Viscount Saitō Makoto, GCB was a Japanese naval officer and politician. Saitō was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, he was two-time Governor-General of Korea from 1919 to 1927 and from 1929 to 1931, the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from May 26, 1932 to July 8, 1934. Saitō was born in Mutsu Province, as the son of a samurai of the Mizusawa Clan. In 1879, he graduated from the 6th class Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, ranking third out of a class of 17 cadets, he was commissioned an ensign on September 8, 1882, promoted to sub-lieutenant on February 25, 1884. In 1884, Saitō went to the United States for four years to study as a military attaché. Promoted to lieutenant on July 14, 1886. After his promotion to lieutenant commander on December 20, 1893, he served as executive officer on the cruiser Izumi and battleship Fuji. During the First Sino-Japanese War, Saitō served as captain of the cruisers Akitsushima and Itsukushima, he received rapid promotions to commander on December 1, 1897 and to captain on December 27.
On November 10, 1898, he became Vice Minister of the Navy, was promoted to rear admiral on May 20, 1900 Saitō was again Vice Navy Minister at the start of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. He was promoted to Vice Admiral on June 6, 1904, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun in 1906. After the end of the war, he served as Navy Minister for 6 years, from 1906 to 1914, during which time he continually strove for expansion of the navy. On September 21, 1907, Saitō was ennobled with the title of danshaku under the kazoku peerage system. On October 16, 1912, he was promoted to full admiral. However, on April 16, 1914, Saitō was forced to resign from his post as Navy Minister due implications of his involvement in the Siemens scandal, entered the reserves. In September 1919, Saitō was appointed as the third Japanese Governor-General of Korea. Rising to the post right after the culmination of the Korean independence movement, he was subject to an immediate assassination attempt by radical Korean nationalists.
He served as governor-general of Korea twice—in 1919–1927, again in 1929–1931, implementing a series of measures to moderate Japan's policies on Koreans. He was awarded the Order of the Paulownia Flowers in 1924. On April 29, 1925, his title was elevated to that of shishaku. In 1927, Saitō was a member of the Japanese delegation at the Geneva Naval Conference on Disarmament, he became a privy councillor. Following the assassination of Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi on May 15, 1932 by fanatical navy officers who thought Inukai far too conciliatory, Prince Saionji Kinmochi, one of the Emperor's closest and strongest advisors, attempted to stop the slide towards a military take-over of the government. In a compromise move, Saitō was chosen to be Inukai's successor. Sadao Araki remained as War Minister and began making demands on the new government. During Saitō's tenure, Japan recognized the independence of Manchukuo, withdrew from the League of Nations. Saitō's administration was one of the longer-serving ones of the inter-war period, it continued until July 8, 1934, when the cabinet resigned en masse because of the Teijin Incident bribery scandal.
Keisuke Okada succeeded as prime minister. Saitō continued to be an important figure in politics as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from December 26, 1935, but was assassinated during the February 26 Incident of 1936 at his home in Yotsuya, Tokyo. Takahashi, his predecessor, was shot dead the same day, along with several other top-rank politicians targeted by the rebels. Saitō was posthumously awarded the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Baron Viscount Order of the Sacred Treasure, Fourth Class Order of the Golden Kite, Second Class Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath - 15 May 1906 Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2. Brendon, Piers; the Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s. Vintage. ISBN 0-375-70808-1. Gordon, Andrew.
A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195110609/ISBN 9780195110609; the Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674003349/ISBN 9780674003347. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312239149/ISBN 9780312239145. "Materials of IJN: Saito Makoto". Imperial Japanese Navy. Archived from the original on. Retrieved 2007-08-03. Republic of Korea Newspaper clippings about Saitō Makoto in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Sakurakai, or Cherry Blossom Society was an ultranationalist secret society established by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930, with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, via a military coup d'état if necessary. Their avowed goal was a Shōwa Restoration, which they claimed would restore the Emperor Hirohito to his rightful place, free of party politics and evil bureaucrats in a new military dictatorship; the Sakurakai was led by Imperial Japanese Army Lieutenant Colonel Kingoro Hashimoto chief of the Russian section of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff and Captain Isamu Cho with the support of Sadao Araki. The society began with about ten members, active-duty field grade officers of the Army General Staff, expanded to include regimental-grade and company-grade officers, so that its membership increased to more than 50 by February 1931, up to several hundred by October 1931. One prominent leader was Kuniaki Koiso, future Prime Minister of Japan.
