Severn is a census-designated place in Anne Arundel County, United States. The population was 44,231 at the 2010 census, a 26% increase from its population of 35,076 at the 2000 census; the zip code is 21144. Severn is located at 39°7′58″N 76°41′38″W in northwestern Anne Arundel County, it is bordered by Hanover to the north, Glen Burnie to the east and Millersville to the south, Fort George G. Meade to the west; the Baltimore–Washington Parkway forms the northwestern edge of the CDP, Maryland Route 176 forms the northern edge, Interstate 97 forms the eastern edge. Part of the southern boundary of the CDP is formed by the non-tidal portion of the Severn River; the Maryland Route 100 freeway runs through the northern part of the CDP, connecting the B-W Parkway and I-97. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 17.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,076 people, 12,003 households, 9,506 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,511.3 people per square mile.
There were 12,362 housing units at an average density of 885.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 56.25% White, 34.56% Black, 0.42% Native American, 4.29% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, 3.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.96% of the population. There were 12,003 households out of which 43.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.8% were non-families. 15.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 35.7% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $66,204, the median income for a family was $68,424. Males had a median income of $42,933 versus $31,751 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $24,640. About 5.4% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Students may attend public school within the Anne Arundel County Public Schools district. Arundel Middle School – 6th through 8th grade Arundel High School – 9th through 12th grade Center of Applied Technology North – vocational education classes for 9th through 12th grade Severn Elementary School – kindergarten through 5th grade Ridgeway Elementary School – kindergarten through 5th grade Van Bokkelen Elementary School – pre-kindergarten through 5th grade Quarterfield Elementary School – pre-kindergarten through 5th grade Meade Heights Elementary School – kindergarten through 5th grade Meade Senior High School – 9th through 12th grade Corkran Middle School – 6th through 8th grade Glen Burnie High School – 9th through 12th grade Old Mill Middle School South and North – 6th through 8th grade Old Mill High School – 9th through 12th grade Annapolis Area Christian School Archbishop Spalding High School The Braxtons and stars of Braxton Family Values Steve Dannenmann, accountant who gained fame as the 2005 World Series of Poker runner-up Doud Eisenhower, son of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, died at Fort Meade C. Edward Middlebrooks, politician Marina Harrison, Miss Maryland 2003 and Miss Maryland USA 2005 Jessica Benson, singer Erin O'Donnell, singer A. J. Francis, former NFL defensive tackle
United States Cyber Command
United States Cyber Command is one of ten unified commands of the United States' Department of Defense. It unifies the direction of cyberspace operations, strengthens DoD cyberspace capabilities, integrates and bolsters DoD's cyber expertise. USCYBERCOM was created in mid-2009 at the National Security Agency headquarters in Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, it cooperates with NSA networks and has been concurrently headed by the Director of the National Security Agency since its inception. While created with a defensive mission in mind, it has been viewed as an offensive force. On 18 August 2017, it was announced that USCYBERCOM would be elevated to the status of a full and independent unified combatant command; this elevation occurred on 4 May 2018. According to the US Department of Defense: USCYBERCOM plans, integrates and conducts activities to: direct the operations and defense of specified Department of Defense information networks and; the text "9ec4c12949a4f31474f299058ce2b22a", located in the command's emblem, is the MD5 hash of their mission statement.
The command is charged with pulling together existing cyberspace resources, creating synergies and synchronizing war-fighting effects to defend the information security environment. USCYBERCOM is tasked with centralizing command of cyberspace operations, strengthening DoD cyberspace capabilities, integrating and bolstering DoD's cyber expertise. USCYBERCOM is an armed forces unified command under Department of Defense. U. S. Cyber Command is composed of several service components, units from military services who will provide Joint services to Cyber Command. Army Cyber Command Army Network Enterprise Technology Command / 9th Army Signal Command Cyber Protection Brigade United States Army Intelligence and Security Command will be under the operational control of ARCYBER for cyber-related actions.1st Information Operations Command 780th Military Intelligence Brigade Fleet Cyber Command/Tenth Fleet Naval Network Warfare Command Navy Cyber Defense Operations Command Naval Information Operation Commands Combined Task Forces Air Forces Cyber/Twenty-Fourth Air Force 67th Cyberspace Wing 688th Cyberspace Wing 624th Operations Center Marine Corps Cyberspace Command In 2015 the U.
