Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
United States presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States. This ceremony takes place for each new presidential term if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place on January 20, 72 to 78 days after the November presidential election; the term of a president commences at noon on that day, when the Chief Justice of the United States administers the oath of office to the president. However, when January 20 falls on a Sunday, the chief justice administers the oath to the president on that day and again in a public ceremony the next day, on Monday, January 21; the most recent presidential inauguration ceremony was the swearing in of Donald Trump to a four-year term of office on Friday, January 20, 2017. Recitation of the presidential oath of office is the only component in this ceremony mandated by the United States Constitution. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades and multiple social gatherings.
The ceremony itself is carried live via the major U. S. commercial television and cable news networks. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the west front of the United States Capitol facing the National Mall with its iconic Washington Monument and distant Lincoln Memorial. Other swearing-in ceremonies have taken place on a platform over the steps at the Capitol's east portico on a regular basis for 180 years, inside the Old Senate Chamber on the old north side, the chamber of the House of Representatives in the south wing, the central Rotunda under the dome. Additionally, on two occasions—in 1817 and 1945—they were held at the Executive Mansion. Though it is not a constitutional requirement, the Chief Justice administers the presidential oath of office. Since 1789, the oath has been administered at 58 scheduled public inaugurations, by 15 chief justices, one associate justice, one New York state judge. Others, in addition to the chief justice, have administered the oath of office to several of the nine vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency upon their predecessor's death or resignation intra-term.
When a new president has assumed office under these unusual circumstances the inauguration has been conducted without pomp or fanfare. The first inauguration, that of George Washington, took place on April 30, 1789. All subsequent inaugurations from 1793 until 1933, were held on March 4, the day of the year on which the federal government began operations under the U. S. Constitution in 1789; the exception to this pattern was those years. When it did, the public inauguration ceremony would take place on Monday, March 5; this happened on four occasions, in 1821, 1849, 1877, 1917. Inauguration Day moved to January 20, beginning in 1937, following ratification of the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, where it has remained since. A similar Sunday exception and move to Monday is made around this date as well. Inauguration Day, while not a federal holiday, is observed as a holiday by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees or students who are not scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day.
Most presidential inaugurations since 1801 have been held in Washington D. C. at the Capitol Building. Prior inaugurations were held, first at Federal Hall in New York City, at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; each city was, at the nation's capital. The location for James Monroe's 1817 swearing in was moved to the Old Brick Capitol in Washington due to on-going restoration work at the Capitol building following the War of 1812. In 1909, William H. Taft's inauguration was moved to the Senate Chamber due to a blizzard. Three other inaugurations—Franklin D. Roosevelt's fourth, Harry S. Truman's first, Gerald Ford's —were held at the White House. Presidential inaugurations have traditionally been outdoor public ceremonies. Andrew Jackson, in 1829, was the first of 35 held on the east front of the Capitol. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, they have been held on the Capitol's west front. Prior to Inauguration Day, the president-elect will name a Presidential Inaugural Committee.
This committee is the legal entity responsible for fundraising for and the planning and coordination of all official events and activities surrounding the inauguration of president and vice president, such as the balls and parade. Since 1901, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies has been responsible for the planning and execution of the swearing-in ceremonies at the U. S. Capitol. Since 1953, the committee has hosted a luncheon at the Capitol for the new president, vice president, guests; the Joint Task Force National Capital Region, composed of service members from all branches of the United States Armed Forces, including Reserve and National Guard components, is
Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer and fasting. It is preceded by Shrove Tuesday and falls on the first day of Lent, the six weeks of penitence before Easter. Ash Wednesday is traditionally observed by Western Christians. Most Latin Rite Roman Catholics observe it, as do some Protestants like Anglicans, Methodists, some Reformed churches, Baptists and Independent Catholics; as it is the first day of Lent, Christians begin Ash Wednesday by marking a Lenten calendar, praying a Lenten daily devotional, abstaining from a luxury that they will not partake of until Eastertide arrives. Ash Wednesday derives its name from the placing of repentance ashes on the foreheads of participants to either the words "Repent, believe in the Gospel" or the dictum "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The ashes are prepared by burning palm leaves from the previous year's Palm Sunday celebrations. Many Christian denominations emphasize fasting, as well as abstinence during the season of Lent and in particular, on its first day, Ash Wednesday.
The First Council of Nicæa spoke of Lent as a period of fasting for forty days, in preparation for Eastertide. In many places, Christians abstained from food for a whole day until the evening, at sunset, Western Christians traditionally broke the Lenten fast, known as the Black Fast. In India and Pakistan, many Christians continue this practice of fasting until sunset on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, with some fasting in this manner throughout the whole season of Lent. In the Roman Catholic Church, Ash Wednesday is observed by fasting, abstinence from meat, repentance – a day of contemplating one's transgressions. On Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, Roman Catholics between the ages of 18 and 59 are permitted to consume one full meal, along with two smaller meals, which together should not equal the full meal; some Catholics will go beyond the minimum obligations put forth by the Church and undertake a complete fast or a bread and water fast until sunset. Ash Wednesday and Good Friday are days of abstinence from meat, as are all Fridays during Lent.
