Shigeru Miyamoto is a Japanese video game designer and producer for the video game company Nintendo serving as one of its representative directors. He is best known as the creator of some of the most critically acclaimed and best-selling video games and franchises of all time, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, F-Zero, Donkey Kong and Pikmin. Miyamoto joined Nintendo in 1977, when the company was beginning its foray into video games and starting to abandon the playing cards it had made since 1889, his games have been prominently showcased and anticipated as flagship titles of every Nintendo video game console, with his earliest work appearing on arcade machines in the late 1970s. He managed Nintendo's Entertainment Analysis & Development software division, which developed many of the company's first-party titles; as a result of Nintendo president Satoru Iwata's death in July 2015, Miyamoto fulfilled the role of acting president alongside Genyo Takeda until being formally appointed as the company's "Creative Fellow" a few months later.
Miyamoto was born in the Japanese town of Sonobe, a rural town northwest of Kyoto, on November 16, 1952. His parents were of "modest means", his father taught the English language. From an early age, Miyamoto began to explore the natural areas around his home. On one of these expeditions, Miyamoto came upon a cave, after days of hesitation, went inside. Miyamoto's expeditions into the Kyoto countryside inspired his work The Legend of Zelda, a seminal video game. Miyamoto graduated from Kanazawa Municipal College of Industrial Arts with a degree in industrial design but no job lined up, he had a love for manga and hoped to become a professional manga artist before considering a career in video games. He was influenced by manga's classical kishōtenketsu narrative structure, as well as Western genre television shows; the title that inspired him to enter the video game industry was the 1978 arcade hit Space Invaders. Nintendo, a small Japanese company, had traditionally sold playing cards and other novelties, although it had started to branch out into toys and games in the mid-1960s.
Through a mutual friend, Miyamoto's father arranged an interview with Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi. After showing some of his toy creations, Miyamoto was hired in 1977 as an apprentice in the planning department. Miyamoto went on to become the company's first artist, he helped create the art for Sheriff. He first helped the company develop a game with the 1980 release Radar Scope; the game achieved moderate success in Japan, but by 1981, Nintendo's efforts to break it into the North American video game market had failed, leaving the company with a large number of unsold units and on the verge of financial collapse. In an effort to keep the company afloat, Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi decided to convert unsold Radar Scope units into a new arcade game, he tasked Miyamoto with the conversion, about which Miyamoto has said self-deprecatingly that "no one else was available" to do the work. Nintendo's head engineer, Gunpei Yokoi, supervised the project. Miyamoto imagined many characters and plot concepts, but settled on a love triangle between a gorilla, a carpenter, a girl.
He meant to mirror the rivalry between comic characters Bluto and Popeye for the woman Olive Oyl, although Nintendo's original intentions to gain rights to Popeye failed. Bluto evolved into an ape, a form Miyamoto claimed was "nothing too evil or repulsive"; this ape would be the pet of the main character, "a funny, hang-loose kind of guy." Miyamoto named "Beauty and the Beast" and the 1933 film King Kong as influences. Donkey Kong marked the first time that the formulation of a video game's storyline preceded the actual programming, rather than being appended as an afterthought. Miyamoto lacked the technical skills to program it himself, he wanted to make the characters different sizes, move in different manners, react in various ways. However, Yokoi viewed Miyamoto's original design as too complex. Yokoi suggested using see-saws to catapult the hero across the screen. Miyamoto next thought with barrels for obstacles; when he asked that the game have multiple stages, the four-man programming team complained that he was asking them to make the game repeat, but the team successfully programmed the game.
