Pizzicato is a playing technique that involves plucking the strings of a string instrument. The exact technique varies somewhat depending on the type of instrument: On bowed string instruments it is a method of playing by plucking the strings with the fingers, rather than using the bow; this produces a different sound from bowing and percussive rather than sustained. On keyboard string instruments, such as the piano, pizzicato may be employed as one of the variety of techniques involving direct manipulation of the strings known collectively as "string piano". On the guitar, it is a muted form of plucking, which bears an audible resemblance to pizzicato on a bowed string instrument with its shorter sustain, it is known as palm muting. When a string is struck or plucked, as with pizzicato, sound waves are generated that do not belong to a harmonic series as when a string is bowed; this complex timbre is called inharmonicity. The inharmonicity of a string depends on its physical characteristics, such as tension, composition and length.
The inharmonicity disappears when strings are bowed because the bow's stick-slip action is periodic, so it drives all of the resonances of the string at harmonic ratios if it has to drive them off their natural frequency. The first recognised use of pizzicato in classical music is found in Tobias Hume's Captain Humes Poeticall Musicke, wherein he instructs the viola da gamba player to use pizzicato. Another early use is found in Claudio Monteverdi's Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, in which the players are instructed to use two fingers of their right hand to pluck the strings. In 1756, Leopold Mozart in his Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule instructs the player to use the index finger of the right hand; this has remained the most usual way to execute a pizzicato, though sometimes the middle finger is used. The bow is held in the hand at the same time unless there is enough time to put it down and pick it up again between bowed passages. In jazz and bluegrass, the few popular music styles which use double bass, pizzicato is the usual way to play the double bass.
This is unusual for a violin-family instrument, because regardless whether violin-family instruments are being used in jazz, traditional or Classical music, they are played with the bow for most of a performance. In classical double bass playing, pizzicato is performed with the bow held in the hand. In contrast, in jazz and other non-Classical styles, the player is not holding a bow, so they are free to use two or three fingers to pluck the string. In classical music, string instruments are most played with the bow, composers give specific indications to play pizzicato where required. Pieces in classical music that are played pizzicato include: J. S. Bach: the ninth movement of the Magnificat Josef Strauss: Pizzicato Polka. Johann Strauss II: Neue Pizzicato Polka. Edvard Grieg: Act IV – Anitra's Dance in Peer Gynt Léo Delibes: the "Divertissement: Pizzicati" from Act 3 of the ballet Sylvia Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: the third movement of the 4th symphony Helmer Alexandersson: the third movement of his second symphony Béla Bartók: the fourth movement of the String Quartet No. 4 Benjamin Britten: the second movement of the Simple Symphony Leroy Anderson: Jazz Pizzicato and Plink, Plunk!.
Niccolò Paganini: In the ninth variation of caprice no.24 in 24 Caprices Antonio Vivaldi, in the "Ah Ch'Infelice Sempre" section of his cantata Cessate, omai cessate, combined both pizzicato and bowed instruments to create a unique sound. He included pizzicato in the second movement of "Winter" from The Four Seasons. In music notation, a composer will indicate the performer should use pizzicato with the abbreviation pizz. A return to bowing is indicated by the Italian term arco. A left hand pizzicato is indicated by writing a small cross above the note, a Bartók pizzicato is indicated by a circle with a small vertical line through the top of it above the note in question or by writing Bartók pizz at the start of the relevant passage. In classical music, arco playing is the default assumption. If a string player has to play pizzicato for a long period of time, the performer may put down the bow. Violinists and violists may hold the instrument in the "banjo position", pluck the strings with the thumb of the right hand.