"The Sakura group sought political reform: the elimination of party government by a coup d'etat and the establishment of a new cabinet based upon state socialism, in order to stamp out Japan's corrupt politics and thought."Twice in 1931, the Sakurakai and civilian ultranationalist elements attempted to overthrow the government. With the arrest of its leadership after the Imperial Colors Incident, the Sakurakai was dissolved. Many of its former members migrated to the Toseiha faction within the Army. Cherry blossom Black Dragon Society Beasley, W. G.. The Rise of Modern Japan, 3rd Edition: Political and Social Change since 1850. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23373-6. Harries, Meirion. Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. Samuels, Richard J.. Machiavelli's Children: Leaders And Their Legacies In Italy And Japan. Page: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8982-2. Sims, Richard. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000.
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7
Kingoro Hashimoto was a soldier in the Imperial Japanese Army and politician. He was famous for having twice tried to stage a coup against the civilian government in the 1930s. Hashimoto was born in Okayama City, a graduate of the 23rd class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1911, he subsequently graduated from the Army Staff College in 1920. In April 1922, he was stationed at Harbin. In 1923, he was sent on special assignment near the border with the Soviet Union. From September 1927 through June 1930, he was reassigned as military attaché to Turkey. On his return to Japan, he was posted to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, headed a Russian studies department, he was promoted to colonel in August, 1930 and became an instructor at the Army Staff College in October. From the middle of 1930, Hashimoto became involved in right-wing politics within the military, with active participation in various attempts at a coup d'état, he was a founder of radical secret societies within the army.
Hashimoto participated in the March incident of 1931. The Sakurakai was secretly formed by him and Captain Isamu Chō, it sought political reform with the elimination of party government by a coup d'état and the establishment of a new cabinet based upon state socialism to stamp out Japan's allegedly-corrupt politics and thought. That meant a reversal of the Westernization of Japan; the attempt failed, but Hashimoto, along with Isamu Chō and Shūmei Ōkawa, organized a further coup, the Imperial Colors Incident known as the October Incident, with Sadao Araki. All the conspirators were transferred to other posts. There were suspicions of the instigation by Hashimoto and Araki in the final attempt, the Military Academy Incident. Despite his failures, Hashimoto continued as an active radical thinker during World War II, he was involved in the Taisei Yokusankai. He proposed a nationalist one-party dictatorship, based on socialism, similar to European fascism; the militarists had strong industrial support but socialist-nationalist sentiments on the part of radical officers.
He represented the extreme left-wing militarists. Supporters of Fumimaro Konoe's "Right-Socialist" revolution opposed the "right-wing" militarists represented by Senjuro Hayashi in the same "revolutionary grouping." Receiving political patronage by Hiranuma Kiichirō, another right-wing politician with establishment links in the Japanese Navy links. Hashimoto was elected to the Japanese House of Representatives and became vice-president of the Diet of Japan. Throughout the war, the Yokusan Sonendan, under his leadership, had the mission of guiding the nationalist and militarist indoctrination of the youth, he was involved in the Panay incident of December 12, 1937 in which unprovoked Japanese bombers attacked and sank the USS Panay on the Yangtze River in China. Hashimoto was the senior Japanese officer in the region, a few days after the sinking, he was quoted in US newspapers as saying "I had orders to fire." Still, US-Japanese relations continued to sour in the aftermath of the incident, which would lead to the Pacific War.