When the game was sent to Nintendo of America for testing, the sales manager disapproved of its vast differentiation from the maze and shooter games common at the time. When American staffers began naming the characters, they settled on "Pauline" for the woman, after Polly James, wife of Nintendo's Redmond, warehouse manager, Don James; the playable character "Jumpman", was named for Mario Segale, the warehouse landlord. These character names were used in promotional materials; the staff pushed for an English name, thus it received the title Donkey Kong. Donkey Kong was a success, leading Miyamoto to work on sequels Donkey Kong Jr. in 1982 and Donkey Kong 3 in 1983. In his next game, he reworked the Donkey Kong character Jumpman into Mario, gave him a brother: Luigi, he named the new game Mario Bros. Yokoi convinced Miyamoto to give Mario some superhuman abilities, namely the ability to fall from any height unharmed. Mario's appearance in Donkey Kong—overalls, a hat, a thick mus
Wargame (video games)
Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map, as well as historical accuracy. The genre of wargame video games is derived from earlier forms of wargames; the games thematically represent the wargame hobby, although they tend to be less realistic in order to increase accessibility for more casual players. The amount of realism varies between games as game designers balance an accurate simulation with playability; the wargaming community saw the possibilities of computer gaming early and made attempts to break into the market, notably Avalon Hill's Microcomputer Games line, which began in 1980 and covered a variety of topics, including adaptations of some of their wargames. In February 1980 Strategic Simulations, Inc. was the first to sell a serious, professionally packaged computer wargame, Computer Bismarck, a turn-based game based on the last battle of the battleship Bismarck. It and Strategic Studies Group were computer game companies that continued the genre by specializing in games that borrowed from board and miniature wargames.
The companies enjoyed a certain popularity into the 1990s. TalonSoft started in 1995 with a similar focus, until purchased and closed down by Take-Two Interactive in 2002; the primary gameplay mode in a wargame is tactical: fighting battles. Wargames sometimes have a strategic mode where players may plan their battle or choose an area to conquer, but players spend much less time in this mode and more time fighting; because it is difficult to provide an intelligent way to delegate tasks to a subordinate, war games keep the number of units down to hundreds rather than hundreds of thousands. Units are scaled to be disproportionately large compared to the landscape, in order to promote effective gameplay; these games use a much faster time line than reality, thus wargames do not model night time or sleep periods, though some games apply them, they can be time-consuming. Many contemporary computer strategy games can be considered wargames, in the sense that they are a simulation of warfare on some level.
The mechanics and language have little in common with board and miniature games, but the general subject matter is popular and provides a thematic link. Tabletop wargames are categorized according to the scale of the confrontation; the qualifiers "real-time" and "turn-based" are not taken into account as all tabletop wargames are, by necessity, turn-based. However, sometimes video wargames are described according to the scale of conflict. While it has been argued that computer wargame video games lack the realism of traditional games, they may include features that are impractical for tangible games. One such approach is using fog of war, whereby players are unable to see the landscape beyond the simulating viewing distance of their units; this is made practical in digital games by the fundamental difference of competing against artificial intelligence or remote competitors with their own view of the playing field. Computer Bismarck - - credited as the first "serious" computer war-game. Eastern Front - - Called "the first war game that competed with pencil-and-paper games" and one of the best selling programs on the Atari 8-bit family.
Introduced scrolling maps, pondering AI, supply considerations and many other advanced features that were common in games. Chris Crawford's first major success. Panzer General - - recognizably a traditional wargame next to Close Combat, it spawned several sequels. Steel Panthers - - a tactical wargame on the same scale as Squad Leader, which led to two sequels, a series of titles by Camo Workshop/Shrapnel Games and Matrix Games, for free release. Close Combat - - not the first wargame to break out from hexes, still presented in a 2-dimensional format, Close Combat addressed factors such as individual morale and reluctance to carry out orders; the original title led to five successful sequels for the general public, as well as being developed into a training tool for military use only. Close Combat stemmed from an early attempt to translate the Squad Leader boardgame to the computer. Combat Mission: Beyond Overlord - Chronology of grand strategy video games List of video games
Seaman (video game)
Seaman is a virtual pet video game for the Sega Dreamcast. It is one of the few Dreamcast games to take advantage of the microphone attachment; the narration is voiced by Toshiyuki Hosokawa in the original Japanese-language version and by Leonard Nimoy in the English-language version. The face of the Seaman creature is that of the game's producer, Yoot Saito. A limited edition game titled Christmas Seaman was released in Japan on December 16, 1999 alongside a translucent, red Dreamcast. In 2001, Seaman was re-released in Japan for the PlayStation 2 as Seaman: Kindan no Pet - Gaze Hakushi no Jikken Shima, the first edition of which came with a microphone. A PC version for Microsoft Windows was planned, with the Seaman being able to interact with the user's applications. No release date was specified, it was cancelled. A sequel called Seaman 2 was released in Japan for the PlayStation 2 in 2007; as a new pet owner, the player is given the responsibility of caring for and learning about the enigmatic "Seaman" species, using a replica of the discoverer's laboratory.
