History of Pomerania
The history of Pomerania, an area in modern-day Germany and Poland, dates back more than 10,000 years. The name Pomerania comes from the Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea, settlement in the area started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, about 13,000 years ago. Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, of Veneti and Germanic peoples during the Iron Age and, in the Middle Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. In the High Middle Ages, the area became Christian and was ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania and the Samborides, at various times vassals of Denmark. The Teutonic Knights succeeded in annexing Pomerelia to their state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Pomerania into a German-settled area, the remaining Wends, in 1466, with the Teutonic Orders defeat, Pomerelia became subject to the Polish Crown as a part of Royal Prussia. While the Duchy of Pomerania adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1534, the Thirty Years and subsequent wars severely ravaged and depopulated most of Pomerania.
With the extinction of the Griffin house during the same period, Prussia gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania in 1720. It gained the remainder of Swedish Pomerania in 1815, when French occupation during the Napoleonic Wars was lifted, with Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire in 1871. Following the empires defeat in World War I, Pomerelia became part of the Second Polish Republic, after Nazi Germanys defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line and all of Pomerania was placed under Soviet military control. The area west of the line part of East Germany. The German population of the areas east of the line was expelled, during the late 1980s, the Solidarność and Die Wende movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era. Since then, Pomerania has been democratically governed, after the glaciers of the Vistula Glacial Stage retreated from Pomerania during the Allerød oscillation, a warming period that falls within the Early Stone Age, they left a tundra.
First humans appeared, hunting reindeer in the summer, a climate change in 8000 BC allowed hunters and foragers of the Maglemosian culture, and from 6000 BC of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture, to continuously inhabit the area. These people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania, the hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC. The Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC, in 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture reached Pomerania and introduced the domestic horse. Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans, except for Western Pomerania, the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later. During the Bronze Age, Western Pomerania was part of the Nordic Bronze Age cultures, while the Jastorf culture is usually associated with Germanic peoples, the ethnic category of the Lusatian culture and its successors is debated
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term powiat is most often translated into English as county, a powiat is part of a larger unit, the voivodeship or province. A powiat is usually subdivided into gminas, major towns and cities, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas. They are termed city counties and have roughly the same status as county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed land counties, as of 2008, there were 379 powiat-level entities,314 land counties, and 65 city counties. For a complete listing, see List of Polish counties. For tables of counties by voivodeship, see the articles on the individual voivodeships, the history of Polish powiats goes back to the second half of the 14th century. They remained the basic unit of organization in Poland, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After Poland regained independence in 1918, the powiats were again the territorial units.
Powiats were abolished in 1975 in favor of a number of voivodeships. This reform created 16 larger voivodeships, legislative power within a powiat is vested in an elected council, while local executive power is vested in the starosta, who is elected by that council. The administrative offices headed by the starosta are called the starostwo, however, in city counties these institutions do not exist separately – their powers and functions are exercised by the city council, the directly elected mayor, and the city offices. In some cases a powiat has its seat outside its own territory, for example, Poznań County has its offices in Poznań, although Poznań is itself a city county, and is therefore not part of Poznań County. Powiats have relatively limited powers, since many local and regional matters are dealt with either at gmina or voivodeship level, the Polish the name of an county, in the administrative sense, consists of the word powiat followed by a masculine-gender adjective. In most cases, this is the formed from the name of the town or city where the county has its seat.
Thus the county with its seat at the town of Kutno is named powiat kutnowski, if the name of the seat comprises a noun followed by an adjective, as in Maków Mazowiecki, the adjective will generally be formed from the noun only. There are a few counties whose names are derived from the names of two towns, from the name of a city and an adjective, or a mountain range. There is more one way to render such names into English
The gmina is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a commune or municipality. As of 2010 there were 2,478 gminy throughout the country, the word gmina derives from the German word Gemeinde, meaning community. The gmina has been the unit of territorial division in Poland since 1974. Some rural gminy have their seat in a town which is outside the gminas division, for example, the rural Gmina Augustów is administered from the town of Augustów, but does not include the town, as Augustów is an urban type gmina in its own right. The legislative and controlling body of each gmina is the municipal council, or in a town. A gmina may create auxiliary units, which play an administrative role. In rural areas these are called sołectwa, in towns they may be dzielnice or osiedla and in an urban-rural gmina, for a complete listing of all the gminy in Poland, see List of Polish gminas. Each gmina carries out two types of tasks, its own tasks and commissioned ones, own tasks are public tasks exercised by self-government, which serve to satisfy the needs of the community.