Hashimoto supported aggressive policies during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in 1940, along with the other military extremists of the Imperial Japanese Army. After the end of the war, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in Sugamo Prison by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, he died in 1957
Ministry of the Army
The Army Ministry known as the Ministry of War, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army. It existed from 1872 to 1945; the Army Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Navy Ministry, to replace the Ministry of War of the early Meiji government. The Army Ministry was in charge of both administration and operational command of the Imperial Japanese Army. However, with the creation of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office in December 1878, it was left with only administrative functions, its primary role was to secure the army budget, weapons procurement, relations with the National Diet and the Cabinet and broad matters of military policy. The post of Army Minister was politically powerful. Although a member of the Cabinet after the establishment of the cabinet system of government in 1885, the Army Minister was answerable directly to the Emperor and not the Prime Minister. From the time of its creation, the post of Army Minister was filled by an active-duty general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
This practice was made into law under the "Military Ministers to be Active-Duty Officers Law" in 1900 by Prime Minister Yamagata Aritomo to curb the influence of political parties into military affairs. Abolished in 1913 under the administration of Yamamoto Gonnohyōe, the law was revived again in 1936 at the insistence of the Army General Staff by Prime Minister Hirota Kōki. At the same time, the Imperial Japanese Army prohibited its generals from accepting political offices except by permission from Imperial General Headquarters. Taken together, these arrangements gave the Imperial Japanese Army an effective, legal right to nominate the Army Minister; the ability of the Imperial Japanese Army to refuse to nominate an Army Minister gave it effective veto power over the formation of any civilian administration, was a key factor in the erosion of representative democracy and the rise of Japanese militarism. After 1937, both the Army Minister and the Chief of the Army General Staff were members of the Imperial General Headquarters.
With the surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Army Ministry was abolished together with the Imperial Japanese Army by the Allied occupation authorities in November 1945 and was not revived in the post-war Constitution of Japan. Under-Secretary of the Army Military Affairs Bureau Personnel Bureau Weapons Bureau Army Service Bureau Administration Bureau Intendance Medical Judicial Bureau Economic Mobilization Bureau Aeronautical Department Economic Mobilization The Army Ministry and Imperial General Headquarters were located in Ichigaya Heights, now part of Shinjuku, Tokyo. Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office Edgerton, Robert B.. Warriors of the Rising Sun: A History of the Japanese Military. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3600-7. Harries, Meirion. Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. "Foreign Office Files for Japan and the Far East". Adam Matthew Publications. Accessed 2 March 2005
Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office
The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army. The Army Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Navy Ministry, to replace the Ministry of Military Affairs of the early Meiji government; the Army Ministry was in charge of both administration and operational command of the Imperial Japanese Army. The Imperial Army General Staff was thus responsible for the preparation of war plans; the Chief of the Army General Staff was the senior ranking uniformed officer in the Imperial Japanese Army and enjoyed, along with the War Minister, the Navy Minister, the Chief of the Navy General Staff, direct access to the Emperor. In wartime, the Imperial Army General Staff formed part of the army section of the Imperial General Headquarters, an ad hoc body under the supervision of the emperor created to assist in coordinating overall command. Following the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867 and the "restoration" of direct imperial rule, the leaders of the new Meiji government sought to reduce Japan's vulnerability to Western imperialism by systematically emulating the technological, governing and military practices of the European great powers.
Under Ōmura Masujirō and his newly created Ministry of the Military Affairs, the Japanese military was patterned after that of France. However, the stunning victory of Prussia and the other members of the North German Confederation in the 1870/71 Franco-Prussian War convinced the Meiji oligarchs of the superiority of the Prussian military model and in February 1872, Yamagata Aritomo and Oyama Iwao proposed that the Japanese military be remodeled along Prussian lines. In December 1878, at the urging of Katsura Taro, who had served as a military attaché to Prussia, the Meiji government adopted the Prussian/German general staff system which included the independence of the military from civilian organs of government, thus ensuring that the military would stay above political party maneuvering, would be loyal directly to the emperor rather than to a Prime Minister who might attempt to usurp the emperor's authority; the administrative and operational functions of the army were divided between two agencies.
