Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Everswinkel is a municipality in Warendorf District, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated some 30 km north of Hamm and 15 km east of Münster
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Ennigerloh is a town in the district of Warendorf, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located 25 km northeast of Hamm and 30 km southeast of Münster; the town is set in an agricultural area, has a well-preserved medieval town centre. However, it had several cement factories; some of the latter ones were closed down towards the end of the century. Furniture manufacturing was a significant industry. Karl Weierstrass, mathematician described as "the father of analysis" Alois Hanslian, painter Willy Hartner German professor, founded the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences in Frankfurt am Main. Official website
Drensteinfurt is a town in the district of Warendorf, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated 15 km north of Hamm and 20 km south of Münster; the villages Rinkerode in the north and Walstedde in the south are part of Drensteinfurt. Drensteinfurt is situated on the river Werse and adjoins to Sendenhorst, Hamm, Ascheberg as well as Münster; the surroundings of the town are dominated by agricultural used areas like fields and meadows for cattle breeding. Small woods and hedges are home to several wild animals. Together with a well constructed system of cycle tracks and field paths this all makes up the typical "Münsterländer Parklandschaft", a description of the landscape around Münster which fits for the surroundings of Drensteinfurt; the district Rinkerode is surrounded by the two woodlands Hohe Ward. Davert is a young woodland. Till the end of the 19th century it was marsh before it was afforested. Today it consists of oak- and beech-copses which are intercepted by smaller brownfields and meadows.
Hohe Ward is an older woodland and is based on sandy soil so that the main trees in this woodland are conifers. Nowadays parts of the woodland serve as a refuge for drinking water abstraction. Drensteinfurt consists of three districts Drensteinfurt Rinkerode Walstedde The first documentary mention of the town is from the year 851. At the beginning of the 19th century Drensteinfurt obtained some wealth through Strontianite mining. Today some old buildings can be seen in the town. On March 23, 1944 a bombing raid by the British Royal Air Force hit the town and some 80 residents died. Most of the historical buildings in the Old Town were destroyed; the town's name consists of two parts. The first part "Dren-" refers to the medieval Gau Dreingau which can be translated as'fruitful soil'; the second part "-steinfurt" refers to a "stone ford" which crossed the river Werse in the middleages. The name of the town is symbolized in the coat of arms; the coat of arms is based on a seal of Drensteinfurts court from the end of the 18th century.
It shows a silver deer carrying a twig in its pacing to the left. The deer is standing on some stones which symbolize the ford that crossed the river Werse in the middleages; the coat of arms is again being used in administrational manner since 1976. The Münster–Hamm railway passes through the city in north - south direction serving three stations within the city limits. By this, Drensteinfurt is connected to the regional commuter system of North Rhine-Westphalia. Drensteinfurt is passed by three Bundesstrassen enabling fast access to the next Autobahn. In 1988 a bypass in the north was finished. Since the Old town was traffic calmed and trucks from Hamm which head for the Autobahn A1 are no longer forced to drive through the narrow streets of the town. Being a commuter city, the degree of industry in Drensteinfurt is only low. Most of the workforce is employed in the adjacent cities of Hamm; the biggest employer in Drensteinfurt is an enamel factory giving work to some 100 people. Besides this, there are only small-scale businesses.
Downtown consists of small retail shops and supermarkets. The surroundings of Drensteinfurt are of agricultural usage. Farming consists of nearly equal parts of crop growing. In each of the three districts of Drensteinfurt exists one elementary school. Kardinal-von-Galen Grundschule Katholische Grundschule Rinkerode Lambertus-Grundschule In Drensteinfurt pupils can attend the Hauptschule or the Realschule. Due to the absence of a Gymnasium within the city limits a larger quantity of pupils commutes to Münster-Hiltrup, a suburb and district of Münster, visits the two Gymnasiums there. Drensteinfurt has a public open air swimming pool with a 50 m long bassin and 8 swimming lanes for swimming competitions. There is a 3 m diving platform and a 78 square meter shallow children's pool. Surrounding the pool, there is a sunbathing area 2 hectares in size. Directly next to the public swimming pool is the town's public sporting field "Erlfeld"; this sporting complex consists of one 109 m x 73 m grass soccer field, a 109 m x 71 m red gravel soccer field and one 110 m x 70 m artificial turf soccer field.