This technique is used, only in movements which are pizzicato throughout. A technique similar to this, where the strings are strummed like a guitar, is called for in the 4th movement of Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio Espagnol, where the violins and cellos are instructed to play pizzicato "quasi guitara", the music here consists of three- and four-note chords, which are fingered and strummed much like the instrument being imitated. Another colorful pizzicato technique used in the same Rimsky-Korsakov piece mentioned above is two-handed pizzicato
Plucked string instrument
Plucked string instruments are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by plucking the strings. Plucking is a way of pulling and releasing the string in such a way as to give it an impulse that causes the string to vibrate. Plucking can be done with either a plectrum. Most plucked string instruments belong to the lute family, which consist of a resonating body, a neck; the zither family does not have a neck, the strings are stretched across the soundboard. In the harp family, the strings do not run across it; the harpsichord does not fit any of these categories but is a plucked string instrument, as its strings are struck with a plectrum when the keys are depressed. Bowed string instruments, such as the violin, can be plucked in the technique known as pizzicato. Struck string instruments can be plucked as an extended technique. Plucked string instruments are not a category in the Sachs-Hornbostel classification, as some of them are simple chordophones and others are composite; this is possible due to the Lute family 3rd bridge guitar Appalachian dulcimer Autoharp Bağlama Baglamas Bajo sexto Balalaika Bandura Bandurria Bandolin Banjo Banjolele Barbat Begena Bordonua Bouzouki Bugarija Cak Cavaquinho Çeng Charango Chitarra battente Çiftelia Citole Cittern Cobza Contrabass Cuatro Cuk Cümbüş Đàn bầu Đàn nguyệt Đàn tam Đàn tranh Đàn tỳ bà Daruan Diddley bow Dombra Domra Doshpuluur Dotara Double Bass Dutar Duxianqin Ektara Electric bass Electric upright bass Gayageum Geomungo Gittern Gottuvadhyam Guitar Classical guitar Solid-body classical guitar Acoustic guitar Steel-string acoustic guitar Bass guitar Acoustic bass guitar Chapman Stick Cigar box guitar Electric guitar Harp guitar Resonator guitar Guitarpsichord Lyre-guitar Guitarrón chileno Guitarrón mexicano Gusli Guqin Guzheng Harp Electric harp Cross-strung harp Harpsichord Irish bouzouki Jakhe Jarana huasteca Jarana jarocha Jouhikko Jumbush Kacapi Kanklės Kantele Kanun Kithara Kobyz Kobza Kokles Konghou Kontigi Komuz Kora Koto Krar Kutiyapi Langeleik Laúd Liuqin Lute Archlute Theorbo Lyre Mandolin family Mandolin Mandore Mandola Octave mandola Mandocello Mandobass Mandolone Laouto Mandolin-banjo Mejoranera Mohan veena Monochord Morin khuur Musical bow Nyatiti Octavina Oud Pandura Panduri Phandar Pipa Portuguese guitar Psaltery Qanún/kanun Qanbūs Qinqin Rawap Requinto Rote Rubab Rudra veena Sagar veena Sallaneh Sanxian Saraswati veena Šargija Sarod Sasando Saung Swaraj Saz Setar Shamisen Sitar Tambura Tamburitza Tanbur Tar Tea chest bass Tiple Colombian tiple Torban Tremoloa Tres Ukulele Valiha Veena Vichitra veena Vihuela Viola toeira Yueqin Zhongruan Zhu Zither Stringed instrument tunings Atlas of Plucked Instruments Classical Guitar Museum
Regal Musical Instrument Company
The Regal Musical Instrument Company was established in 1908 in Chicago. By the 1930s, they were one of the largest manufacturers of musical instruments in the world. Regal specialised in: Hi-End student instruments, sold under the Regal name through major Dealers. Custom-built instruments, produced for professional musicians in the Regal custom shop. Regal was involved in the production of resonator fretted instruments from their first development until 1941, manufacturing components and bodies for both the National String Instrument Corporation and the Dobro Manufacturing Company and producing whole instruments which sold under many brand names including Dobro; the bodies of their Laminated bellied guitars were suited to resonator conversion. Production of resonator guitars ceased in 1941, of all fretted instruments in 1954. However, in 1965, Fender distributed five models of banjo under the Regal name, as the exclusive distributors. In 1987 the Regal name and trademark reappeared as a brand of Saga Musical Instruments.
