Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell
The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic diocese in Catalonia and Andorra in the historical County of Urgell, with origins in the fifth century AD or earlier. It is based in the region of the historical Catalan County of Urgell, though it has different borders; the seat and Cathedral of the bishop are situated in la Seu d'Urgell town. The state of Andorra is a part of this diocese. Among its most notable events are Bishop Felix's adoptionist revolt, the coup of Bishop Esclua and the overthrowing of the bishop by members of aristocratic families between the years 981 and 1122. Important is the diocese's patronage of Andorra, with the bishop holding the role of ex officio Co-Prince of the Pyrenean Catalan-speaking nation jointly with the President of France. Andorra was ceded to the Bishop of Urgell by the Count Ermengol VI of Urgell in 1133. Up to 1802, the ecclesiastical border corresponded with the royal one established under the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659; as such the 33 towns of the northern Cerdanya came under the diocese's control.
The Roman Catholic Church controls the metropolitan church of Tarragona, with its see or capital of the Seu d’Urgell. It contains 7630 km² and a population of 200,761 according to the 2000 census and is the largest bishopric of the eight that have a see in Catalonia. In contrast, it is the most sparsely populated; the diocese borders the bishoprics of Vic, Lleida, Barbastro-Monzón, Toulouse and Perpignan. It has been linked for many years to the regions that constituted the counties of Urgell and Cerdanya during the Middle Ages, with which it identifies and forms a historical and geographic unit maintained up to the present day; the diocese or occupies the Ripollès, Alt Urgell, Urgell, Pla d'Urgell, Pallars Jussà, Pallars Sobirà, Alta Ribagorça and the Vall d'Aran regions. The bishopric’s jurisdiction extends to 408 parishes, although today some have a reduced population. All of the parishes come from distant times, as the titular saints of their churches; the most common are Saint Mary, Saint Peter, Saint Martin, Saint Saturninus, Saint Steven, Saint Michael, Saint Andrew, Saint Julian, Saint Eulalia, Saint Vincent and Saint Felix.
Many churches of the bishopric, parochial or not, conserve elements of great architectural interest, thirty-six of them are considered cultural goods of national interest in Spain. Amongst all Catalan bishoprics, the Diocese of Urgell has been that which has experienced the most border-related changes throughout its existence for political reasons: the loss of Ribagorça, to the benefit of the Diocese of Roda, the cession of 144 parishes of the Berguedà, the Solsonès and a part of the Segarra, to the benefit of the new diocese of Solsona. In 1874 the sixty-odd towns that formed the erstwhile exempt jurisdictions of Gerri, Montodó-Bonrepòs, the order of Saint John of Jerusalem and Meià were annexed to the diocese. In 1956, the diocese gained the seven parishes of the Artesa de Segre enclave and gave up the 19 of the Franja de Ponent to Lleida and Barbastre, grouped into three enclaves; the diocese, without excluding the possibility of a more remote origin, was constituted at the beginning of the 6th century.
The first known bishop, Saint Justus, figures among the participants of the councils of Toledo and Valencia. His successors took part in the Toledo councils celebrated throughout the 7th century; the Episcopal succession, despite the uncertainty of names and chronology, seems to not be interrupted by the Saracen invasion of 714. Monasticism must have been introduced into the diocese during the Visigothic period; the monasteries of Tavèrnoles, Gerri and Tresponts are anterior to the Saracen invasion. These foundations and the ones--la Vedella, Bagà, la Portella, les Maleses, Oveix, Bellera, el Burgal, Alaó, Ovarra, Gualter, etc.—often adopted the Benedictine observance from the 9th century on, following the example of the majority of the coenobitic monasteries extant in the Marca Hispanica. This became the norm for monastic life in the following century; these monasteries, alongside the parochial and canonical organization would influence the Christianization of the country and its human and economic development.
The canonical monasteries derived into colleges as a result of their secularization, due to their corruption, the 1851 concord eliminated them, along with the other preexisting ones. Mur and Àger were without a doubt the most famous Catalan canonical colleges, exempt from episcopal jurisdiction On the first decade of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Berber troops set up garrisons on the northernmost hilly regions and towns. Uthman ibn Naissa settled down in Cerdanya, killed the bishop of Urgel
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader. The term hagiography may be used to refer to the biography of a saint or developed spiritual being in any of the world's spiritual traditions. Christian hagiographies focus on the lives, notably the miracles, ascribed to men and women canonized by the Roman Catholic church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Church of the East. Other religious traditions such as Buddhism, Islam and Jainism create and maintain hagiographical texts concerning saints and other individuals believed to be imbued with sacred power. Hagiographic works those of the Middle Ages, can incorporate a record of institutional and local history, evidence of popular cults and traditions. However, when referring to modern, non-ecclesiastical works, the term hagiography is used as a pejorative reference to biographies and histories whose authors are perceived to be uncritical of or reverential to their subject. Hagiography constituted an important literary genre in the early Christian church, providing some informational history along with the more inspirational stories and legends.
A hagiographic account of an individual saint can consist of a biography, a description of the saint's deeds or miracles, an account of the saint's martyrdom, or be a combination of these. The genre of lives of the saints first came into being in the Roman Empire as legends about Christian martyrs were recorded; the dates of their deaths formed the basis of martyrologies. In the 4th century, there were three main types of catalogs of lives of the saints: annual calendar catalogue, or menaion, biographies of the saints to be read at sermons. In Western Europe hagiography was one of the more important vehicles for the study of inspirational history during the Middle Ages; the Golden Legend of Jacob de Voragine compiled a great deal of medieval hagiographic material, with a strong emphasis on miracle tales. Lives were written to promote the cult of local or national states, in particular to develop pilgrimages to visit relics; the bronze Gniezno Doors of Gniezno Cathedral in Poland are the only Romanesque doors in Europe to feature the life of a saint.
The life of Saint Adalbert of Prague, buried in the cathedral, is shown in 18 scenes based on a lost illuminated copy of one of his Lives. The Bollandist Society continues the study, academic assembly and publication of materials relating to the lives of Christian saints. Many of the important hagiographical texts composed in medieval England were written in the vernacular dialect Anglo-Norman. With the introduction of Latin literature into England in the 7th and 8th centuries the genre of the life of the saint grew popular; when one contrasts it to the popular heroic poem, such as Beowulf, one finds that they share certain common features. In Beowulf, the titular character battles against Grendel and his mother, while the saint, such as Athanasius' Anthony or the character of Guthlac, battles against figures no less substantial in a spiritual sense. Both genres focus on the hero-warrior figure, but with the distinction that the saint is of a spiritual sort. Imitation of the life of Christ was the benchmark against which saints were measured, imitation of the lives of saints was the benchmark against which the general population measured itself.
In Anglo-Saxon and medieval England, hagiography became a literary genre par excellence for the teaching of a illiterate audience. Hagiography provided priests and theologians with classical handbooks in a form that allowed them the rhetorical tools necessary to present their faith through the example of the saints' lives. Of all the English hagiographers no one was more prolific nor so aware of the importance of the genre as Abbot Ælfric of Eynsham, his work Lives of the Saints contains set of sermons on saints' days observed by the English Church. The text comprises two prefaces, one in Latin and one in Old English, 39 lives beginning on December 25 with the nativity of Christ and ending with three texts to which no saints' days are attached; the text spans the entire year and describes the lives of many saints, both English and continental, hearkens back to some of the earliest saints of the early church. There are two known instances; these are the Cornish-language works Beunans Meriasek and Beunans Ke, about the lives of Saints Meriasek and Kea, respectively.
Other examples of hagiographies from England include: the Chronicle by Hugh Candidus the Secgan Manuscript the list of John Leyland the book Life by Saint Cadog Ireland is notable in its rich hagiographical tradition, for the large amount of material, produced during the Middle Ages. Irish hagiographers wrote in Latin while some of the saint's lives were written in the hagiographer's native vernacular Irish. Of particular note are the lives of St. Patrick, St. Columba /Colm and St. Brigit/Brigid—Ireland's three patron saints. Additionally, several Irish calendars relating to the feastd
Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V, born Otto Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election ended the Western Schism, he was born at Genazzano, the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome, his brother Giordano became Prince of Salerno and Duke of Venosa, while his sister Paola was Lady of Piombino between 1441 and 1445. Oddone studied law at the University of Pavia, he became apostolic protonotary under Pope Urban VI, was created Cardinal-Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro by Pope Innocent VII in 1405. In 1409 he took part in the Council of Pisa, was one of the supporters of Antipope Alexander V, he confirmed his allegiance to Alexander's successor, John XXIII, by whom his family obtained several privileges, while Oddone obtained for himself the vicariate of Todi, Orvieto and Umbria. He was excommunicated for this in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII. Oddone was with John XXIII's entourage at the Council of Constance and followed him in his escape at Schaffhausen on 21 March 1415.
He returned to Constance and took part in the process leading to the deposition of John XXIII. After deposing Antipope John XXIII in 1415, the Council of Constance was long divided by the conflicting claims of Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII. Martin was elected pope, at the age of 48, at the Council of Constance on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1417. Participants in the conclave included 30 delegates of the council, he was ordained a priest on November 13, 1417, consecrated bishop the next day. Martin left Constance at the close of the council, but travelled through Italy and lingered at Florence, his authority in Rome was represented by his brother Giordano, who had fought under Muzio Attendolo against the condottiero Braccio da Montone. The Pope at the time ruled only Rome and its environs: Braccio held Umbria, Bologna as an independent commune, while much of Romagna and the Marche was held by local "vicars", who were in fact petty hereditary lords. In particular, Martin confirmed Giorgio Ordelaffi in Forlì, Ludovico Alidosi in Imola, Malatesta IV Malatesta in Rimini, Guidantonio da Montefeltro in Spoleto, who would marry the pope's niece Caterina Colonna.
In exchange for the recognition of Joan II of Naples, Martin obtained the restitution of Benevento, several fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples for his relatives and, most important of all, an agreement that Muzio Attendolo hired by the Neapolitans, should leave Rome. After a long stay in Florence while these matters were arranged, Martin was able to enter Rome in September 1420, he at once set to work establishing order and restoring the dilapidated churches, palaces and other public structures. For this reconstruction he engaged some famous masters of the Tuscan school and helped instigate the Roman Renaissance. Faced with competing plans for general reform offered by various nations, Martin V submitted a counter-scheme and entered into negotiations for separate concordats, for the most part vague and illusory, with the Holy Roman Empire, England and Spain. By 1415 Bohemia was in the subject of much discussion at the Council of Constance. Adherents of Jan Hus adopted the practice of Communion under both kinds.
The Council sent earnest letters to the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in Bohemia, insisting they deal with the heresy. Bohemian and Moravian nobles responded that the sentence on Hus was unjust and insulting to their country, promised to protect priests against episcopal prosecutions for heresy. Prague was placed under interdict for sheltering the excommunicate Johann of Jesenic. Beghards arrived attracted by Bohemia's reputation for religious liberty. In 1419 King Wenceslaus, who had resisted what he considered interference in his kingdom, commanded that all ejected Catholic beneficiaries should be reinstated in their offices and revenues. Prague prepared for armed resistance. Johann of Jesenic led a procession to the town hall, where under the leadership of Ziska of Troznow, a noble of southern Bohemia, the building was stormed and people found inside were thrown out of the windows on to the spears and swords of the processionists, hacked to pieces. In Kuttenberg, hundreds of captured Hussites were thrown by the miners into the shafts of disused silver mines.
King Wenceslaus swore death to all the rebels, but died of a stroke in August, 1419. The next months were marked by deeds of violence. Wenceslaus was succeeded by his brother Sigismund, German Emperor and King of Hungary, who prepared to restore order. On 1 March 1420, Pope Martin V issued a Bull inviting all Christians to unite in a crusade against the Wycliffites and other heretics. According to Burton, Pope Martin authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 in relation to the slave trade. Martin declared two Crusades in 1420; the first was against heretics in Bohemia. The second was in response to the rising pressure from the Ottoman Empire. In 1419–1420 Martin had diplomatic contacts with the Byzantine emperor Manuel II, invoking a council in Constantinople as a move to reduce the pressure from the Ottoman Turks. On 12 July 1420 the Pope conceded to attach an indulgence to anyone who would contribute to a crusade against the latter, which would be led by Sigismund, King of the Romans; the main concern of Martin's pontificate from 1423 was the resumed war against Braccio da Montone.
The following year, the combined Papal-Neapolitan army, led by Giacomo Caldora and Francesco Sforza, defeated him at the Battle of L
Odo of Châteauroux
Odo or Eudes of Châteauroux known as Odo of Tusculum and by many other names, was a French theologian and scholastic philosopher, papal legate and Cardinal. He was “an experienced preacher and promoter of crusades”. Over 1000 of his sermons survive. Odo was born at Châteauroux around the year 1190, he preached murderous crusade in 1226. He was chancellor of the University of Paris 1238-1244, also Cistercian abbot of Ourscamp, abbot of Grandselve. Odo of Ourscamp is a different figure, of the twelfth century. However, several sources doubt or ignore that he was a monk, he was involved in the aftermath of the Paris disputation of 1240, subsequent condemnation of the Talmud. After the disputation a tribunal was appointed to pass judgment upon the Talmud, among its members being Eudes de Chateauroux, Chancellor of the University of Paris. After the same rabbis had been heard a second time, the Talmud was condemned to be burned. Two years after twenty-four cartloads of Hebrew books were burned at Paris.
A little while at Lyons, the pope listened to the complaints of the Jews, in 1247 he asked Eudes de Chateauroux to examine the Talmud from the Jewish standpoint, to ascertain whether it might not be tolerated as harmless to the Christian faith, whether the copies, confiscated might not be returned to their owners. The rabbis had represented to him that without the aid of the Talmud they could not understand the Bible or the rest of their statutes. Eudes informed the pope that the change of attitude involved in such a decision would be wrongly interpreted, on 15 May 1248 the Talmud was condemned for the second time. A long list of supposed "errors and blasphemies" contained the Talmud was compiled by Eudes de Chateauroux, he was made cardinal-bishop of Frascati. He is given as bishop of Toulouse and bishop of Maguelonne and legate, was sent to preach murderous crusade in France by Pope Innocent IV, he accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade, is mentioned by Joinville, returning in 1254, via Cyprus.
Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals from December 1254 and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1270. He brought back relics, which he gave to Viterbo and Neuvy-Saint-Sépulcre, France, he consecrated relics in the Sainte-Chapelle. He led the enquiry into the canonization of Richard of Chichester. In 1270, on the death of Louis IX, he announced official mourning for the whole of Christendom, he died on 25 January 1273 at Orvieto. Super Psalterium MLXXVII Sermones de tempore et de sanctis et de diversis casibus For a list of manuscripts containing Super Psalterium see « Eudes de Châteauroux » in Viller, Marcel. Dictionnaire de spiritualité. Paris: G. Beauchesnes et ses fils, 1937-1995. 4, 2: 1675-8. Letter in August Potthast Regesta Pontificum Romanorum Callebant, A.. "Le sermon historique d'Eudes de Châteauroux à Paris, le 18 mars 1229. Autour de l'origine du grève universitaire et de l'enseignement des mendiants". Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 28: 81–114. Iozzelli, F.. "Il cardinal Odo da Chateauroux e Carlo d' Angio," Celestino V e i suoi tempi: realta spirituale e realta politica.
Atti del 4° Convegno storico internazionale L'Aquila, 26-27 agosto 1989. Pp. 35–53. Iozzelli, Fortunato. Odo da Châteauroux: politica e religione nei sermoni inediti. Padova: Aldo Ausilio. Maier, C. T.. "Crusade and rhetoric against the Muslim colony of Lucera: Eudes of Chateauroux's Sermones de Rebellione Sarracenorum Lucherie in Apulia". Journal of Medieval History. 21: 343–385. Doi:10.1016/0304-418100769-5. Charansonnet, Alexis. "Du Berry en Curie. La carrière du Cardinal Eudes de Châteauroux et son reflet dans sa prédication". Rev. Hist. Égl. France. 86: 5–37. Axel Müßigbrod. "Odo von Châteauroux". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 6. Herzberg: Bautz. Col. 1113. ISBN 3-88309-044-1. Biography, under Ottone de Castro Rodolfi
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Odo II, Count of Blois
Odo II was the Count of Blois, Chartres, Châteaudun and Tours from 1004 and Count of Troyes and Meaux from 1022. He twice tried to make himself a king: first in Italy after 1024 and in Burgundy after 1032. Odo II was the son of Odo I of Bertha of Burgundy, he was the first to unite Blois and Champagne under one authority although his career was spent in endless feudal warfare with his neighbors and suzerains, many of whose territories he tried to annex. About 1003/4 he married a daughter of Richard I of Normandy. After her death in 1005, as she had no children, Richard II of Normandy demanded a return of her dowry: half the county of Dreux. Odo refused and the two warred over the matter. King Robert II, who had married Odo's mother, imposed his arbitration on the contestants in 1007, leaving Odo in possession of the castle Dreux while Richard II kept the remainder of the lands. Odo married a second wife, daughter of William IV of Auvergne. Defeated by Fulk III, Count of Anjou, Herbert I, Count of Maine, at the Battle of Pontlevoy in July 1016, he tried to overrun the Touraine.