The player must figure everything out by themselves, such as appropriate care, with some guidance from the narrator Leonard Nimoy as Himself. In the game's manual, it contains the backstory about the seaman. During the 1930s, Dr. Jean Paul Gassé was a member of a special team of French biologists sent to Egypt by the French government. During that time, Dr. Gassé was determined to research a creature, an "omnipotent messenger of gods" among the ruins of the Third Dynasty. In March 1932, in the city of Alexandria, Dr. Gassé met up a local resident, while fishing, caught a seaman. Dr. Gassé obtained a sample of some of the seaman eggs, went back to France with the egg samples in his possession; when Dr. Gassé returned to France, he attempted to raise the eggs, but in the process, the seaman died. Shortly after this, he published a thesis of his work. Leading academics, dismissed him and his work as a PR stunt and without proper evidence to support these theories; as the result, the work was ignored, no one believed him.
His hypothesis suggested that the Seaman was responsible for transferring knowledge that increased during the Third Dynasty across oceans and other lands. This theory became the basis for Anthro-Bio Archaeology, a valued field of study. Shortly after publishing his thesis, Dr. Gassé was fired from his post. After his dismissal, news of Gassé’s whereabouts and activities were unknown, details during those times were sketchy. Rumors began circulating, it is known, that he escaped the horrors of World War II and met up with his colleague, Kimo Masuda. It became clear that sometime during these years they were able to conduct further research on Seaman's evolution, quite even up to the creature walking on all fours. There was little hard data or evidence that substantiated these findings. In March 1996, the French Government established the Anthro-Bio Archeological Research Institute, headquartered in Paris; the institute is based on the work of Dr. Gassé, most of the modern day research of Seaman specimens has taken place there.
In 1997, the ABARI announced there was a strong possibility that these Seaman species were related to the origins of ancient civilizations in Egypt. On October 6, 1998, one of Gassé’s formaldehyde specimens is discovered at the University of Paris. On February 15, 1999, parts of Gassé's journal and note entries were found in the Masuda family storehouse in Matsuzaka City in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Professor Kendare Takahashi, directing the Japanese branch of the ABARI managed to breed Seaman eggs in captivity, in July the same year. Soon after, Seaman was presented in aquariums across Japan. In July 2000, an expedition team embarked for Egypt in a first major research of the Seaman in the wild; the "Seaman" is a form of freshwater fish with a lifelike human face. It possesses human mannerisms and behavior with. Seaman is considered a unique video game; the player's role is to feed and care for Seaman, while providing him with the company that he needs. In fact, the player is required to check on the Seaman every day of real time.
A portion of Seaman's knowledge is random trivia. When he asks what the player's birthday is, Seaman will share significant events which happened on that date; the Seaman becomes domesticated, but this does not prevent it from insulting the player or constructing less-than-friendly remarks. The player is provided with an unhatched Seaman egg at the beginning of the game and through various terms of development and conditions develops and interacts with it. By using various buttons on the Dreamcast controller, the player controls all of the machinery and physical contact with the mysterious creature; the player is provided with multiple Seamen for breeding and interaction purposes. Over the course of the game, it is required of the player to evolve their Seaman to different stages in its life cycle transforming into a frog-like creature outlined on the Disc's cover. MushroomerIn the Seaman's first days of life, it begins as a Mushroomer, a form consisting of a well-developed optic organ and a flagellum, lacking a face or any verbal means of communication.
