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Qazi Khaliluddin

Qazi Khaliluddin was a religious scholar, employed in a Risala, at Alwar State. Qazi Khaliluddin was born in Alwar on 4 Rabi' al-awwal 1296 AH / 1878 AD and was employed in a Risala at Alwar State. In 1908, he left the job and came to Bhopal, where he first did a job and started his own business Qazi Khaliluddin went for Hajj in 1331 AH / 1912 AD, he was accompanied with Saeedun Nisan and her nephew and son-in-law. He tried to follow Shariah in his activities, he used to go to hear the public lecture by Hafiz Abdul Aziz at Phuti Masjid at Bhopal. He used to visit'Bagh Farhat Afza' to hear the lessons from Pir Asadur Rahman Qudsi. In addition to these persons, he was associated with Taskin Shah of'Aish Bagh'. Qazi Khaliluddin had a good friends circle. To name a few, Manzoor Ahmad alias Bhai Mian, Syed Basharat Ali, Hafiz Mohammad Yusuf Khan, Haji Mohammad Zubair Ali and Zahooruddin Alvi were his closest friends, he was married at the age of 17 years with Safia Begum, daughter of Yaqub Ali ibn Tahawar Ali at Bhopal on 24 Shawwal 1313 AH / 9 April 1896 AD.

Two sons and two daughters were born Maulvi Haji Halimuddin. He was Bay'ah with Shah Abu Ahmad Mujjadadi and had close relations with his successor Shah Mohammd Yaqub. Shah Mohammd Yaqub took concern about him. For the same reason, Munshi Halimuddin lived 12 years inside the Khanqah of Shah Abu Ahmad Mujjadadi. At the same place, when one of her daughter Ahmadi Begum was born – her name was kept ‘Amatul Karim’ after the name of Shah Mohammd Yaqub's mother. Munshi Halimuddin was close to Maulana Abdul Shakoor Lucknavi, Maulana Syed Abu Habib and Maulana Shaikh Masood Ahmad Mujjadadi Mahajir Madni. There are lots of letters in the name of Munshi Halimuddin of these people. Munshi Halimuddin was expert in the teachings of Shah Abu Ahmad Mujjadadi. Munshi Halimuddin prepared a “Guldasta-i Husn Sukhan”, a historical “Qata’t Tarikh” on the occasion of the birth of Mohammad Saleh, the son of Shah Mohammd Yaqub. In 1352 AH / 1933 AD, he prepared Handkerchiefs for distribution of sweets with historical inscription in Persian script on the occasion of first mihrab recitation of Shah Mohammd Yaqub.

One of the Handkerchief is preserved in the Museum of Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences. Munshi Halimuddin did Hajj in 1938, he buried at the side of Shah Abu Ahmad Mujjadadi's grave at Bhopal. He was married to Saliha Begum, daughter of Abdul Mughni of Sikandrabad and had three sons Maulvi Nooruddin Nadvi (married to Tayyaba Begum, daughter of Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman, Tariq Khalil and Khalid Halim and six daughters Saeeda Begum, Asia Begum, Kaneez Fatima, Amatul Karim alias Ahmadi Begum, Memona Begum, Asma Begum. Haji Kalimuddin. Haji Kalimuddin was always interested in literature, he was voracious reader of Urdu literature and had a good company of Sir Ross Masood, Allama Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Dr. Hamidullah, he was married to Naseem Fatima, daughter of Dr. Siraj Mustafa, granddaughter of Syed Afzal Ali in 1939. Three daughters Najmun Nisan, Rehana Khatoon and Rafia Khatoon and one son Najmuddin were born. Hanifa Khatoon, she was married to Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman they had three children one son Hakim Syed Zillur Rehman and two daughters Tayyaba Begum and Tajjaliya Begum.

