his realm he ardently reclaimed all lands that once belonged to the monarch
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious.
France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed.
In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and by Adrian of Utrecht.
He gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse