The white-tailed deer known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has been introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, the Lesser Antilles, some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most distributed wild ungulate. In North America, the species is distributed east of the Rocky Mountains as well as in most of Mexico, aside from Lower California, in southwestern Arizona. IIt is replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer from that point west. However, it is found in mixed deciduous riparian corridors, river valley bottomlands, lower foothills of the northern Rocky Mountain region from South Dakota west to eastern Washington and eastern Oregon and north to northeastern British Columbia and southern Yukon, including in the Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands; the conversion of land adjacent to the Canadian Rockies into agriculture use and partial clear-cutting of coniferous trees has been favorable to the white-tailed deer and has pushed its distribution to as far north as Yukon.
Populations of deer around the Great Lakes have expanded their range northwards, due to conversion of land to agricultural uses favoring more deciduous vegetation, local caribou and moose populations. The westernmost population of the species, known as the Columbian white-tailed deer, once was widespread in the mixed forests along the Willamette and Cowlitz River valleys of western Oregon and southwestern Washington, but today its numbers have been reduced, it is classified as near-threatened; this population is separated from other white-tailed deer populations. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, based on morphological differences. Genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animal's range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century; the Florida Key deer, O. v. clavium, the Columbian white-tailed deer, O. v. leucurus, are both listed as endangered under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
In the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. v. virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments. Several local deer populations in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide; some of these deer populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions of the south. These deer, over time, have intermixed with the local indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a complex number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala to as far south as Peru; this list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the number of subspecies is questionable. However, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection.
Some areas no longer carry deer, so assessing the genetic difference of these animals is difficult. Some subspecies names, ordered alphabetically: O. v. acapulcensis – Acapulco white-tailed deer O. v. borealis – northern white-tailed deer O. v. carminis – Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. clavium – Key deer or Florida Keys white-tailed deer O. v. chiriquensis – Chiriqui white-tailed deer O. v. couesi – Coues' white-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, or fantail deer O. v. dakotensis – Dakota white-tailed deer or northern plains white-tailed deer O. v. hiltonensis – Hilton Head Island white-tailed deer O. v. idahoensis – white-tailed deer O. v. leucurus – Columbian white-tailed deer O. v. macrourus – Kansas white-tailed deer O. v. mcilhennyi – Avery Island white-tailed deer O. v. mexicanus – Mexican white-tailed deer O. v. miquihuanensis – Miquihuan white-tailed deer O. v. nelsoni – Chiapas white-tailed deer O. v. nigribarbis – Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer O. v. oaxacensis – Oaxaca white-tailed deer O. v. ochrourus – northwestern white-tailed deer or northern Rocky Mountains white-tailed deer O. v. osceola – Florida coastal white-tailed deer O. v. rothschildi – Coiba Island white-tailed deer O. v. seminolus – Florida white-tailed deer O. v. sinaloae – Sinaloa white-tailed deer O. v. taurinsulae – Bulls Island white-tailed deer O. v. texanus – Texas white-tailed deer O. v. thomasi – Mexican lowland white-tailed deer O. v. toltecus – rain forest white-tailed deer O. v. truei – Central American white-tailed deer O. v. venatorius – Hunting Island white-tailed deer O. v. veraecrucis – northern Veracruz white-tailed deer O. v. virginianus – Virginia white-tailed deer or southern white-tailed deer O. v. yucatanensis – Yucatán white-tailed deer O. v. cariacou – O. v. curassavicus
Black musk deer
The black musk deer or dusky musk deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Moschidae. It is found in Bhutan, India and Nepal. M. fuscus is, in appearance, a small deer with long, thick hind legs in comparison to the front legs, no antlers. The dusky musk deer has well developed ears and eyes. Males and females are sized, between 70 and 100 cm in length and 10 and 15 kg in weight, have thick brown hair. There is variation in color and vibrancy, evident in spotting. Upper canine teeth in males form sabers. Unlike most cervids, this creature does not have the same facial glands. Mature males have a musk gland between the naval and genitalia, females have two mammae. Black musk deer have mating periods beginning in late November into December, lasting one month, they have mating with more than one female at a time. Breeding occurs in November and December. During mating season, a male excretes scents from scent glands to indicate his territory ( Gestation lasts six months, ending in parturition, which occurs during June or July.
Females give birth to one or two young. The newborns weigh about 500 g, have spots; the young are cared for by their mother after birth for several months. This process takes between three and four months. At six months, the young have reached full adult size. Sexual maturity, does not occur until 18 months. Not much is known about black musk deer parental care. Females are the main caretakers, as they watch their young for 3 to 4 months; the young travel with their mothers throughout this period, during which the mother defends and grooms her young. The role of the father in parental care is unknown. All animals have a certain position on the food web; the black musk deer, although only endangered, its lack of species numbers has a detrimental effect on the environment in which it lives and the food web in which it participates. They are believed to affect the vegetation because they consume grass and other plants; because they are hunted by humans and other animals such as the wolverine and yellow-throated marten, their numbers have been reduced, so they are now on the endangered species list.