Commissioned tasks cover the remaining public tasks resulting from legitimate needs of the state, the tasks are handed over on the basis of statutory by-laws and regulations, or by way of agreements between the self-government units and central-government administration. Official report from the Central Statistical Office of Poland dated January 1,2006
Chojnice is a town in northern Poland with approximately 40447 inhabitants, near the famous Tuchola Forest and many other natural reservoirs. It is the capital of the Chojnice County, Chojnice has been a part of Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, as it was during the period 1945–1975, during the time span 1975–1998 the town belonged to Bydgoszcz Voivodeship. Chojnice was founded around 1205 in Gdańsk Pomerania, a duchy ruled at the time by the Samborides, who had originally been appointed governors of the province by Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland. Gdańsk Pomerania had been part of Poland since the 10th century, with few episodes of autonomy, yet under Swietopelk II, by 1282 the duchy had returned to Poland. The towns name is Polish in origin and comes from the name of the river Chojnica that was located near the town, the name first appears in written documents in 1275. In 1309 the Teutonic Knights took over the town, and Chojnice became part of the State of the Teutonic Order, under Winrich von Kniprode the defense capabilities and inner structures of the town were improved considerably.
Around the middle of the 14th century the church of St. John was built. At the same time the Augustinians from the town of Stargard in Pomerania settled here, in the same century textile production flourished in the town. Between 1417-1436 Konitz became an important centre for textile production, during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, in 1410, the town was briefly occupied by Polish troops. On 18 September 1454 the Polish army of King Casimir IV Jagiellon lost the Battle of Chojnice. Short before the end of the Thirteen Years War the troops of the Teutonic Order, led by Kaspar von Nostiz, surrendered the town in 1466 to the Polish army, after the 2nd Treaty of Thorn Chojnice became part of Poland in 1466. In the same year the city accepted the Protestant reformation officially. The Roman Catholic priest Jan Siński died in the following turmoil, in 1620 the first Jesuits came into the town and began the Counter Reformation. In the year 1627 a fire destroyed parts of the town, during the Second Northern War the Battle of Chojnice was fought.
The town suffered heavily from the siege and fire, a large fire destroyed the town again 1742. After the first partition of Poland the town part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772. In 1864 a telegraph connection to Stettin began operation, in 1868 the town was connected to the railway network. This improved industrial development quite considerably, in 1870 a gas power plant was installed
Chojnice County is a unit of territorial administration and local government in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. It came into being on January 1,1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998 and its administrative seat and largest town is Chojnice, which lies 103 kilometres south-west of the regional capital Gdańsk. The county contains the towns of Czersk, lying 30 km east of Chojnice, the county covers an area of 1,364.25 square kilometres. As of 2006 its total population is 91,585, out of which the population of Chojnice is 39,716, that of Czersk is 9,463, that of Brusy is 4,582, the county is subdivided into five gminas. These are listed in the table, in descending order of population
Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in north-central Poland. It comprises most of Pomerelia, as well as an area east of the Vistula River, the western part of the province, around Słupsk, belonged historically to Farther Pomerania, while Pomerelia and the eastern bank of the Vistula belonged to the historical region of Prussia. The central parts of the province are known as Kashubia. The voivodeship was established on January 1,1999, out of the voivodeships of Gdańsk, Elbląg and Słupsk. It is bordered by West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeships to the south, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the east, and it shares a short land border with Russia, on the Vistula Spit. Gdańsk, the capital, is one of the three members of the Tricity of Sopot, Gdańsk, and Gdynia. The voivodeship includes the narrow Hel Peninsula and the Polish half of the Vistula Spit, other tourist destinations include Sopot, Jurata, Łeba, Władysławowo, Krynica Morska, Jastarnia, Kuźnica, Bytów and many fishing ports and lighthouses.
The name Pomerania comes from the Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea, the voivodeship contains 42 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population, Pomeranian Voivodeship is divided into 20 counties,4 city counties, and 16 land counties. These are further divided into 123 gminas, the counties are listed below in order of decreasing population. SKM Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport Obwodnica Trójmiejska Autostrada A1 Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna Protected areas in Pomeranian Voivodeship include two National Parks and nine Landscape Parks, the Greatest Tourist Attractions - Brochure Pomerania Development Agency Co
Czersk is a town in northern Poland in Chojnice County, Pomeranian Voivodeship. On July 1,2006 this municipality celebrated 80 years of granting this community the status of city, today the centrum of City of Czersk in downtown is the Village Square. The infrastructure was modernized, rebuilt roadway system, modern center of commerce,400 seats sport hall and sewage treatment systems. The historical treasure is Neo-baroque-style parish church, the oldest described and documented church is from the year of 1584. The recent church was erected between 1910-1913 based on the project of F. O. Hossfed, the craft and commerce are flourishing. The most significant historical dates of City of Czersk, 13th century – The establishment of the community including Rytel, Łąg, Mokre. 1309 - The oldest historical evidence supports the fact the growth of the settlement after Teutonic Knights have overtaken the Pomeranian Gdańsk, at that time Czersk was a country site with operating mill, bitumic trade and bees farms.