Some Roman Catholics continue fasting throughout Lent, as was the Church's traditional requirement, concluding only after the celebration of the Easter Vigil. Where the Ambrosian Rite is observed, the day of fasting and abstinence is postponed to the first Friday in the Ambrosian Lent, nine days later. A number of Lutheran parishes teach communicants to fast on Ash Wednesday, with some people choosing to continue doing so throughout the entire season of Lent on Good Friday. One Lutheran congregation's A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent recommends that the faithful "Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day without meat". In the Church of England, throughout much of the Worldwide Anglican Communion, the entire forty days of Lent are designated days of fasting, while the Fridays are designated as days of abstinence in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, with the Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion defining "Fasting meaning not more than a light breakfast, one full meal, one half meal, on the forty days of Lent."
The same text defines abstinence as refraining from flesh meat on all Fridays of the Church Year, except for those during Christmastide. The historic Methodist homilies regarding the Sermon on the Mount stress the importance of the Lenten fast, which begins on Ash Wednesday; the United Methodist Church therefore states that: There is a strong biblical base for fasting during the 40 days of Lent leading to the celebration of Easter. Jesus, as part of his spiritual preparation, went into the wilderness and fasted 40 days and 40 nights, according to the Gospels. Rev. Jacqui King, the minister of Nu Faith Community United Methodist Church in Houston explained the philosophy of fasting during Lent as "I'm not skipping a meal because in place of that meal I'm dining with God"; the Reformed Church in America describes Ash Wednesday as a day "focused on prayer and repentance." The liturgy for Ash Wednesday thus contains the following "Invitation to Observe a Lenten Discipline" read by the presider: We begin this holy season by acknowledging our need for repentance and our need for the love and forgiveness shown to us in Jesus Christ.
I invite you, therefore, in the name of Christ, to observe a Holy Lent, by self-examination and penitence, by prayer and fasting, by practicing works of love, by reading and reflecting on God's Holy Word. Many of the Churches in the Reformed tradition retained the Lenten fast in its entirety, although it was made voluntary, rather than obligatory. Ashes are ceremonially placed on the heads of Christians on Ash Wednesday, either by being sprinkled over their heads or, in English-speaking countries, more by being marked on their foreheads as a visible cross; the words used traditionally to accompany this gesture are, "Memento, quia pulvis es, et in pulverem reverteris." This custom is credited to Pope Gregory I the Great. In the 1969 revision of the Roman Rite, an alternative formula was introduced and given first place "Repent, believe in the Gospel" and the older formula was translated as "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The old formula, based on the words spoken to Adam and Eve after their sin, reminds worshippers of their sinfulness and mortality and thus, implicitly, of their need to repent in time.
The newer formula makes explicit. Various manners of placing the ash
Vasant Panchami spelled Basant Panchami, is a festival that marks the preliminary preparations for the arrival of spring, celebrated by people in various ways depending upon the region. The Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for Holika and Holi, which take place forty days later; the Vasant Utsava on Panchami is celebrated forty days before Spring, because any season's transition period is 40 days, after that the season comes in to full bloom. Vasant Panchami is celebrated every year on the fifth day of the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar calendar month of Magha, which falls in late January or February. Spring is known as the "King of all Seasons", so the festival commences forty days in advance.. The festival is observed by Hindus in India and Nepal, it's has been a historical tradition of Sikhs as well. In southern states, the same day is called Sri Panchami.. On the island of Bali and the Hindus of Indonesia, it is known as "Hari Raya Saraswati", it marks the beginning of the 210-day long Balinese Pawukon calendar.
Vasant Panchami is a festival that marks the beginning of preparations for the King of all Seasons, Spring. It is celebrated by people in various ways depending on the region. Vasant Panchami marks the start of preparation for holiday and holi which occurs forty days later. For many Hindus, Vasant Panchami is the festival dedicated to goddess Saraswati, their goddess of knowledge, language and all arts, she is the energy of Brahma, she symbolizes creative energy and power in all its form, including longing and love. The season and festival celebrates the agricultural fields' ripening with yellow flowers of mustard crop, which Hindus associate with Saraswati's favorite color. People dress in shirts or accessories, share yellow colored snacks and sweets; some add saffron to their rice and eat yellow cooked rice as a part of an elaborate feast. Many families mark this day by sitting with babies and young children, encouraging their children to write their first words with their fingers, some study or create music together.