With fewer black musk deer around, it has become more difficult for these predators to find food affecting the food web. The musk glands of the full-grown males have been collected for use in perfumes; the deer are hunted by companies looking to make money. At one point in the 1980s, the musk of the adult male deer was worth four times its weight in gold; because of its high demand in the soap and perfume market, the price of the musk was high. Another reason the deer are hunted is due to the belief that the musk of the deer has medicinal purposes. By tradition, they use it as a stimulant. Due to excessive hunting, it has been since placed on the endangered list. Another issue associated with the loss of the deer is habitat loss from deforestation. Not much is being done to save the deer from possible extinction; the black musk deer is nocturnal, most of their activities take place at night and dusk. This species is solitary. An individual of this species is not to live with any other deer, although they have been known to let other females “babysit” their young.
Territoriality is another salient feature for males. Living in the mountainous areas that have gorges and forests, these agile deer possess the ability to climb trees and move even at the dangerous edge of a cliff or in the thick bushes, they are more ferocious than other members in the family Moschidae in the case of males fighting for mates. In addition to low growls, these deers may attack their opponents with their tusks and strong fore hooves. Black musk deer are considerably vigilant, they do not return to the site where they are frightened or attacked before it is in a established “safe” territory. The black musk deer has a number of predators; some studies show. Humans prey on the deer more than all of their natural predators combined, they are caught and killed for their musk glands, which are used as a base for perfumes. Ethical concerns have led to the use of synthetic musk, but this has not prevented the black musk deer from being included on the endangered list
Dwarf musk deer
The dwarf musk deer or Chinese forest musk deer is an artiodactyl native to southern and central China and northernmost Vietnam. On June 14, 1976, China entered. Four subspecies are recognized: M. b. berezovskii M. b. bijiangensis M. b. caobangis M. b. yanguiensis
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope, prairie antelope, or antelope because it resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution, it is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene epoch, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. Three other genera existed when humans are now extinct; as a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. The Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae and Bovidae, among others; the scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana. The pronghorn is the sole extant member of the family Antilocapridae; this species was first described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815.
The pronghorn were first seen and described by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, but were not formally recorded or scrutinised till the 1804–1806 expedition by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark. The expedition, which aimed to unravel water routes in the continent for commercial purposes, led to the discovery or formal recognition of a variety of flora and fauna of North America. Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the sharp-tailed grouse and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River, in present-day Nebraska. Clark was the first to kill a pronghorn, described his experience as follows: I walked on shore to find an old Vulcanoe... in my walk I killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the height of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the horns, not hard and forks 2⁄3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, is above its Eyes the Color is a light gray with black behind its ears down the neck, its face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail, Short & white.
Lewis and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. They described the animal, which they referred to as the "Antelope" or the "Goat", as follows: Of all the animals we have seen the Antelope seems to possess the most wonderful fleetness. Shy and timorous they repose only on the ridges, which command a view of all the approaches of an enemy... When they first see the hunters they run with great velocity... The Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, shoot them with arrows; the Mandans' mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, from which a fence made of bushes widens on each side. The animals are surrounded by the hunters, driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, are at the mercy of the hunters. Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, breasts and across their throats. Adult males are 1.3–1.5 m long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, weigh 40–65 kg.
The females weigh 34 -- 48 kg. The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws, their body temperature is 38 °C. The orbits are prominent and set high with never an anteorbital pit, their teeth are hypsodont, their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. Each "horn" of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core; as in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath, shed and regrown annually. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath having a forward-pointing tine. Males have a horn sheath about 12.5–43 cm long with a prong. Females have smaller horns that range from 2.5–15.2 cm and sometimes visible. Males are further differentiated from females in having a small patch of black hair at the angle of the mandible. Pronghorns have a musky odor. Males mark territory with a preorbital scent gland, on the sides of the head.
They have large eyes with a 320° field of vision. Unlike deer, pronghorns possess a gallbladder; the pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. The top speed is hard to measure and varies between individuals, it is cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the cheetah. It can, sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. University of Idaho zoologist John Byers has suggested the pronghorn evolved its running ability to escape from extinct predators such as the American cheetah, since its speed exceeds that of extant North American predators. Compared to its body size, the pronghorn has a large windpipe and lungs to allow it to take in large amounts of ai