In this form, it is a parasite, which overruns a host Nautilus via being eaten and consumes it from the inside out for nourishment. Mushroomers tend to stick to one side of the tank by the ends of their flagellum. In th
Detroit Free Press
The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press, it is sometimes referred to as the "Freep". It serves Wayne, Macomb, Livingston and Monroe counties; the Free Press is the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received four Emmy Awards, its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years". In 2018, the Detroit Free Press received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists; the newspaper was launched by John R. Williams and his uncle, Joseph Campau, was first published as the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer on May 5, 1831, it was renamed to Detroit Daily Free Press in 1835. Williams printed the first issues on a Washington press he purchased from the discontinued Oakland Chronicle of Pontiac, it was hauled from Pontiac in a wagon over rough roads to a building at Bates and Woodbridge streets in Detroit. The hand-operated press could produce 250 pages per hour.
The first issues were 14 with five columns of type. Sheldon McKnight became the first publisher with John Pitts Sheldon as editor. In the 1850s, the paper was developed into a leading Democratic publication under the ownership of Wilbur F. Storey. Storey left for the Chicago Times in 1861. In the 1870s ownership passed to William E. Quinby, who continued its Democratic leanings and established a London, England edition. In 1940, the Knight Newspapers purchased the Free Press. During the following 47 years the Free Press competed with The Detroit News in the southeastern Michigan market; the Free Press was delivered and sold as a morning paper while the News was sold and delivered as an evening newspaper. In 1987, the paper entered into a one hundred-year joint operating agreement with its rival, combining business operations while maintaining separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The two papers began to publish joint Saturday and Sunday editions, though the editorial content of each remained separate.
At the time, the Detroit Free Press was the tenth highest circulation paper in the United States, the combined Detroit News and Free Press was the country's fourth largest Sunday paper. On July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild-represented employees of the Free Press and News and the pressmen and Teamsters working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm went on strike. By October, about 40% of the editorial staffers had crossed the picket line, many trickled back over the next months while others stayed out for the two and a half years of the strike; the strike was resolved in court three years and the unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. In 1998, the Free Press vacated its former headquarters in downtown Detroit and moved to offices into the News building. On August 3, 2005, Knight Ridder sold the Free Press to the Gannett Company, which had owned and operated The Detroit News. Gannett, in turn sold The News, to MediaNews Group.
The Free Press resumed publication of its own Sunday edition, May 7, 2006, without any content from The News. A quirk in the operating agreement, allows The News to continue printing its editorial page in the Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The Free Press entered a news partnership with CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV channel 62 in March 2009 to produce a morning news show called First Forecast Mornings. Prior to the partnership, WWJ aired no local newscast at all. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of the Free Press and The Detroit News would occupy six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices.
The move took place October 24–27, 2014. The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw, editors. ISBN 0-937247-34-0 Media in Detroit Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Detroit Free Press The Detroit Free Press Building Detroit Newspaper Partnership
Eurogamer is a website focused on video game journalism and other features. It is operated by Gamer Network Ltd. with headquarters in East Sussex. It was formed in 1999 by brothers Nick Loman while they were in secondary school. Gamer Network states that the site has the largest readership of any independent videogames website in Europe, was the first such site to subject its traffic to independent verification by the ABC Electronic system; the site caters to a UK/Ireland audience. Most of its reviews are of PAL releases of games. In February 2015, Eurogamer dropped its 10-point scale review scores system in favour of a "recommendation system," where games would either receive no specific recommendation or awards for being "Recommended," "Essential" or "Avoid." Eurogamer launched on 4 September 1999. Among its founders were Rupert Loman, a Quake and esports community organiser. Eurogamer's current editor is Oli Welsh, who took over the role from Tom Bramwell in September 2014; the editor prior to Bramwell was Kristan Reed.
