Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider
Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider was a German classicist and naturalist. Schneider was born at Collm in Saxony. In 1774, on the recommendation of Christian Gottlob Heine, he became secretary to the famous Strasbourg scholar Richard François Brunck, in 1811 became professor of ancient languages and eloquence at Breslau where he died in 1822. Of his numerous works the most important was his Kritisches griechisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch, the first independent work of the kind since Stephanus's Thesaurus, the basis of F. Passow's and all succeeding Greek lexicons. A special improvement was the introduction of words and expressions connected with natural history and science. In 1801 he corrected and expanded re-published Marcus Elieser Bloch's Systema Ichthyologiae iconibus cx illustratum, a famous catalog of fishes with beautiful illustrations, cited as the taxonomy authority for many species of fish; the scientific writings of ancient authors attracted him. He published editions of Aelian, De natura animalium.
His Eclogae physicae is a selection of extracts of various length from Greek and Latin writers on scientific subjects, containing the original text and commentary, with essays on natural history and science in ancient times. Schneider is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of lizard, Eumeces schneideri. Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache. Vogel, Leipzig 1828. Griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Hahn, Leipzig 1819. Kritisches griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Frommann, Leipzig 1805/06. Eclogae physicae, ex scriptoribus praecipue Graecis excerptae. Frommann, Leipzig 1800. Historiae amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Frommann, Jena 1799–1801. Kritisches griechisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch. Frommann, Jena, Züllichau 1797. Amphibiorum physiologiae specimen. Apitz, Frankfurt 1790–97. Ad reliqua librorum Friderici II. Et Alberti Magni capita commentarii... Müller, Leipzig 1789. Zweyter Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten. Müller, Leipzig 1789. Erster Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten.
Müller, Leipzig 1787. Sammlung vermischter Abhandlungen zur Aufklärung der Zoologie und der Handlungsgeschichte. Unger, Berlin 1784. Allgemeine Naturgeschichte der Schildkröten. Müller, Leipzig 1783. Ichthyologiae veterum specimina. Winter, Frankfurt 1780. Synonymia piscium Graeca et Latina emendata, aucta atque illustrata 1789 Anmerkungen über den Anakreon. Crusius, Leipzig 1770. Neues Magazin für Liebenhaber der Entomologie. Strasland 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 >>? This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Schneider, Johann Gottlob". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: F. Passow, Opuscula academica. Bursian, Geschichte der classischen Philologie in Deutschland
Festuca brachyphylla, the alpine fescue, is a grass native to Eurasia, North America, the Arctic. The grass is used for erosion revegetation; the specific epithet brachyphylla means "short-leaved". The grass has a diploid number of 28, 42, or 44. Festuca brachyphylla is a bright green perennial grass, tufted or loosely cespitose and erect, growing without rhizomes; the grass has slender, low growing culms measuring 2–35 cm tall that can reach 55 cm when the grass is cultivated. The culms are glabrous and somewhat scabrous, becoming more puberulent towards the inflorescence, are tinged purple at their base; the smooth or scabrous leaf sheaths are closed for half of their length. The sheaths remain at the basal tuft when dead; the ligules measure 0.1–0.4 mm. The capillary leaf blade are long and soft, measuring 2–6 cm long and 0.5–1 mm wide, arise from the basal tuft. The inflorescences are cylindrical or ovoid panicles that are 1–3 cm long, though they can be racemes; the panicles have one to two erect branches at each node that sometimes become spreading during anthesis.
The pedicellate spikelets are bronze. The spikelets measure 3.5–7 mm, each with two to four florets. The glabrous glumes are much shorter than the spikelets; the lower glumes are 1.8–3 mm and the upper glumes are 2.6–4 mm. The elliptical or lanceolate lemmas become scabrous towards their apex; the lemmas are 2.5–4.5 mm long. The terminal awns are 1–3 mm long; the paleas are 3–5.5 mm long. The anthers are 0.5–1 mm long. These short anthers distinguish the species from Festuca ovina; the spikelets are colored red to purple by anthocyanin pigments. The plant flowers from late June into July. Festuca brachyphylla is circumpolar and alpine, occurring in North America throughout Canada and along the Rocky Mountains, growing as far south as New Mexico and California. Festuca brachyphylla grows in rocky places at high altitudes, from 2,800–4,300 m, it occurs in wet meadows, along streams, on riverbeds, on dry gravel, on dry slopes
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
Festuca vivipara is a species of grass native to northern Europe, northern Asia, subarctic North America. The specific epithet vivipara is Latin, referring to the florets' alteration to leafy tufts; the plant can have a diploid number of 28, 49, 56, or 63, though numbers of 21, 35, 42 have been reported. Festuca vivipara is a perennial grass growing 5–20 cm tall with capillary culms; the plant grows in dense tufts. The internodes are somewhat puberulent. Dead leaf sheaths either persist or shred into fibers, while living sheaths are tinged purple and have a prominent midvein; the auricle is marked by a distinct swelling. The erose ligule is 0.2–0.5 mm long. The setaceous leaf blades somewhat stiff, the flag leaf blade is about 0.5–2.5 cm long. In a cross-section, the leaf blade is 0.5–0.9 mm wide and 0.25–0.6 mm thick. In the cross-section, sclerenchyma are arranged in three large bundles and up to four smaller bundles, with adaxial sclerenchyma either somewhat developed along the margin to a thick subepidermal band.