A reorganized Ministry of War served as the administrative and mobilization agency of the army, an independent Army General Staff had responsibility for strategic planning and command functions. The Chief of the Army General Staff, with direct access to the emperor could operate independently of the civilian government; this complete independence of the military from civilian oversight was codified in the 1889 Meiji Constitution which designated that the Army and Navy were directly under the personal command of the emperor, not under the civilian leadership or Cabinet. Yamagata became the first chief of the Army General Staff in 1878. Thanks to Yamagata's influence, the Chief of the Army General Staff became far more powerful than the War Minister. Furthermore, a 1900 imperial ordinance decreed that the two service ministers had to be chosen from among the generals or lieutenant generals on the active duty roster. By ordering the incumbent War Minister to resign or by ordering generals to refuse an appointment as War Minister, the Chief of the General Staff could force the resignation of the cabinet or forestall the formation of a new one.
Of the seventeen officers who served as Chief of the Army General Staff between 1879 and 1945, three were members of the Imperial Family and thus enjoyed great prestige by virtue of their ties to the Emperor. The American Occupation authorities abolished the Imperial Army General Staff in September 1945; the Organization of the Army General Staff Office underwent a number of changes during its history. Before the start of the Pacific War, it was divided into four operational bureaus and a number of supporting organs: Chief of the Army General Staff Vice Chief of the Army General Staff General Affairs G-1 Strategy and Tactics Department Land Survey Department G-2 Russia Department Europe and North America Department China Department Others Department G-3 G-4 G-5 General Staff College Note: The given rank for each person is the rank the person held at last, not the rank the person held at the time of their post as Chief of the Army General Staff. For example, the rank of Field Marshal existed only from 1898 onward.
Ministry of the Army U. S. War Department, Handbook of Japanese Military Forces, TM-E 30-480. Hayashi, Saburo. Quantico, Virginia: The Marine Corps Association. Shin'ichi Kitaoka, "Army as Bureaucracy: Japanese Militarism Revisited", Journal of Military History, special issue 57: 67-83. Edgerton, Robert B
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department
The Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department serves as the police force of Tokyo Metropolis. Founded in 1874, it is headed by a Superintendent-General, appointed by the National Public Safety Commission, approved by the Prime Minister; the Metropolitan Police, with a staff of more than 40,000 police officers, over 2,800 civilian personnel, manages 102 stations in the prefecture. The main building of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department is located in the Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda ward, Tokyo. Built in 1980, it is 18 stories tall, a large wedge-shaped building with a cylindrical tower, it is seen from the street and a well-known landmark. In 2007, the TMPD was under scrutiny when a serving TMPD officer was involved in an incident where he used his official sidearm to shoot a female person to death before he committed suicide; the TMPD was investigating an incident in the Kamata Police Station in Ota Ward where a police officer committed suicide due to harassment at work. The chief in charge has been disciplined.
The Metropolitan Police Department is under the command of a Superintendent-General and reports directly to the Tokyo Metropolitan Public Safety Commission. The Superintendent-General can be appointed and replaced at any time as long as the prime minister and the TMPSC receives their approval. Since the MPD is autonomous, it does not operate under the authority of any Regional Police Bureau; the MPD commands the following bureaus: Administration Bureau Personnel and Training Bureau Traffic Bureau Community Police Affairs Bureau Security Bureau Public Security Bureau Criminal Investigation Bureau Community Safety Bureau Organized Crime Control Bureau The MPD has its own academy, the Metropolitan Police Department Academy. The ranks used in the TMPD have been revised in 2013, changing only the English translation of some of the ranks used by the force. Otherwise, these ranks are observed throughout its history. Superintendent-General Deputy Superintendent-General Senior Commissioner Superintendent Supervisor Commissioner Chief Superintendent Assistant Commissioner Senior Superintendent Superintendent Chief Inspector Inspector Inspector Assistant Inspector Sergeant Senior Police Officer Police Officer Security Police Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department
The Kenpeitai was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. It was both a secret police force. During the Japanese occupation, the kenpeitai arrested those who were suspected of being anti-Japanese. While it was institutionally part of the army, the Kenpeitai discharged the functions of the military police for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the direction of the Admiralty Minister, those of the executive police under the direction of the Interior Minister and those of the judicial police under the direction of the Justice Minister. A member of the corps was called a kenpei; the Kenpeitai was established in 1881 by a decree called the Kenpei Ordinance, figuratively "articles concerning gendarmes". Its model was the Gendarmerie of France. Details of the Kenpeitai's military and judicial police functions were defined by the Kenpei Rei of 1898, amended twenty-six times before Japan's defeat in August 1945; the force consisted of 349 men. The enforcement of the new conscription legislation was an important part of their duty, due to resistance from peasant families.