S. Cyber Command added 133 new cyber teams; the breakdown was: Thirteen National Mission Teams to defend against broad cyberattacks Sixty-eight Cyber Protection Teams to defend priority DoD networks and systems against priority threats Twenty-seven Combat Mission Teams to provide integrated cyberspace attacks in support of operational plans and contingency operations Twenty-five Support Teams to provide analytic and planning support An intention by the U. S. Air Force to create a'cyber command' was announced in October 2006. An Air Force Cyber Command was created in a provisional status in November 2006. However, in October 2008, it was announced the command would not be brought into permanent activation. On 23 June 2009, the Secretary of Defense directed the Commander of U. S. Strategic Command to establish USCYBERCOM. In May 2010, General Keith Alexander outlined his views in a report for the United States House Committee on Armed Services subcommittee: My own view is that the only way to counteract both criminal and espionage activity online is to be proactive.
If the U. S. is taking a formal approach to this that has to be a good thing. The Chinese are viewed as the source of a great many attacks on western infrastructure and just the U. S. electrical grid. If, determined to be an organized attack, I would want to go and take down the source of those attacks; the only problem is that the Internet, by its nature, has no borders and if the U. S. takes on the mantle of the world's police. Initial operational capability was attained on 21 May 2010. General Alexander was promoted to four-star rank, becoming one of 38 U. S. generals, took charge of U. S. Cyber Command in a ceremony at Fort Meade, attended by Commander of U. S. Central Command GEN David Petraeus, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates. USCYBERCOM reached full operational capability on 31 October 2010; the command assumed responsibility for several existing organizations. The Joint Task Force for Global Network Operations and the Joint Functional Component Command for Network Warfare were absorbed by the command.
The Defense Information Systems Agency, where JTF-GNO operated, provides technical assistance for network and information assurance to USCYBERCOM, is moving its headquarters to Fort Meade. President Obama signed into law, on 23 December 2016, the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2017, which elevated USCYBERCOM to a unified combatant command; the FY 2017 NDAA specified that the dual-hatted arrangement of the commander of USCYBERCOM will not be terminated until the Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff jointly certify that ending this arrangement will not pose risks to the military effectiveness of CYBERCOM that are unacceptable to the national security interests of the United States. There are concerns that the NSA will overshadow any civilian cyber defense efforts. There are concerns on whether the command will assist in civilian cyber defense efforts. According to Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Lynn, the command "will lead day-to-day defense and protection of all DoD networks.
It will be responsible for DoD's networks – the dot-mil world
Washington, Baltimore and Annapolis Electric Railway
The Washington and Annapolis Electric Railway was an American railroad of central Maryland and Washington, D. C. built in the 20th century. The WB&A absorbed two older railroads, the Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad and the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line, added its own electric streetcar line between Baltimore and Washington, it was built by a group of Cleveland, electric railway entrepreneurs to serve as a high-speed, showpiece line using the most advanced technology of the time. It served Washington and Annapolis, for 27 years before the Great Depression and the rise of the automobile forced an end to passenger service in 1935. Only the Baltimore & Annapolis portion continued to operate. Today, parts of the right-of-way are used for light rail trails and roads; the WB&A was incorporated in 1899 as The Potomac and Severn Electric Railway. On April 10, 1900, it changed its name to the Washington and Annapolis Electric Railway and on April 8, 1902, to the Washington and Annapolis Electric Railway.
In 1903, the WB&A purchased the Annapolis, Washington & Baltimore Railroad — the Annapolis & Elkridge Railroad —, closed and reopened. At the same time, it laid an straight double-track route parallel to the B&O and Pennsylvania railroads, but to the east in less populated territory. On February 7, 1908, service began from Liberty Street in Baltimore to its Washington terminal at 15th and H Streets NE. After 1910, the line reached the heart of downtown on 15th Street near the Treasury. Another single track began at the B&O main line at Annapolis Junction, crossed the WB&A main line just east of Odenton, headed east via Millersville and Crownsville to Annapolis; the line built by the WB&A called the Main Line, ran from Baltimore to Washington through Bowie, Glenn Dale Hospital, Glenarden to Fairmont Heights where it met with the Chesapeake Beach Railway just outside Washington at Chesapeake Junction. From there, it continued to Deanwood on the Washington Railway and Electric Company's Seat Pleasant Line, running parallel to the Chesapeake Beach Railroad tracks and across the Benning Road Bridge into downtown Washington.