Rafiqa Khatoon she was married to Mohammad Hasan Alvi son of Muneeruddin Alvi ibn Basheeruddin ibn Munshi Hakimuddin, Family Relative. Together they had six children, daughters Khajista Akhtar, Shafiqua Akhtar, Sameena khatoon, sons Syed Marghoob Hasan, Syed Ameer Hasan, Sirajul Hasan He died on 25 Muharram 1337 AH at Bhopal at the age of 42 years 10 months and 21 days because of Influenza and is buried at the'Family Graveyard', Jahangirbad, Bhopal. To perpetuate his memory, a building at Jinsi Road, Bhopal is named after him'Khalil Manzil'. Tahawar Ali Ghulam Mansoor Qazi Hameeduddin

Karma Tseten

Karma Tseten known as Zhingshak Tseten Dorje was a king of Upper Tsang in West Central Tibet. He was the founder of the Tsangpa Dynasty, that had an important role in the history of Tibet from 1565 to 1642, ruling in the period 1565-1599. Karma Tseten, in full Karma Tseten Dorje, belonged to a clan from Nyag which claimed descent from Jñanakumara, a disciple of the eighth-century tantric master Padmasambhava. In fact he does not seem to have belonged to any noble house. At this time the Rinpungpa Dynasty held superior power in the Tsang region and was somehow related to Karma Tseten's lineage. Coming from modest circumstances, Karma Tseten was used by the Tsang ruler for various tasks, such as chief groom and tax collector. In 1548 he was entrusted with the governorship of the Samdrubtse castle in Shigatse; this was a place of great strategical importance in Tsang. Some years he began to plot against his Rinpungpa master. According to a picturesque but maybe apocryphical story he obtained a written permit to collect 300 sewing needles from the local population.

As the words for needle and armour are similar in Tibetan, Karma Tseten made a slight change in the document, could thus collect 300 suits of armour. In 1557, according to one source, he raised the standard of rebellion, helped by the discontent with the Rinpungpa among vassals such as Narthang and Gyatso. According to another eyewitness account, he bided his time until 1565, he started an uprising that took the Rinpungpa ruler Ngawang Jigme Drakpa by complete surprise. The situation was made worse for the Rinpungpa since some nobles close to them committed treason. Karma Tseten was able to take Panam Lhundrup Kyungtse and the Pakmori Gold Castle from Ngawang Jigme Drakpa; the latter was captured. The Drukpa lama Kunkhyen Pema Karpo was able to mediate between the warring parties. However, just after the Tibetan new year in 1566, fresh fighting broke out in lower Nyangtö; the Drukpa lama intervened again. Karma Tseten requested all the lands above Jomo Kharek, but was content with the entire Panam area.

With these events the Rinpungpa faded into insignificance. After 1565-66 Karma Tseten, known as Zhingshagpa, declared himself Tsangtö Gyalpo, King of Upper Tsang, it was clear that the new royal line did not have the prestige of families descended from the ancient Tibetan kings. The 16th century was marked by a relative decline of secular noble houses in comparison to the main Buddhist sects, such as the Gelugpa and Karma Kagyu, which formed comprehensive ritual alliances with political repercussions. In this volatile political-religious landscape it was important for a new ruler to find support from the sects; the 9th Karmapa hierarch, Wangchuk Dorje, met Karma Tseten in 1567, again in 1585 and 1590. The meetings seem to have been accompanied by the transfer of tutelary deities to the king, but the dynasty founded by Karma Tseten kept good relations with representatives of the Jonang and Nyingma sects. The overall strategical aim of his rule was to keep Tibet free from the encroaching Mongols who began to ally with the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso, in his time.

He wished to bring back the institutions of the old Tibetan Empire in order to achieve a well-governed and prosperous Tsang. Karma Tseten and his offspring do not seem to have entertained any relations with the Ming Dynasty of China. Karma Tseten's dynastic regime became known after the Tsang region, he made friendly overtures to the Phagmodrupa dynasty, the weak line of kings in Nêdong in Ü. He made contacts with the Mongols of the Kokonor region, secured a promise of assistance from the Chogthu tribe, he furthermore undertook expansion towards western Tibet, where the territories Latö Lho and Latö Chang were placed under his authority. This was just a case of loose overlordship, since these areas had to be reconquered by his grandson Karma Phuntsok Namgyal in 1612-13; the Rinpungpa tried to revive their fortunes and performed an abortive raid on Kyishö in Ü in 1575. Connected to this, Karma Tseten clashed with the Rinpungpa in the next year; the Karmapa and Shamarpa hierarchs stepped in to mediate in the conflict, but the next years saw fresh trouble between the two.