After the death of his cousin Stephen I in 1019/20, without heirs he seized Troyes and all of Champagne for himself without royal approval. From there he attacked Ebles, the archbishop of Reims, Theodoric I, Duke of Lorraine. Due to an alliance between the king and the Emperor Henry II he was forced to relinquish the county of Rheims to the archbishop, he was offered the crown of Italy by the Lombard barons, but the offer was retracted in order not to upset relations with the king of France. In 1032, he invaded the Kingdom of Burgundy on the death of Rudolph III, he retreated in the face of a coalition of the Emperor Conrad II and the new king of France, Henry I. He died in combat near Bar-le-Duc during another attack on Lorraine. By his second wife, Ermengarde of Auvergne, Odo had three children: Theobald III, who inherited the county of Blois and most of his other possessions. Stephen II, who inherited the counties of Meaux and Troyes in Champagne. Bertha, who married first Alan III, Duke of Brittany, second Hugh IV, Count of Maine
The Dispossessed: An Ambiguous Utopia is a 1974 utopian science fiction novel by American writer Ursula K. Le Guin, set in the fictional universe of the seven novels of the Hainish Cycle, e.g. The Left Hand of Darkness, about anarchist and other societal structures; the book won the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1974, won both the Hugo and Locus Awards in 1975, received a nomination for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award in 1975, it achieved a degree of literary recognition unusual for science fiction due to its exploration of themes such as anarchism and revolutionary societies and individualism and collectivism. It features the development of the mathematical theory underlying the fictional ansible, an instantaneous communications device that plays a critical role in Le Guin's novels in the Hainish Cycle; the invention of the ansible places the novel first in the internal chronology of the Hainish Cycle, although it was the fifth published. In her new introduction to the Library of America reprint in 2017, the author wrote: The Dispossessed started as a bad short story, which I didn’t try to finish but couldn’t quite let go.
There was a book in it, I knew it, but the book had to wait for me to learn what I was writing about and how to write about it. I needed to understand my own passionate opposition to the war that we were, endlessly it seemed, waging in Vietnam, endlessly protesting at home. If I had known that my country would continue making aggressive wars for the rest of my life, I might have had less energy for protesting that one. But, knowing only that I didn’t want to study war no more, I studied peace. I started by reading a whole mess of utopias and learning something about pacifism and Gandhi and nonviolent resistance; this led me to the nonviolent anarchist writers such as Paul Goodman. With them I felt a immediate affinity, they made sense to me in the way Lao Tzu did. They enabled me to think about war, politics, how we govern one another and ourselves, the value of failure, the strength of what is weak. So, when I realised that nobody had yet written an anarchist utopia, I began to see what my book might be.
And I found that its principal character, whom I’d first glimpsed in the original misbegotten story, was alive and well—my guide to Anarres. Le Guin's parents, academic anthropologists Alfred and Theodora Kroeber, were friends with J. Robert Oppenheimer; the Dispossessed is set on the twin inhabited worlds of Tau Ceti. Urras is dominated by its two largest, the rivals A-Io and Thu.. The former has a capitalist economy and patriarchal system, the latter is an authoritarian system that claims to rule in the name of the proletariat. A-Io has oppositional left-wing parties, one of, linked to the rival society Thu. A revolution sparks in the major, yet undeveloped third area of Benbili. A-Io invades the Thu-supported revolutionary area; the other world, represents a third ideological structure: anarcho-syndicalism. The Annaresti, who call themselves Odonians after the founder of their political philosophy, arrived on Anarres from Urras around 200 years ago. In order to forestall an anarcho-syndicalist rebellion, the major Urrasti states gave the revolutionaries the right to live on Anarres, along with a guarantee of non-interference Before this, Anarres had had no permanent settlements, apart from some mining facilities.
The economic and political situation of Anarres and its relation to Urras is ambiguous. The people of Anarres consider themselves as being free and independent, having broken off from the political and social influence of the old world. However, the powers of Urras consider Anarres as being their mining colony, as the annual consignment of Anarres' precious metals and their distribution to major powers on Urras is a major economic event of the old world; the chapters alternate between past and future. The even-numbered chapters, which are set on Anarres, take place first chronologically and are followed by the odd-numbered chapters, which take place on Urras; the only exceptions occur in the last chapters, which take place in both worlds. Chapter One begins in the middle of the story; the protagonist Shevek is an Anarresti physicist attempting to develop a General Temporal Theory. The physics of the book describes time as having a much deeper, more complex structure than we understand it, it incorporates not only mathematics and physics, but philosophy and ethics.
Shevek finds his work blocked by a jealous superior, as his theories conflict with the prevailing political philosophy and are thus distrusted by the society. His work is further disrupted by his obligation to perform manual labor during a drought in this anarchist society. After the drought, he arranges to go to Urras to publish his theory. Arriving on Urras, Shevek is feted. Shevek soon finds himself disgusted with the social and political conventions of the hierarchical capitalist society of Urras, he is kept at a university and manipulated by the physicists there, who hope that his breakthrough on the General Temporal Theory will allow them to build a faster-than-light ship. Shevek escapes the university and joins in a labor protest, violently suppressed, he flees to the Terran embassy, where he asks them to transmit his theory t