Most notable for their 4-string bass resonator guitars, Emil Wulschner & Son, used the Regal brand name c.1884-1901. The new owners of Emil Wulschner & Son renamed the company the Regal Musical instrument Manufacturing Company in 1901 and continued using the Regal name on instruments through 1904. Lyon & Healy bought the rights to the Regal name in 1905 and used it until 1908. Http://www.mugwumps.com/faq.htm Banjo FAQ. http://www.ukbanjo.co.uk/abjo1.htm The Banjo Story. Http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/electricguitar/pop-ups/01-07.htm Metal-bodied Regal Dobro, 1940, with historical background
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument; the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications; the date and origin of the first device considered. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years; some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them.
Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, many systems of classification have been used over the years. Instruments can be classified by their material composition, their size, etc.. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound; the academic study of musical instruments is called organology. A musical instrument makes sounds.
Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment; the concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such a shells and plant parts; as instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way—for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument. Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world.
Some finds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is in dispute. Consensus solidifies about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using durable methods tend to survive; as such, the specimens found. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia; the carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture. However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps; the flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, are more accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres, two harps, a silver double flute and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the predecessor of modern bagpipes; the cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes. These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, have been used to reconstruct them; the graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" found.
Scholars agree that there are no reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved f
Bowed string instrument
Bowed string instruments are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by a bow rubbing the strings. The bow rubbing the string causes vibration. Violin Viola Cello Double bass Variants on the standard four members of the violin family include:Viola profonda Violin octet Fiddle Five string violin Cello da spalla Baroque violin Kontra Kit violin Stroh violin Låtfiol Hardanger fiddle Lira da braccio Octobass Treble viol Alto viol Tenor viol Bass viol Variants on the standard four members of the viol family include:Pardessus de viol Division viol Lyra viol Baryton Violone Viola d'amore Lirone Vihuela de arco Byzantine lyra Cretan lyra Calabrian lira Gadulka Lijerica Pochette Rebec Rabeca Rebab Kemenche Kamancheh Kemençe of the Black Sea Classical kemençe Banhu Daguangxian Dahu Dihu Diyingehu Erhu Erxian Gaohu Gehu Huqin Jiaohu Jinghu Jing erhu Laruan Leiqin Matouqin Maguhu Sanhu Sihu Tiqin Tihu Tuhu Yehu Yazheng Xiqin Zhonghu Zhuihu Zhuiqin The following instruments are sounded by means of a turning wheel that acts as the bow.
Organistrum Hurdy-gurdy Donskoy ryley Dulcigurdy a.k.a. Vielle à roue et à manche Drejelire Lira tekerő Ninera Kaisatsuko Violano Virtuoso Wheelharp Viola organista Harmonichord Bowed clavier Masenqo Violoncello da spalla Lira da braccio Ravanahatha Ajaeng Yaylı tanbur Kingri string Instrument Shichepshin Đàn nhị Đàn hồ Đàn gáo Sohaegeum Haegeum Kokyū sorud Chuurqin Yaylı tanbur Daxophone Arpeggione Bowed psaltery Bowed dulcimer Jouhikko Talharpa Gue Vielle Giga Fiðla Tautirut Agiarut Crwth Neola Bowed guitar Musical saw Morin khuur Gusle Saw duang Saw sam sai Saw u Salo Tro Khmer Tro sau toch Tro sau thom Tro u huqin Sarangi Sarangi Sarinda Esraj Nyckelharpa Ghaychak Gadulka Gudok Kobyz Sorahi Byzaanchy Igil Imzad Bow stroke
A machine head is a geared apparatus for tuning stringed musical instruments by adjusting string tension. Machine heads are used on mandolins, double basses, others, are located on the instrument's headstock. Other names for guitar tuners include pegs, machines, knobs and tighteners. Non-geared tuning devices as used on violins, cellos, older Flamenco guitars, ukuleles are known as friction pegs, which hold the string to tension by way of friction caused by their tapered shape and by the string pull created by the tight string. Traditionally, a single machine head consists of a cylinder or capstan, mounted at the center of a pinion gear, a knob or "button" and a worm gear that links them; the capstan has a hole through the far end from the gear, the string is made to go through that hole, is wrapped around the capstan. To complete the string installation, the string is tightened by turning the capstan using the tuning knob; the worm gear ensures. Banjos employ a different mechanism using planetary gears - in this case the knob and the capstan both rotate on the same axis.