The day before Vasant Panchami, Saraswati's temples are filled with food so that she can join the celebrants in the traditional feasting the following morning. In temples and educational institutions, statues of Saraswati are dressed in worshiped. Many educational institutions arrange special prayers or pujas in the morning to seek blessing of the goddess. Poetic and musical gatherings are held in some communities in reverence for Saraswati. In Nepal and eastern states of India such as West Bengal including north-eastern states like Tripura and Assam, people visit her temples and worship her. Most of the schools arrange special Saraswati puja for their students in their premises. In Bangladesh, all major educational institutes and universities observe it with holiday and a special puja. In the state of Odisha,The festival is celebrated as Basanta Panchami/Sri Panchami /Saraswati Puja. Homas and Yagnas are done in Colleges across the state. Students celebrate Saraswati Puja with great fervor. Toddlers start learning from this day in a unique ceremony named'Khadi-Chuan'/Vidya-Arambha.
In southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, the same day is called Sri Panchami where "Sri" refers to her as another aspect of the one goddess Devi.. Another legend behind Vasant Panchami is based on the Hindu god of love called Kama. Pradyumna is Kamadev personified, thus Vasant Panchami is known as "Madana Panchami". Pradyumna is the son of Krsna, he awakens the passions of the earth and thus. It is remembered as the day when Parvati approached Kama to wake up Shiva in Yogic meditation since the Maha Shivaratri; the other gods support Parvati, seek Kama's help to bring Shiva back from his meditation to do his duties in the world. Kama agrees and shoots arrows, made of flowers and bees, at Shiva from his heavenly bow of sugarcane in order to arouse him to pay attention to Parvati; this initiative is celebrated by Hindus as Vasant Panchami. Vasant Panchami is associated with the emotions of love and emotional anticipation in Kutch, celebrated by preparing bouquet and garlands of flowers set with mango leaves, as a gift.
People visit each other. Songs about Krishna's pranks with Radha, considered to mirror Kama-Rati, are sung; this is symbolized with the Hindu deity Kamadeva with his wife Rati. Traditionally, in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, after bathing in the morning, people worship Shiva and Parvati. Offerings of mango flowers and the ears of wheat are traditionally made; the shrine of the Sun-God in Aurangabad district, Bihar known as the Deo-Sun Shrine, was established on Basant Panchami. The day is celebrated to commemorate the founding of the shrine by King Aila of Allahabad and the birthday of the Sun-Deo God; the statues are washed and old red clothes on them are replaced with new ones on Basant Panchami. Devotees sing and play musical instruments. People celebrate the day by eating sweet dishes and display yellow flowers in homes. In Rajasthan, it is customary for people to wear jasmine garlands. In Maharashtra, newly married couples visit a temple and offer prayers on the first Basant Panchami after the wedding.
Wearing yellow dresses. In the Punjab region and Hindus wear yellow turban or head dress. In Uttarakhan
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr, it is observed on the third Monday of January each year, around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act; the earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21. King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which protested racial discrimination in federal and state law; the campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays, it was observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000. The idea of Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a holiday was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations. After King's death, U.
S. Representative John Conyers and U. S. Senator Edward Brooke introduced a bill in Congress to make King's birthday a national holiday; the bill first came to a vote in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1979. However, it fell five votes short of the number needed for passage. Two of the main arguments mentioned by opponents were that a paid holiday for federal employees would be too expensive, that a holiday to honor a private citizen would be contrary to longstanding tradition. Only two other figures have national holidays in the U. S. honoring them: George Washington and Christopher Columbus. Soon after, the King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public; the success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 article in The Nation as "the largest petition in favor of an issue in U.
S. history". Senators Jesse Helms and John Porter East led opposition to the holiday and questioned whether King was important enough to receive such an honor. Helms criticized King's opposition to the Vietnam War and accused him of espousing "action-oriented Marxism". Helms led a filibuster against the bill and on October 3, 1983, submitted a 300-page document to the Senate alleging that King had associations with communists. Democratic New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared the document a "packet of filth", threw it on the Senate floor and stomped on it. President Ronald Reagan opposed the holiday, citing cost concerns; when asked to comment on Helms' accusations that King was a communist, the president said "We'll know in thirty-five years, won't we?", in reference to the eventual release of FBI surveillance tapes, sealed. But on November 2, 1983, Reagan signed a bill, proposed by Representative Katie Hall of Indiana, to create a federal holiday honoring King; the bill had passed the Senate by a count of 78 to 22 and the House of Representatives by 338 to 90, veto-proof margins.