Contributors to the site include past or present writers from PC Gamer, GamesTM, Rock, Shotgun, such as Kieron Gillen, Jim Rossignol, John Walker, Simon Parkin, Alec Meer, Richard Leadbetter, Dan Whitehead, as well as former GamesIndustry.biz editor Rob Fahey. Eurogamer founder Rupert Loman was interviewed in February 2007 by MCV magazine, he was featured in the Sunday Telegraph on 19 August 2007, speaking about the experience he has gained from choosing to run Eurogamer instead of attending university. At the Games Media Awards, Eurogamer won the categories of Best Games Website – News, Best Games Website – Reviews & Features in 2007; the two awards were consolidated in 2008 and the site went on to win the new award for Best Games Website every year it was awarded, from 2008 to 2013, making it the only website to win the award in its history. Deputy Editor Tom Bramwell won Best Writer in Specialist Digital Media and Eurogamer TV editor Johnny Minkley won Best Games-Dedicated Broadcast on Mainstream TV or Radio in 2007.
News editor Wesley Yin-Poole won Best News Writer in 2014. Rupert Loman was winner of Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 at the Sussex Business Awards and The Observer's "One to Watch" in Media 2007, he was selected as one of 30 "Young Guns" by Growing Business magazine in October 2008. Eurogamer is the principal site of the Gamer Network family of video game-related websites which it has either launched or acquired. Many of its sister sites were started with language/country-specific sites through 2006 to 2012. Eurogamer Germany; this was followed up with Eurogamer France in June 2007, Eurogamer Portugal in May 2008, Eurogamer Netherlands in August 2008, Eurogamer Spain and Eurogamer Italy in October 2008, Eurogamer Romania in March 2009, Eurogamer Czech in May 2009, Eurogamer Denmark in June 2009, Eurogamer Belgium in August 2009, Eurogamer Sweden in April 2010 and Eurogamer Poland in November 2012. In April 2011, Eurogamer Netherlands and Eurogamer Belgium merged to form Eurogamer Benelux. Eurogamer Romania closed down in 2011.
In November 2012, Eurogamer launched their first non-European site, Brasilgamer,In February 2018, Gamer Network was acquired by ReedPOP for an undisclosed sum. Other sites under the Gamer Network include: GamesIndustry.biz, which reports on the global video games industry, launched in May 2008. USgamer, a site following the same principles as the main Eurogamer website but helmed by American staff, launched around 2013. VG247, a video game news site started between Gamer Network and Patrick Garrett in 2008. Mod DB, a database for video game modifications launched in 2002, acquired by Gamer Network in 2015. Rock, Shotgun, a British-based website principally devoted to personal computer video games; the site was acquired into the Gamer Network in May 2017. Eurogamer has hosted the Digital Foundry channel since 2007. Digital Foundry evaluates video game hardware and software from a technical level comparing performances of the same game across different platforms. In February 2018, ReedPOP, a subsidiary of Reed Exhibitions that runs the PAX conventions, acquired the Gamer Network and its network of sites as to expanding into digital news and editorial content, as well as EGX, the largest video game convention in the United Kingdom.
No immediate changes were expected at other sites on the Gamer Network. Eurogamer.net GamesIndustry.biz
Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more metallic balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball machine. The primary objective of the game is to score as many points as possible within a limited time. Many modern pinball machines include a "storyline" where the player must complete certain objectives in a certain fashion to complete the story earning high scores for different methods of completing the game. Different amount of points are earned. A drain is situated at the bottom of the play field protected by player-controlled paddles called flippers. A game ends. Secondary objectives are to earn bonus games; the origins of pinball are intertwined with the history of many other games. Games played outdoors by rolling balls or stones on a grass course, such as bocce or bowls evolved into various local ground billiards games played by hitting the balls with sticks and propelling them at targets around obstacles. Croquet and paille-maille derived from ground billiards variants.