A new war flared up in 1588-89 between Rong, the heartland of the Rinpungpa, Karma Tseten. In the following year 1590, the Rinpungpa had to capitulate which, according to the influential exorcist Sogdogpa, was "just as the stream of earlier and wars had become like water reaching a boil"; the event fulfilled the prophecy "the polity of Tsang will become a stable alliance" and the region henceforth enjoyed a certain inner stability. However, Central Tibet was threatened by incursions of Mongol groups. In 1587 they reached Oyug close to Rinpung, in 1596 they roamed a wide area including Purang, Dolpo in Nepal, Mount Kailash, Latö, Chang; the partial failure of the Mongol raids was attributed to the powerful exorcism of Sogdogpa. Karma Tseten had nine sons, of which the most prominent were Karma Thutob Namgyal, Khunpang Lhawang Dorje and Karma Tensung. Of these, Khunpang Lhawang Dorje intervened in a local feud where two brothers of the Changdakpa line quarreled, favoured the elder brother. Karma Tseten forced the younger brother Tashi Tobgyal in exile to Ü.

The vengeful Tashi Tobgyal performed tantric rites

Panyassis

Panyassis of Halicarnassus, sometimes known as Panyasis, was a 5th century BC Greek epic poet from Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire. Panyassis was the son of Polyarchus from Halicarnassus, but the historian Duris of Samos claimed that Panyasis was the son of Diocles and from Samos. In addition, the historian Herodotus was either his cousin. In 454 BC, Panyassis was executed for political activities by the tyrant of Halicarnassus and grandson of Artemisia, Lygdamis ΙΙ, after an unsuccessful uprising against him; the Suda encyclopedia mentions Panyassis. Panyassis enjoyed little critical appreciation during his lifetime, but was posthumously recognised as one of the greatest poets of archaic Greece, his most famous works are: the Heracleia about the hero Heracles, written in epic hexameter, the Ionica about the histories of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor written in pentameter. These works are preserved today only in fragments, it is believed that he wrote other works which have since been lost

Mian Asghar Hussain Deobandi

Mian Sayyid Asghar Hussain was an Indian Sunni Islamic scholar of the Deobandi school of Islamic thought. He was a disciple of Haaji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki and a notable student of Shaykhul Hind Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan; the ancestors of Mian Asghar Hussain came to India from Baghdad. They are descended from Abdul Qadir Jeelani. During the era of Shah Jahan, Sayyid Ghulam Rasool had moved to India along with his family, he was entrusted the khitabat at the Shahi Masjid of Deoband. He had Sayyid Ghulam Nabi and Sayyid Ghulam Ali. Both brothers were married off with the daughters of Sayyid Shah Ameerullah. Sayyid Ghulam Ali had two sons, his elder son Sayyid Alam Meer comes to be the grandfather of Mian Asghar Hussain. Sayyid Alam Meer was married off with the daughter of Sayyid Shah Hafeezullah, they had a daughter Wajeeh-un-Nisa and son Shah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan who comes to be the father of Mian Asghar Hussain. Sayyid Muhammad Hasan married twice, first with Maryam-un-Nisa, who bore him a son Sayyid Khursheed and a daughter Masum-un-Nisa.

Mian Asghar Hussain was born on 16 October 1877 in Deoband to Sayyid Muhammad Hasan and Naseebun Nisa bint Sayyid Mansub Ali. His ism is: Sayyid Asghar Hussain ibn Sayyid Shah Muhammad Hasan ibn Sayyid Shah Alam Meer ibn Sayyid Ghulam Ali ibn Sayyid Ghulam Rasool Baghdadi ibn Sayyid Shah Faqeerullah Baghdadi ibn Sayyid A’zam Saani ibn Sayyid Nazar Muhammad ibn Sayyid Sultan Muhammad ibn Sayyid A’zam Muhammad ibn Sayyid Abu Muhammad ibn Sayyid Qutbuddin ibn Sayyid Baha’uddeen ibn Sayyid Jamalauddin ibn Sayyid Qutbuddin ibn Sayyid Dawud ibn Muhi’uddin Abu Abdullah ibn Sayyid Abu Saleh Nasr ibn Sayyid Abdur Razzaq ibn Abdul Qadir Jilani; when he turned 8, he started to study from his Sayyid Muhammad Abdullah alias Miyanji Munne Shah and studied Quran from his father and started to study Persian from him. He was enrolled in Darul Uloom Deoband, he continued with the Persian class and studied Persian from Maulana Muhammad Yaseen, the father of Muhammad Shafi Deobandi. He studied mathematics from Maulana Manzoor Ahmad.