The Kenpeitai's general affairs branch was in charge of the force's policy, personnel management, internal discipline, as well as communication with the Ministries of the Admiralty, the Interior, Justice. The operation branch was in charge of the distribution of military police units within the army, general public security and intelligence. In 1907, the Kenpeitai was ordered to Korea where its main duty was defined as "preserving the peace", although it functioned as a military police for the Japanese army stationed there; this status remained unchanged after Japan's annexation of Korea in 1910. The Kenpeitai maintained public order within Japan under the direction of the Interior Minister, in the occupied territories under the direction of the Minister of War. Japan had a civilian secret police force, Tokkō, the Japanese acronym of Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu part of the Interior Ministry. However, the Kenpeitai had a Tokkō branch of its own, through it discharged the functions of a secret police.
When the Kenpeitai arrested a civilian under the direction of the Justice Minister, the arrested person was nominally subject to civilian judicial proceedings. The Kenpeitai's brutality was notorious in Korea and the other occupied territories; the Kenpeitai were abhorred in Japan's mainland as well during World War II when Prime Minister Hideki Tojo the Commander of the Kenpeitai of the Japanese Army in Manchuria from 1935 to 1937, used the Kenpeitai extensively to make sure that everyone was loyal to the war. According to United States Army TM-E 30-480, there were over 36,000 regular members of the Kenpeitai at the end of the war; as many foreign territories fell under the Japanese military occupation during the 1930s and the early 1940s, the Kenpeitai recruited a large number of locals in those territories. Taiwanese and Koreans were used extensively as auxiliaries to police the newly occupied territories in Southeast Asia, although the Kenpeitai recruited French Indochinese and others; the Kenpeitai may have trained a Vietnamese nationalist and military leader.
The Kenpeitai was disarmed and disbanded after the Japanese surrender in August 1945. Today, the post-war Self-Defense Forces' internal police is called Keimutai; each individual member is called Keimukan. In the 1920s and the 1930s, the Kenpeitai forged various connections with certain prewar European intelligence services; when Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, Japan formed formal links with the intelligence units, now under German and Italian fascists, known as the German Abwehr and the Italian Servizio Informazioni Militare. The army and the navy of Japan contacted their corresponding Wehrmacht intelligence units, Schutzstaffel or Kriegsmarine, about information on Europe and vice versa. Europe and Japan realized the benefits of the exchanges. For example, the Japanese sent data about Soviet forces in the Far East and in Operation Barbarossa from the Japanese embassy. Admiral Canaris offered aid in respect to the neutrality of Portugal in Timor. One important contact point was in occupied British Malaya.
The base served Axis submarine forces. At regular intervals and information exchanges occurred there. While these were available to them, Axis forces used the bases in Italian East Africa, the Vichy France colony of Madagascar and some neutral places like Portuguese India; the Kenpeitai ran extensive criminal and collaborationist networks, extorting vast amounts of money from businesses and civilians wherever they operated. They ran the Allied prisoner of war system, which treated captives with extreme brutality. Many of the abuses were documented in Japanese war crimes trials, such as those committed by the Kempeitai East District Branch in Singapore; the Kenpeitai carried out revenge attacks against prisoners and civilians. For example, after Colonel Doolittle's raid on Tokyo in 1942, the Kenpeitai carried out reprisals against thousands of Chinese civilians and captured airmen, or in 1943 the Double Tenth massacre, in response to an Allied raid on Singapore Harbour. All these actions together—including Unit 731's vivisection campaign—have become infamous.
The Kenpeitai maintained a headquarters in each re