The holiday was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986. It is observed on the third Monday of January; the bill established the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal Holiday Commission to oversee observance of the holiday, Coretta Scott King, King's wife, was made a member of this commission for life by President George H. W. Bush in May 1989. Although the federal holiday honoring King was signed into law in 1983 and took effect three years not every U. S. state chose to observe the holiday at the state level until 1991, when the New Hampshire legislature created "Civil Rights Day" and abolished "Fast Day". In 2000, Utah became the last state to name a holiday after King when "Human Rights Day" was changed to "Martin Luther King Jr. Day". In 1986, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat, created a paid state MLK holiday in Arizona by executive order just before he left office, but in 1987, his Republican successor Evan Mecham, citing an attorney general's opinion that Babbitt's order was illegal, reversed Babbitt's decision days after taking office.
That year, Mecham proclaimed the third Sunday in January to be "Martin Luther King Jr./Civil Rights Day" in Arizona, albeit as an unpaid holiday. In 1990, Arizona voters were given the opportunity to vote on giving state employees a paid MLK holiday; that same year, the National Football League threatened to move Super Bowl XXVII, planned for Arizona in 1993, if the MLK holiday was voted down. In the November election, the voters were offered two King Day options: Proposition 301, which replaced Columbus Day on the list of paid state holidays, Proposition 302, which merged Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays into one paid holiday to make room for MLK Day. Both measures failed to pass, with only 49% of voters approving Prop 302, the more popular of the two options; the state lost the chance to host Super Bowl XXVII, subsequently held at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. In a 1992 referendum, the voters, this time given only one option for a paid King Day, approved state-level recognition of the holiday.
On May 2, 2000, South Carolina governor Jim Hodges signed a bill to make King's birthday an official state holiday. South Carolina was the last state to recognize the day as a paid holiday for all state employees. Prior to this, employees could choose between celebrating Martin Lu
African-American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. An African American neighborhood is one where the majority of the people who live there are African American; some of the earliest African-American neighborhoods were in New York City along with early communities located in Virginia. In 1830, there were 14,000 "free Negroes" living in New York City; the formation of black neighborhoods are linked to the history of segregation in the United States, either through formal laws or as a product of social norms. Despite the formal laws and segregation, black neighborhoods have played an important role in the development of African-American culture; the Great Migration was the movement of more than one million African Americans out of rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1940. Most African Americans who participated in the migration moved to large industrial cities such as Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, D. C. Detroit, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Los Angeles, Long Beach as well as many smaller industrial cities.
Hence, the Migration played an important role in the formation and expansion of African-American neighborhoods in these cities. Chicago's South Side and adjoining South Suburbs together constitute the largest geographical predominantly Black region in America, stretching from Cermak Road on the north in the Near South Side to the far south suburb of University Park - a distance of 40 miles. There are various races and ethnic groups in this huge expanse such as Whites, Latinos and Arabs, but it is predominantly Black. While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, while enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination in the North through a large migration during such a short of period of time; the African-American migrants were resented by working classes in the North, who feared that their ability to negotiate rates of pay, or to secure employment at all, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Populations increased rapidly with the addition of African-American migrants and new European immigrants, which caused widespread housing shortages in many cities.
Newer groups competed for the oldest and most rundown houses because the poorly constructed houses were what they could afford. African Americans competed for work and housing with first or second generation immigrants in many major cities. Ethnic groups created territories. More established populations with more capital moved away to newer housing, being developed on the outskirts of the cities, to get away from the pressure of new groups of residents; the migrants discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. In 1917, the Supreme Court declared municipal resident segregation ordinances unconstitutional. In response, some white groups resorted to the restrictive covenant, a formal deed restriction binding property owners in a given neighborhood not to sell to blacks. Whites who broke these agreements could be sued by "damaged" neighbors. Not until 1948 did the Supreme Court strike down restrictive covenants; the National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas those areas inhabited by African Americans.
In some cities, the influx of African-American migrants as well as other immigrants resulted in racial violence, which flared in several cities during 1919. This significant event and the subsequent struggle of African-American migrants to adapt to Northern cities was the subject of Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series; this series, exhibited in 1941, was responsible for bringing Lawrence to the public eye as one of the most important African-American artists of the time. From 1940-1970, another five million people left the South for industrial jobs in cities in the North and West. Sometimes violence was the outcome of some of the pressure of this migration. In response to the influx of Blacks from the South, insurance companies, businesses began redlining—denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, access to jobs, access to health care, or supermarkets to residents in certain racially determined, areas; the most common use of the term refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.
This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States. Urban renewal, the redevelopment of areas within large cities, including white flight, has been a factor in the growth patterns of African-American neighborhoods; the process began an intense phase in the late 1940s and continues in some places to the present day. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape. Urban renewal was controversial because it involved the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, the use of eminent domain to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects; the justifications used for urban renewal include the "renewal" of residential slums and blighted commercial and industrial areas. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways, housing projects, vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century.