The gravel field and the artificial turf field are equipped with floodlight, enabling practice and competition late at night. Borussia Mönchengladbach star goalkeeper Steffen Scharbaum is from Drensteinfurt; the sporting complex "Erlfeld" offers a wide variety of facilities for track and field. There is a sand pit for long jump and a discus throwing circle. Surrounding the "Erlfeld" is a horse racing track, 850 meters in length, it is used for the annual horse derby. Each August the local horse race association has this race, visited by some ten thousand people. In 1993 the association raised a monument for equestrian sports; the bronze statue is situated on the Mühlenstraße. The local tennis club owns 8 outdoor and 2 indoor tennis courts. There are 13 indoor skittle lanes spread over the whole town connected with a pub. For indoor sports, Drensteinfurt has 5 gyms to offer; the largest of them is the "D
Warendorf is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia and capital of Warendorf District. The town is best known today for its well-preserved medieval town centre, for horse-riding, the opportunities it provides for cycling. Bicycles are such a common means of transport in the area that many cycle paths have been built alongside main roads outside the town; the origin and name Warendorf date back to the ancient Saxon royal court of Warintharpa, most already formed in 700 BC. Between the years of 1197 and 1201 Warendorf became a town. During this time, among the established parish, which belonged to the “old church”, a new, second parish with the “new church” was formed just west of the town centre; the medieval records of the founding of Warendorf are missing, along with several records and documents in Münster. These were all destroyed during the rule under the Anabaptists. Bishop Hermann II von Katzenelnbogen contributed to the founding of the town. In 1224 the first recorded mention of Warendorf as a civitas, a civil and municipal community, was made.
The wealth of Warendorf grew and developed more and more into an important trading town, since it is situated favourably between Münster and Oelde. Apart from that Warendorf profited from the production and selling of linen; the wealthy citizens settled on the market square and in the streets and Oststrasse. Still today these areas of the town are most prominent in the townscape of Warendorf. In contrast, the poorer part of population lived in simple houses with dirt floors; these bad living conditions lead to the illnesses. In 1404 there was a great fire in Warendorf, during which along with 600 houses the “old church” and the town hall with all its inventory were destroyed. In 1533 the Anabaptist movement spread in Warendorf and in Münster; this movement took over rule in the town for one week in October 1534, until it was ended by a short occupation by Bishop Franz von Waldeck. Four Anabaptist apostles and the Warendorf Anabaptist movement leaders were sentenced to death and were executed by a sword on the market square.
As a deterrent the bodies of the “apostles” were laid on the four gates into the town. As a result of this, Warendorf lost its town rights and regained them again in 1542. Free elections of the local council were first held in 1556 under Bishop Franz von Waldeck's successor; the Anabaptist movement continued up into the 17th century in the background without any serious danger for the town or church. Between 1627 and 1632 loss of the town rights occurred during religious battles of the Thirty Years' War; the first mention of the “Fettmarkt” dates back to 1657. This event remained an important funfair with a flea livestock market still today. In 1741 another great fire broke out, which resulted in the destruction of the “new church” and 332 houses; because many tradesmen had to move further, so Warendorf suffered economic loss. In 1802 Warendorf came under the Prussian sovereignty; the once blossoming town impoverished. In 1826 the establishment of the Westphalian state stud farm in Warendorf was succeeded by the Prussian stud administration.
In 1887 the railroad line Münster – Warendorf – Rheda-Wiedenbrück was opened. In 1937 barracks were built just north of Warendorf. Today, the sport school of the German army is located in these barracks. On 1 January 1975, a reformation of the municipalities was carried out; this reformation integrated the communities of Einen and Milte, the town of Freckenhorst into the town of Warendorf. During this reformation, the larger district of Warendorf was formed by combining the districts of Warendorf and Beckum. Warendorf became seat of the district government. Warendorf is situated on the Ems river in the eastern part of the Münsterland area; this area of the Westphalian Lowland is characterized by agriculture. Because of its varying landscape of fields, small forests and hedgerows, people compare this area to a park; the closest large city is Münster, located 30 kilometres west of Warendorf. Other large cities in the area are approx. 40 kilometres to the north, approx. 45 kilometres to the east, Hamm, approx.