1330 – The first historical acknowledgment of Czersk community
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though often located in areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighbourhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings, transient villages can occur, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a form of community for societies that practise subsistence agriculture. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church, in many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in numbers to work in mills and factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades, the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of life have existed, the typical village was small. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed, Traditional fishing villages were based on artisan fishing and located adjacent to fishing grounds. The soul of India lives in its villages, declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century, according to the 2011 census of India,68. 84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably,236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10, 000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, auyl is a Kazakh word meaning village in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan,42. 7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages, to refer to this concept along with the word auyl often used the slavic word selo in Northern Kazakhstan. Peoples Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh, 乡 or town Zh, Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities.
The village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township, japan South Korea In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A Desa is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more modern principles, Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions. A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah, both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota, the same general concept applies all over Indonesia
A stone circle is a monument of standing stones arranged in a circle. Such monuments have been constructed in parts of the world throughout history for many different reasons. Outside of Europe, stone circles have erected, such as the 6300~6900 BCE Atlit Yam in Israel and 3000~4000 BCE Gilgal Refaim nearby. Another prehistoric stone circle tradition occurred in southern Scandinavia during the Iron Age, the size and number of the stones varies from example to example, and the circle shape can be an ellipse. All experts agree that stone circles are of date. Radiocarbon dating has produced a range of dates at different sites. This is at least partly due to an inadequacy of materials suitable for radiocarbon dating that can be obtained from the sites. The diversity of radiocarbon evidence may suggest that stone circles were constructed over a long period. It is often not clear when building started, a further obstacle to dating is that there are generally no other archaeological artifacts associated with the stone circles.
Traditional archaeological artifacts, such as pottery sherds, etc. are not often found at the sites, the sites display no evidence of human dwelling, and rarely encompass graves. This suggests that stone circles were constructed for ceremonies and were in use on ceremonial occasions only, the type of ceremonies is entirely unknown. The crudeness and variety of the stones excludes the possibility that they had astronomical observation purposes of any precision, sometimes a stone circle is found in association with a burial pit or burial chamber, but the great majority of these monuments have no such association. A stone circle is a different entity from a henge. That suggests religious context, the details of which are still obscure, during the Middle Neolithic stone circles began to appear in coastal and lowland areas towards the north of the United Kingdom. The Langdale axe industry in the Lake District appears to have been an important early centre for circle building, many had closely set stones, perhaps similar to the earth banks of henges, others were made from unfounded boulders rather than standing stones.
By the Neolithic, stone circle construction had attained a greater precision, rather than being limited to coastal areas, they began to move inland and their builders grew more ambitious, producing examples of up to 400 m diameter in the case of the Outer Circle at Avebury. Most circles, measured around 25 m in diameter, designs became more complex, with double and triple ring designs appearing along with significant regional variation. These monuments are often classed separately as concentric stone circles, by 1500 BC stone circle construction had all but ceased
Voivodeships of Poland
A województwo is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a province in many other countries. The term województwo has been in use since the 14th century, the word województwo is rendered as voivodeship or a variant spelling. The Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999 and these replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975. Todays voivodeships are mostly named after historical and geographical regions, while prior to 1998 generally took their names from the cities on which they were centered. The new units range in area from under 10,000 km2 to over 35,000 km2, voivodeships are further divided into powiats and gminas, see Administrative divisions of Poland. Competences and powers at voivodeship level are shared between the voivode, the sejmik and the marshal. In most cases these institutions are all based in one city, but in Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lubusz Voivodeship the voivodes offices are in a different city from those of the executive, Voivodeship capitals are listed in the table below.
The voivode is appointed by the Prime Minister and is the representative of the central government. The voivodes offices collectively are known as the urząd wojewódzki, the sejmik is elected every four years, at the same time as the local authorities at powiat and gmina level. It passes bylaws, including the development strategies and budget. It elects the marszałek and other members of the executive, the marshals offices are collectively known as the urząd marszałkowski. According to 2014 Eurostat data, the GDP per capita of Polish voivodeships varies notably, Administrative division of Poland between 1979 and 1998 included 49 voivodeships upheld after the establishment of the Third Polish Republic in 1989 for another decade. This reorganization of administrative division of Poland was mainly a result of government reform acts of 1973–1975. In place of the administrative division, a new two-level administrative division was introduced. The three smallest voivodeships – Warsaw, Kraków and Łódź – had the status of municipal voivodeship.
After World War II, the new division of the country within the new national borders was based on the prewar one and included 14 voivodeships. The voivodeships in the east that had not been annexed by the Soviet Union had their borders left almost unchanged. The newly acquired territories in the west and north were organized into the new voivodeships of Szczecin, Wrocław and Olsztyn, two cities were granted voivodeship status, Warsaw and Łódź