Once onto their own right-of-way, the WB&A’s expresses hit 60 mph, but street running in the terminal cities slowed their overall time. A typical B&O express made the trip in 50 minutes, but the best the WB&A could do was an hour and 20 minutes. Offsetting these handicaps were its cleanliness, lower fares, half-hourly express service, better-located downtown terminals. Always looking for new sources of business, the railroad, in 1914, convinced the Southern Maryland Agricultural Fair Association to establish Bowie Race Track along the Main Line. In September 1917, as the U. S. entered World War I, George Bishop, the WB&A’s well-connected president, persuaded the U. S. Army to acquire land open a training facility. Camp Meade was established in the area bounded by the B&O Washington Branch on the west, the Pennsylvania Railroad on the east, the South Shore Line of the WB&A to the south; the installation was supposed to be a temporary facility, used only for the duration of the war. The WB&A saw record traffic during this time as a result of freight and passenger service to the camp.
In 1918, the railroad was running as many as 84 special trains a day. With the business successful, the WB&A purchased the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line in 1921, it became known as the "North Shore Line" and the Annapolis to Odenton line as the "South Shore Line". At this time, the B&A gave up its terminus at the Camden Street Station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and started using the WB&A terminal on Liberty Street in Baltimore. Prior to 1921 the WB&A and B&A had run on parallel tracks from Linthicum to Baltimore, but on March 16, 1921, a crossover connected the two parallel tracks at Linthicum operations ceased on the B. & O. track, a new terminal was built at the southwest corner of South Howard and West Lombard Streets across from the Baltimore Civic Center. The WB&A now consisted of 81 miles of track and the only practical way to get from Washington, D. C. to Annapolis. Initial passenger equipment running from Baltimore-Washington to Annapolis was the "classic" 1900-1910 arch window all wood body truss rod frame interurban coach.
In the 1920s when passenger business was good, the line purchased and operated steel two car articulated coaches from Baltimore to Annapolis. This equipment went to the Milwaukee Electric Line in Wisconsin. Around the time of the purchase of the ASL, the Defense Highway was built providing an alternative route into Annapolis; as a result gross receipts for the railroad began to decline. The railroad only survived because of a law exempting it from taxes. In January 1931, during the Great Depression, the extension of the law failed to pass by one vote and the line went into receivership; the line remained in operation for four more years and was sold at auction in 1935. Evans Products Company of Detroit negotiated to buy the railroad in June 1935, but those negotiations failed and the railroad ceased operations on August 20, 1935. Scrap dealers bought most of the rolling stock. Evans bought the Fairfax railroad the next year. Over time, the rails were hauled away, though by the beginning of World War II some remained and at least one post-War home in the area used old rails in lieu of I-beams.
The right of way within Washington, D. C. remained under the ownership of WRECo and then
Governor of Maryland
The governor of the State of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units. The governor is the highest-ranking official in the state and has a broad range of appointive powers in both the state and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution; because of the extent of these constitutional powers, the governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful governors in the United States. The current governor is Larry Hogan, a Republican who took office on January 21, 2015. Like most state chief executives in the United States, the governor is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term. Under the Constitution of Maryland, the governor can run any number of times, but not more than twice in a row; this makes it possible for a two-term governor to run for the office again after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for governor must be at least 30 years old, a resident of and a registered voter in Maryland for the five years preceding the election.
If a candidate meets this minimum requirement, he or she must file his or her candidacy with the Maryland State Board of Elections, pay a filing fee, file a financial disclosure, create a legal campaign financial body. The governor, like all statewide officials in Maryland, is elected in the even-numbered years in which the election for President of the United States does not occur; as the chief executive of the State of Maryland, the governor heads the executive branch of government, which includes all state executive departments and agencies, as well as advisory boards, commissions and task forces. The main constitutional responsibility of the governor of Maryland, any other State's chief executive, is to carry out the business of the state and to enforce the laws passed by the Legislature; the governor has some say in these laws, since the governor has the ability to veto any bill sent to his or her desk by the Maryland General Assembly, though the assembly may override that veto. The governor is given a number of more specific powers as relates to appropriations of state funds, the appointment of state officials, a variety of less prominent and less utilized powers.