35 kilometres to the south. Warendorf consists of 6 component localities: Warendorf Einen Müssingen Freckenhorst Hoetmar Milte Warendorf has hosted several international events, such as the world skydiving championships, riding events, the national swimming championships. A notable annual event in Warendorf is the celebration on 15 August of the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. North Rhine-Westphalia's "Landgestüt" and the National Olympic Committee for horse-riding are both located in Warendorf; the Bundeswehr Sports School, the German armed forces physical education center, is located in Warendorf. Mariengymnasium Gymnasium Laurentianum Augustin Wibbelt Gymnasium One of Warendorf's most famous residents was Paul Spiegel, the former president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany. Elisabeth Grümmer, died in Warendorf Bernhard Sprengel, chocolate manufacturer and art patron Andreas Ridder, football player Klaus Welle, General secretary of the EU Parliament Maximilian Schulze Niehues, football player Warendorf is twinned with: Petersfield, United Kingdom Barentin, France Oleśnica, Poland Navaro, Italy Official website
The Hamm–Minden Railway is an important and significant railway in Germany. It is quadruple track, it is a major axis for long distance passenger and freight trains between the Ruhr and the north and east of Germany. It is the part of the trunk line built by the Cologne-Minden Railway Company from Köln Deutz to Minden, it has been modernized and developed several times since then. The route was opened on 15 October 1847 by the Cologne-Minden Railway Company as the last part of its trunk line, extending the line completed from Deutz to Düsseldorf, Duisburg and Hamm, it connected with the Royal Hanoverian State Railways’ Hanover–Minden line, opened the same day. The CME's line was laid with two tracks, although some sections were put into operation before the second track was finished; because of its importance for Prussia’s east–west transport and for international transport at the beginning of the 20th century, the line was made a four-track line. Many crossings were replaced with underpasses, railway stations were rebuilt in order to provide space for the route.
Operationally, the line is run as two separate two track routes, the one having the VzG number 1700, being built and maintained for passenger services and allowing speeds up to 200 km/h, whilst the route with the VzG number of 2990 is used for freight and has a maximum speed of 120 km/h. Between Ahlen until shortly east of Gütersloh route 2990 uses the two southernmost tracks, whilst 1700 comprise the northernmost pair; the lines were electrified in the mid-1960s. The first Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan identified the Dortmund–Hannover–Brunswick line as one of eight railway development projects. In the same year a 28 km long section of track between Gütersloh and Neubeckum was made available for high-speed trials for speeds up to 250 km/h. Locomotive 103 118 with special gear ratios achieved a maximum speed of 252.9 km/h in September 1973. Vehicles were built to test catenary for high-speed operations; the minimum curve radius was 3,300 metres and maximum cant was 120 mm. Experiments were carried out on different types of track and turnouts.
In 1980, it became one of the first lines in Germany upgraded for high speeds lines when a 58.0 kilometre long section between Hamm and Brackwede was upgraded for scheduled services at 200 km/h. In mid-1985, a test train hauled by locomotive103 003 with special gear ratios between Brackwede and Neubeckum reached a speed of 283 km/h, a rail speed record in Germany. On 26 November 1985, at 11:29, an InterCityExperimental train occupied with passengers on the line between Gutersloh and Hamm reached a speed of 317 km/h; this was a new German record for rail vehicles and a world record for rail vehicles using three-phase power. A remarkable bridge on the trunk line is the viaduct in the Bielefeld suburb of Schildesche; the original viaduct was completed in 1847 was double track with 28 spans and in 1917 a identical viaduct was built next to it. During World War II it was badly damaged on 14 March 1945 by a Grand Slam bomb dropped by a No. 617 Squadron RAF Avro Lancaster. After the war, one line was reopened with a temporary steel strut for freight traffic, while passenger trains used a winding bypass built as a diversionary route prior to the bombing, known as the "rubber railway”.
In 1965 the viaduct was reopened, the two-track viaduct for the “passenger route” having been repaired with concrete spans replacing the destroyed masonry spans, the other using a provisional steel-frame construction built from old Wehrmacht pioneer materials. In 1983, the “freight route” viaduct was repaired, featuring the same concrete architecture used for the passenger route’s bridge; the Weser bridge in Rehme a suburb was destroyed by an air raid on 23 March 1945. The bridge was rebuilt after the war with only two tracks, creating a two-track bottleneck between Bad Oeynhausen station and the Neesen yard; this situation ended only with the construction of a new Weser bridge in December 1984. There is an hourly Intercity-Express trains service on line 10 from Berlin, via Hannover to Hamm, where trains are split. Services continue to Dortmund, Duisburg, Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/Bonn Airport or Hagen and Cologne. Other InterCity and ICE trains run. Regional-Express trains run on line RE6 every hour and other services operate on sections of the route