A few guitars have used this design. The guitarist adjusts the tension of the various strings using the knobs so that they are tuned: a higher tension yields a sharper pitch, a lower tension a flatter pitch. Typical tensions for steel-string acoustic guitars with "light" tension strings are 10.5 kgf to 13.8 kgf. Several kinds of machine head apparatus exist: on classical guitars, the worm gears are exposed. Vintage and vintage-reproduction guitars have individual open-gear tuners, enclosed tuners not having become common until after WWII. Several machine head placements are possible, depending on the shape of the headstock: rectangular head, 2 rows of 3 pins: found on most "Folk" and "Jazz" guitars and on Gibson Les Paul guitars. Bass tuners feature larger knobs than guitar tuners as well. Gear ratios of 20:1 are used often. Exposed gears are much more common in premium bass guitars than in six string non-bass instruments. On some guitars, such as those with Floyd Rose bridge, string tuning may be conducted using microtuning tuners incorporated into the guitar bridge.
Likewise,'headless' guitars and basses, notably those designed by Steinberger and their licensed imitations, such as the Hohner Jack Bass, unlicensed imitations such as the Washburn Bantam, have the machine heads at the body end. Steinbergers and Hohners require specialist double-ball end strings, whereas the Washburn Bantam can take regular strings. Presently, most worm-gear tuners provide a gear ratio of 14:1. In older designs, 12:1 was common, lower ratios as well. Lower ratios allow a replacement string to be brought more up to pitch, though with less precision for fine-tuning. Lower ratios are more forgiving of imperfect machining, of factors that might compromise the gear surfaces; as increased precision of milling became more cost-effective, higher ratios appeared on the market, with 14:1 being the modern standard, trading accuracy against slower initial string winding. More versions with an 18:1 gear ratio are available, the Gotoh 510 offers 21:1; the term "locking tuners" has two meanings.
Presently, it refers to some sort of mechanism in the string peg that locks the string in place, preventing slippage. With the popular increase of extreme vibrato-arm usage in the 1980s, several manufacturers introduced a modified design called locking machine heads, where the individual tuner has an additional mechanism to lock the string in place and stabilize tuning intended for musicians who make regular use of the vibrato; some designs increase string breakage at the point. The term "locking" is much older originating with Grover, refers to an "anti-backlash" design of the gears, which reduced the slippage of the basic worm-and-gear system; the gear's teeth are shaped to lock into those of the worm, with the string tension insufficient to overcome the friction between the gears. Such a design is called self-locking. Grover Rotomatics and similar designs from other manufacturers are rightly called "locking tuners." Musicians playing certain instrumental families, most notably the violin family remain resistant to the use of machine heads, insisting on the continued use of friction pegs.
The fitting of them on instruments in these families is regarded as'blasphemous'. Such factors as appearance and simplicity, among others, are cited as justification; this resistance remains despite the well-known issues with friction pegs losing tuning, coming loose, or jamming. In the
Musical instrument classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; the oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC. It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi, compiled from sources of the Chou period and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds; the eight-fold system of pa yin, from the same source, occurred and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal, silk, gourd, clay and wood classes, it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, spring-summer and SE, respectively.
However, the Chou-Li, an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, clay, silk, wood and bamboo. The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan, attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming compiled in the 4th century BC. Much Ming dynasty scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, those that are rhythmic, a scheme, the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. More instruments are classified according to how the sound is produced; the modern system divides instruments into wind and percussion. It is of Greek origin; the scheme was expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division, but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips.
Many instruments do not fit neatly into this scheme. The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Keyboard instruments do not fit into this scheme. For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. For this reason, keyboard instruments are regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings, plucked strings or no strings at all, it might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, more on the technique required to play them. Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Boethius labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, percussione.
Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun, a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. But this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group; the T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings with the winds together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy, re