Every year, the governor must present a proposed budget to the Maryland General Assembly. After receiving the proposed budget, the assembly is allowed to decrease any portion of the budget for the executive branch, but it may never increase it or transfer funds between executive departments; the assembly may, increase funds for the Legislative and Judicial branches of government. The governor has the power to veto any law, passed by the General Assembly, including a "line item veto", which can be used to strike certain portions of appropriations bills; the Legislature has the power to override a Governor's veto by vote of three-fifths of the number of members in each house. The governor sits on the board of public works, whose other two members are the comptroller and the treasurer; this board has broad powers in approving the spending of state funds. They must approve state expenditures of all general funds and capital improvement funds, excluding expenditures for the construction of state roads and highways.
It has the power to solicit loans on its own accord either to meet a deficit or in anticipation of other revenues, in addition to approving expenditures of funds from loans authorized by the General Assembly. The governor appoints all military and civil officers of the state government, subject to advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate; the governor appoints certain boards and commissions in each of the 24 Counties and in Baltimore City, such as local Boards of Elections, commissions notaries public, appoints officers to fill vacancies in the elected offices of Attorney General and Comptroller. Should a vacancy arise in either of the two houses of the General Assembly, the governor fills that vacancy, though the governor must choose from among the recommendations of the local party organization to which the person leaving the vacancy belonged. Any officer appointed by the governor, except a member of the General Assembly, is removable by him or her, if there is a legitimate cause for removal.
Among the most prominent of the governor's appointees are the 24 secretaries and heads of departments that make up the governor's Cabinet known as the executive council. The governor of Maryland is the chairman of the governor's executive council which coordinates all state government functions; this is composed of the following members, all of whom, except the lieutenant governor, are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Maryland State Senate as heads of executive departments: Lieutenant governor- Boyd Rutherford Secretary of State- John C. Wobensmith Secretary of Aging- Rona E. Kramer Secretary of Agriculture- Joe Bartenfelder Secretary of Budget and Management- David Brinkley Secretary of Business and Economic Development- R. Michael Gill Secretary of Disabilities-Carol Beatty State Superintendent of Schools - Lillian M. Lowery Secretary of Environment- Ben Grumbles Secretary of General Services- C. Gail Bassette Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene- Van Mitchell Secretary of Housing and Community Development- Kenneth C. Holt Secretary of Human Resources- Sam Maholtra Secretary of Information Technology- David Garcia Secretary of Juvenile Services- Sam J. Abed Secretary of Labor and Regulation- Kelly Schulz Secretary of Natural Resources- Mark Belton Secretary of Planni
Baltimore and Potomac Railroad
The Baltimore and Potomac Railroad operated from Baltimore, southwest to Washington, D. C. from 1872 to 1902. Controlled by the Pennsylvania Railroad, it was the second railroad company to connect the nation's capital to the Northeastern States, competed with the older Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Part of the B&P route is now part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, the most traveled American intercity passenger line, its Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, bored under north Baltimore in 1871, remains in use. The leading advocate for expanding the railroad system into southern Maryland was Walter Bowie, who wrote newspaper articles and columns under the pen name Patuxent Planter and who joined Thomas Fielder Bowie, William Duckett Bowie, Oden Bowie, in lobbying the Maryland General Assembly to approve the idea, their efforts bore fruit on May 6, 1853, when lawmakers chartered the "Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road Company", granting it the authority to construct a railroad from Baltimore via Upper Marlboro in Prince George's County and Port Tobacco in neighboring Charles County to a point on the Potomac River between Liverpool Point and the St. Mary's River in St. Mary's County, southernmost in the state.
The charter allowed the construction of branches of up to 20 miles in length. The B&P was organized on December 19, 1858, began surveying the route on May 3, 1859. Construction started in 1861 but with increasing delays caused by the American Civil War with its nearby conflicts and supplies shortages, progressed until 1867, when the B&P was purchased by one of the two dominant Northeastern rail systems of the Pennsylvania Railroad and its ally, the Northern Central Railway which ran from Baltimore north into Pennsylvania first to York and into the state capital at Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River; the PRR at the time had access to Baltimore via its own lines, used the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and its Washington Branch line to continue southwest to the national capital at Washington, D. C.. The PRR and B&O had trouble getting along, but Maryland refused to grant a charter to end the B&O's monopoly on Baltimore-Washington travel. However, the Baltimore and Potomac charter allowed that, via the clause that allowed branches.