The evolution of outdoor games led to indoor versions that could be played on a table, such as billiards, or on the floor of a pub, like bowling and shuffleboard. The tabletop versions of these games became the ancestors of modern pinball. In France, during the long 1643–1715 reign of Louis XIV, billiard tables were narrowed, with wooden pins or skittles at one end of the table, players would shoot balls with a stick or cue from the other end, in a game inspired as much by bowling as billiards. Pins took too long to reset when knocked down, so they were fixed to the table, holes in the bed of the table became the targets. Players could ricochet balls off the pins to achieve the harder scorable holes. A standardized version of the game became known as bagatelle. Somewhere between the 1750s and 1770s, the bagatelle variant Billard japonais, or Japanese billiards in English, was invented in Western Europe, despite its name, it used thin metal pins and replaced the cue at the player's end of the table with a coiled spring and a plunger.
The player shot balls up the inclined playfield toward the scoring targets using this plunger, a device that remains in use in pinball to this day, the game was directly ancestral to pachinko. In 1869, British inventor Montague Redgrave settled in the United States and manufactured bagatelle tables in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1871 Redgrave was granted U. S. Patent #115,357 for his "Improvements in Bagatelle", another name for the spring launcher, first introduced in Billard japonais; the game shrank in size to fit atop a bar or counter. The balls became the wickets became small metal pins. Redgrave's popularization of the spring launcher and innovations in game design are acknowledged as the birth of pinball in its modern form. By the 1930s, manufacturers were producing coin-operated versions of bagatelles, now known as "marble games" or "pin games"; the table was under glass and used M. Redgrave's plunger device to propel the ball into the upper playfield. In 1931 David Gottlieb's Baffle Ball became the first hit of the coin-operated era.
Selling for $17.50, the game dispensed five to seven balls for a penny. The game resonated with people wanting cheap entertainment in the Great Depression-era economy. Most drugstores and taverns in the U. S. operated pinball machines, with many locations recovering the cost of the game. Baffle Ball sold over 50,000 units and established Gottlieb as the first major manufacturer of pinball machines. In 1932, Gottlieb distributor Raymond Moloney found it hard to obtain more Baffle Ball units to sell. In his frustration he founded Lion Manufacturing to produce a game of his own design, named after a popular magazine of the day; the game became. Its larger playfield and ten pockets made it more challenging than Baffle Ball, selling 50,000 units in 7 months. Moloney changed the name of his company to Bally to reflect the success of this game; these early machines were small, mechanically simple and designed to sit on a counter or bar top. The 1930s saw major advances in pinball design with the introduction of electrification.
A company called Pacific Amusements in Los Angeles, California produced a game called Contact in 1933. Contact had an electrically powered solenoid to propel the ball out of a bonus hole in the middle of the playfield. Another solenoid rang a bell to reward the player; the designer of Contact, Harry Williams, would form his own company, Williams Manufacturing, in 1944. Other manufacturers followed suit with similar features. Electric lights soon became a standard feature of all subsequent pinball games, designed to attract players. By the end of 1932, there were 150 companies manufacturing pinball machines, most of them in Chicago, Illinois. Chicago has been the center of pinball manufacturing since. Competition among the companies was strong, by 1934 there were 14 companies remaining. During WWII, all of the major manufacturers of coin-operated games turned to the manufacture of equipment for the war effort; some companies, like Williams, bought old games from operators and refurbished them, adding new artwork with a patriotic theme.
At the end of the war, a generation of Americans looked for amusement in bars and malt shops, pinball saw another golden age. Improvements such as the tilt mechanism and free games appeared. Gottlieb's Humpty Dumpty, introduced in
Famitsu Famicom Tsūshin, is a line of Japanese video game magazines published by Enterbrain, Inc. and Tokuma. Famitsu is published in both weekly and monthly formats as well as in the form of special topical issues devoted to only one console, video game company, or other theme. Shūkan Famitsū, the original Famitsū publication, is considered the most read and respected video game news magazine in Japan. From October 28, 2011 Enterbrain began releasing the digital version of the magazine on BookWalker weekly; the first issue of Famitsū was published on June 1986 as Famicom Tsūshin. It was published semiregularly thereafter, going through periods of monthly and quarterly publication. On July 19, 1991 the magazine was renamed to Shūkan Famicom Tsūshin and issues were published weekly thereafter. Alongside the weekly magazine, a monthly version called Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin was published. At the start of 1996 the magazines underwent another name change, truncating their titles to Shūkan Famitsū and Gekkan Famitsū.