He passed the class of Persian with first position and soon received Muwatta Imam Malik as an honorary gift. As Mian Asghar turned 17 or 18 and reached the Arabic classes in Darul Uloom Deoband, his father died on 20 September 1894, he discontinued his studies for one year and started to teach in his ancestral madrasa. At the request of Shaykhul Hind, Mian Asghar entered the Darul Uloom Deoband again on 1 April 1896 and continued with the Arabic classes, he studied Saheeh Muslim, Jami Tirmidhi and Sunan Abu Dawud from Shaykhul Hind. His other teachers include Maulana Ghulam Rasool Baghwi, he graduated in 1320 AH and was awarded with the certificate from Shaykhul Hind and Maulana Muhammad Ahmad Nanotawi. After graduating from the Darul Uloom Deoband, he worked in the office department of the Darul Uloom for more than one year, his teachers Shaykhul Hind and Muhammad Ahmad Nanotawi sent him to the madrassa of the Atala Masjid, Jaunpur for the post of head-teacher and he served there for 7 years.

In the meantime in 1327 AH, he laid the foundation stone of Madrasatul Islaah in Sarai Meer, Azamgarh. He was called to Darul Uloom Deoband and was entrusted with co-editorship of the journal Al-Qasim of the Darul Uloom, while the editor was Maulana Habeebur Rahman, he was entrusted the teaching of Sunan Abu Dawud in Darul Uloom Deoband and he taught the books of tafsir and fiqh like Jalalayn and Durr-e-Mukhtar. His notable students include Muhammad Shafi Deobandi,Manazir Ahsan Gilani. and Mufti Naseem Ahmad Fareedi. He restarted his ancestral madrasa, closed since the death of his father; the madrasa came under the care of his son Haaji Sayyid Bilal Hussain Mian and is now known as Madrassa Asgharia Qadeem whilst its historical name is Darul Musafireen, Madrasa Taleemul Quran. Maulana Asghar Hussain has written about thirty small books in the Urdu language; some of his notable books are: Hayat-e-Shaykhul Hind. Dast-e-Ghayb Sawaneh Maulana Rum. Gulzar-e-Sunnat Khawab-e-Shireen Mufeed-ul-Wariseen Mian Asghar Hussain during his student days at Darul Uloom Deoband married the daughter of Sayyid Mushtaq Hussain.

She bore him two sons Sayyid Mian Akhtar Hussain, Sayyid Mian Bilal Hussain and one daughter Fehmeeda. Mian Asghar Hussain died on 8 January 1945 due to cardiac arrest, he is buried in Surat. Muhammad Shafi Deobandi

Granite night lizard

The granite night lizard is a species of xantusiid lizard endemic to North America. The specific name, henshawi, is in honor of American naturalist Henry Wetherbee Henshaw. X. henshawi is found in Mexico in the Mexican state of Baja California, in the United States in adjacent southern California. X. henshawi is flat-bodied with a soft skin. It has dark dorsal spots on a pale yellow or cream background, its scales are granular on its dorsum, but squarish on the ventral surface. These lizards have large eyes with vertical pupils, they lack eyelids. Granite night lizards are found on rocky slopes with large exfoliating boulders and abundant crevices, but are found in coastal sage scrub and chaparral without boulders, they move on the surface at night. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr. Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3.. Stebbins RC. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition.

The Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 533 pp. ISBN 978-0-395-98272-3.. Stejneger L. "Diagnosis of a new California lizard". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 16: 467