The U. S. Congress granted a charter for the section constructed in Washington on February 5, 1867, thus the new Baltimore-Washington line opened on July 2, 1872, the required "main line" to Popes Creek on the Potomac River relegated to branch status, opened on January 1, 1873. The final section, the Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel under Winchester Street and Wilson Street in Baltimore, opened on June 29, 1873, connecting the line to the PRR's Northern Central Railway and Baltimore's new Union Station; that year or the next, the Union Railroad opened, extending the line eastward through another tunnel to the PRR's other Baltimore line, the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad northeast to Delaware and Pennsylvania. The first B&P station in Washington was a simple wood frame structure. A more substantial brick and stone building opened in 1873 at the southwest corner of Sixth Street and B Street NW; this is the present site of the West Building of the National Gallery of Art, on the National Mall.
The station was built over the old Washington City Canal, which complicated the construction of the foundation. Tracks ran south from the station along Sixth Street to a wye junction at Sixth Street SW, Maryland Avenue SW, Virginia Avenue SW. On November 1, 1902, B&P was consolidated with PW&B to form the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad controlled by PRR; the Washington Terminal Company and its Union Station opened in 1907, serving the PB&W, the B&O and several other railroads. All PB&W passenger trains from Baltimore were diverted to a new alignment called the Magruder Branch, splitting from the old one at Landover and running west to run parallel with the B&O Washington Branch on the approach to the new station. Since the line has passed under control of Penn Central in 1968, followed by Conrail and Amtrak. Since the breakup of Conrail in 1999, Norfolk Southern has provided freight service over the main line. However, the Pope's Creek Subdivision is operated by CSX Transportation.
CatonsvilleThe Catonsville Short Line Railroad opened in 1884 and was leased by the Baltimore & Potomac. This provided a short branch from just south of Baltimore to Catonsville. Southern Maryland LineThe 48.7-mile branch to Popes Creek was part of the original chartered main line, but from opening it was operated as a branch of the main line from the junction at Bowie. The main line from Bowie to Washington, a distance of 17.1 miles, was provided for in the charter as a branch. There was a freight station at Collington on the Southern Maryland Line. Today, a 5,200-foot railroad siding is all that remains of this stop, although the spur is still in use, it is located at milepost 3.0 on the spur. Just south of where the spur crosses under Maryland Route 450 near Maryland Route 197. Corporate Genealogy - Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington Hobo's Guide to the Pennsy - Main Line Washington to New York: Section 1 Historic American Engineering Record No. MD-163, "Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower", 11 photos, 27 data pages, 2 photo caption pages
Odenton is a passenger rail station on the Northeast Corridor. It is served by MARC Penn Line trains. Both platforms at the station are among the longest in the MARC system; the Odenton station was built in 1872 by the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad, merged into the Pennsylvania Railroad on November 1, 1902. The station survived the merger between the New York Central Railroad and the PRR that formed Penn Central. Upon the establishment of Amtrak in 1971 limited passenger services to the station survived - dwindling to 2 trains each way, each day, Monday - Friday. Although the station building closed to the public at that time, it continued to be used as a maintenance-of-way storage facility. Commuter passenger service has operated continuously from this station since prior to 1900. Around 1989, the station came under the name MARC, a portion of the Maryland Transportation Administration and continuing to serve local commuter service for the area. MARC service has exploded and sees over 50 trains stopping there each day, Monday through Friday and new but growing service on week-ends and some holidays.