The magazine was published by ASCII from its founding through March 2000 when it was sold to Enterbrain, Inc. The name Famitsū is a portmanteau abbreviation of Famicom Tsūshin; the first issue was published on June 6, 1986. Today, Shūkan Famitsū features multi-platform coverage. Shūkan Famitsū is a weekly publication concentrating on video game news and reviews, is published every Thursday with a circulation of 500,000 per issue. Gekkan Famitsū is published monthly. Famitsū magazine covers alternately feature pop idols or actresses on even-numbered issues and the Famitsū mascot, Necky the Fox in odd-numbered issues. Year-end and special editions all feature Necky dressed as popular contemporary video game characters. Necky is the cartoon creation of artist Susumu Matsushita, he takes the form of a costumed fox; the costumes worn by Necky reflect current popular video games. Necky's name was chosen according to a reader poll, it derives from a complex Japanese pun: "Necky" is the reverse of the Japanese word for fox, キツネ, his original connection to Famicom Tsūshin is intended to evoke the bark of the fox, the Japanese onomatopoeia of, コンコン.
Necky makes a cameo appearance in Super Mario Maker. Famitsū publishes other magazines dedicated to particular consoles. In circulation are: Entamikusu is written for an older audience and covers retrogaming, it has been published monthly since November 2010. Famitsū Connect! On reports on online gaming. Famitsū DS+Wii reports on Nintendo platforms; the magazine was known as Famitsū 64 and Famitsū Cube based on whatever platforms Nintendo was producing games for at the time. Famitsū GREE reports on mobile gaming via GREE. Famitsū Mobage reports on mobile gaming via Mobage. Famitsū spin-offs that are no longer in circulation include: Famitsū Bros. was written for younger audiences and concentrated on video game hints and strategy. It was published monthly and went defunct in September 2002. Famicomi was a comic and manga magazine published irregularly between 1992 and 1995. Famitsū DC covered the Dreamcast. Previous incarnations of this magazine included Sega Saturn Tsūshin which covered the Sega Saturn, with earlier issues covering earlier Sega platforms.
Famitsū Sister covered bishōjo games. Satellaview Tsūshin covered the Satellaview, it was published monthly and ran for only 12 issues from May 1995 to May 1996. Its inaugural issue was the May 1995 issue of Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin. Virtual Boy Tsūshin covered the Virtual Boy. Only one issue was published in 1995. Famitsū PS began publication in May 1996, reported on Sony platforms news, it was known as Famitsū PS2 and Famitsū PSP+PS3 before being discontinued in March 2010. Famitsū Wave DVD covered events and previews; each magazine included a DVD disc with video game footage. It was published monthly and went defunct in May 2011. Famitsū Xbox 360 reported on Xbox 360 news, it went defunct in 2013. Video games are graded in Famitsū via a "Cross Review" in which a panel of four video game reviewers each give a score from 0 to 10; the scores of the four reviewers are added up for a maximum possible score of 40. From the twenty-four games awarded with a perfect score as of 2017, three are for the Nintendo DS and five are for the Wii.
The PlayStation 3 has five games with a perfect score and the Xbox 360 has four, with both consoles having four titles in common. The others are for different platforms with only one title each. Franchises with multiple perfect score winners include The Legend of Zelda with four titles, Metal Gear with three titles, Final Fantasy with two titles; the most recent game to receive a perfect score is Dragon Quest XI. As of 2016, all but two games with perfect scores are from Japanese companies, nine being published/developed by Nintendo, four by Square Enix, three by Sega, three by Konami and one by Capcom; as of 2016, the only two foreign games to achieve a perfect score are The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim by Bethesda Softworks and Grand Theft Auto V, from Rockstar Games. Other foreign games that have achieved near-perfect scores are L. A. Noire, Red Dead Redemption and Grand Theft Auto IV – all three of which came from Rockstar Games.