The National Security Agency maintains a shuttle service from Odenton station to its Visitor Control Center at its headquarters at Fort George G. Meade. In 2009 the U. S. Army established a similar shuttle service from Odenton station to the Army section of Fort Meade. S. Department of Defense IDs to board. Media related to Odenton at Wikimedia Commons Station from Google Maps Street View Odenton station history
The Northeast Regional is a regional rail service operated by Amtrak in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States. In the past it has been known as Acela Regional, or Regional, it is the busiest Amtrak route, carrying 8.41 million passengers in fiscal year 2016, a 2.4% increase over the 8.15 million passengers in FY2015. The Northeast Regional service earned over $613.9 million in gross ticket revenue in FY2016, a 0.4% increase over the $611.7 million earned during FY2015. There is daily all-reserved service about every hour during the day. Trains run along the Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D. C. via New York City. Extensions and Shuttle trains provide service to Springfield and Richmond, Newport News and Roanoke, Virginia. Travel times are about 4.5 hours between Norfolk or Newport News and Washington, 5 hours between Roanoke and Washington, under two hours between Washington and Philadelphia, 1.5 hours between Philadelphia and New York, 3.5 hours between New York and Springfield, four hours between New York and Boston.
Travel times between Washington and New York are slightly faster than the equivalent travel time by car. Trains have 7 to 10 cars with one or two locomotives pulling, although they may be as long as 14 cars during peak travel periods; the passenger cars are the rebuilt Amfleet I series passenger cars built by the Budd Company in the mid to late 1970s. Since May 2008, Northeast Regional trains have the Café Car in the middle of the train; the Coach Class car adjacent to business class is designated the quiet car, where passengers are asked to refrain from loud talking and mobile phone conversations. If a second Café Car is present, it is only used for passenger seating; the overnight Northeast Regional trains 65, 66, 67 have a different configuration from the other Northeast Regional trains. These trains offer a limited number of business-class seats at the front of the Café Car, instead of having a dedicated Business Class car; the overnight trains have a baggage car used for baggage service. Between Boston and Washington, the service has overhead electric wires and travels over Amtrak-owned tracks.
This segment reaches speeds of 125 mph with Siemens ACS-64 electric locomotives built from 2012–2015. The ACS-64 locomotives replaced the AEM-7 locomotives in June 2016 and the HHP-8s in November 2014. Northeast Regional trains operating on the lines in Virginia, the New Haven–Springfield Line, overnight trains 65, 66, 67 use GE P42DC diesel locomotives and have lower top speeds of 110mph; because the Virginian segments use freight railroad tracks, these trains are more to suffer delays due to congested tracks. The services along the line, as inherited from Penn Central, once had their own names, such as the "Yankee Clipper" and the "Federal". Electrification ended at New Haven, requiring an engine change. On October 28, 1995, Amtrak introduced the "NortheastDirect" brand for all trains on the Northeast Corridor except for the express Metroliner and hourly Clocker services; the November 10, 1996, timetable restored the old names in addition to the NortheastDirect brand. The names were dropped with the May 1999, schedule.
In 2000 Amtrak completed electrifying the route from New Haven to Boston in preparation for the introduction of the Acela Express, thereby eliminating the engine change at New Haven. The first two all-electric round-trips to and from Boston were branded Acela Regional and equipped with refurbished Amfleet cars painted in the Acela-like "Capstone" livery. All-electric service began on January 31, 2000; the NortheastDirect branding continued to be used for trains which changed from electric to diesel traction in New Haven. Due to customer confusion with the Acela Express, the name was changed again on March 17, 2003, to "Regional" As part of rebranding and service improvements, the name was changed to "Northeast Regional" on June 23, 2008 On May 12, 2015, Northeast Regional Train 188, traveling from Washington, D. C. to New York City, derailed in the Port Richmond neighborhood of Philadelphia, killing eight people and injuring more than 200 people. The train derailed along a curve and was determined to have been traveling at a speed of about 100 mph, exceeding the limit of 50 mph on that curve.
This speed limit was not posted. Additionally, the train was suspected to have been hit by a projectile, as was a commuter train in the area shortly before the derailment; some Northeast Regional trains continue into Virginia, serving Richmond, Newport News and points in between. These tracks are owned by freight railroads. After Amtrak took over intercity passenger service on May 1, 1971, rail service in Virginia was limited to a small number of long-distance trains, where they were not suited to regional travel. Regional service south to Newport News began on June 14, 1976, when Amtrak ended the Newport News section of the James Whitcomb Riley and the Colonial was added in its place with two daily round trips from Boston to Newport News via Alexandria and Williamsburg; the long-standing service has sufficiently high farebox recovery that no subsidy from Virginia is required. From 1996 to 2007, six different studies were performed on the Transdominion Express project, which would have created two new intercity rail routes