The proliferous, compact [s are 2–10 cm long, with flowers as leafy tufts. The purplish spikelets are 0.7–3.5 cm long. The glumes have erose margins; the lower glume is 2.0–4.5 mm long with one vein, the upper glume is 3–5 mm long with three veins. The membraneous, awnless lemmas are 4–6 mm long when not modified, are inrolled; the paleas are reduced. Lodicules are toothed when lack hairs; the grass flowers from July into early August. Festuca vivipara occurs in North America from Greenland and Labrador to Alaska, growing on calcareous rock and peat, can occur in western Newfoundland, the Shickshock Mountains, parts of Quebec. Elsewhere, the grass streams. Festuca vivipara ssp. glabra Festuca vivipara ssp. hirsuta
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids and crustaceans; the term Arthropoda as proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin mineralised with calcium carbonate; the arthropod body plan consists of each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Arthopods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton; some species have wings. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments, they have over a million described species, making up more than 80 per cent of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most other animals, are successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab.
Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a haemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates. Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are built of repeated segments, their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus; the respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli: in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of spiders are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey.
Arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Arthropods' methods of reproduction and development are diverse; the evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period. The group is regarded as monophyletic, many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa. Overall, the basal relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved; the relationships between various arthropod groups are still debated. Aquatic species use either external fertilization. All arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother. Arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form; the level of maternal care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. Arthropods contribute to the human food supply both directly as food, more indirectly as pollinators of crops.
Some species are known to spread severe disease to humans and crops. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, "joint", πούς pous, i.e. "foot" or "leg", which together mean "jointed leg". Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed limbs; the exoskeleton or cuticles consists of a polymer of glucosamine. The cuticle of many crustaceans, beetle mites, millipedes is biomineralized with calcium carbonate. Calcification of the endosternite, an internal structure used for muscle attachments occur in some opiliones. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80 per cent of all known living animal species; the number of species remains difficult to determine. This is due to the census modeling assumptions projected onto other regions in order to scale up from counts at specific locations applied to the whole world. A study in 1992 estimated that there were 500,000 species of animals and plants in Costa Rica alone, of which 365,000 were arthropods.
They are important members of marine, freshwater and air ecosystems, are one of only two major animal groups that have adapted to life in dry environments. One arthropod sub-group, insects, is the most species-rich member of all ecological guilds in land and freshwater environments; the lightest insects weigh less than 25 micrograms. Some living crustaceans are much larger; the embryos of all arthropods are segmented, built from a series of repeated modules. The last common ancestor of living arthropods consisted of a series of undifferentiated segments, each with a pair of appendages that functioned as limbs. However, all known living and fossil arthropods have grouped segments into tagmata in which segments and their limbs are specialized in various ways; the three-
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Gaspésie, or Gaspé Peninsula, the Gaspé or Gaspesia, is a peninsula along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the east of the Matapedia Valley in Quebec, that extends into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. It is separated from New Brunswick on its southern side by the Baie des Chaleurs and the Restigouche River; the name Gaspé comes from the Mi ` kmaq word gespe ` meaning "end", referring to the end of the land. The Gaspé Peninsula is larger than Belgium, at 31,075 square kilometres; the population is 140,599 as of the 2011 census. It is noted as being the only region outside the Channel Islands to contain native speakers of Jersey Norman. Sea cliffs dominate the peninsula's northern shore along the St. Lawrence River. Cap Gaspé, jutting into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is the easternmost point of the peninsula. Percé Rock, an island pierced by a natural arch, is located just offshore of the peninsula's eastern end; the peninsula's interior is a rugged northward continuation of the Appalachian Mountains called the Chic-Chocs, with Mont Jacques-Cartier at 1,268 metres the peninsula's highest peak.
Mount Albert at 1,151 m is another high mountain in the Chic-Chocs. Its summit, an alpine area above the tree line, is a nearly flat plateau about 13 km across composed of serpentine bedrock and supporting a quite unusual flora; the ascent of Mount Albert from near sea level is challenging, but popular with hikers, offering a view of the St. Lawrence and the Côte-Nord, the river's north shore, part of the ancient bedrock of the Canadian Shield; the interior portions of the peninsula are dominated by the Chic-Choc Mountains, part of the Notre Dame Mountains, an extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The town of Murdochville, at about 660 metres above sea level, has had a varied history, is now home to several wind turbines, it is reached by Route 198, which extends inland from the northern shore of the peninsula, soon climbing into the mountains and entering vast forests, crossing several small rivers before reaching the town. From Murdochville, Route 198 follows the York River to the city of Gaspé on the peninsula's eastern tip.
The economy of the peninsula has been focused on fishing and forestry. However, primary resource based industries are suffering due to overfishing and fewer numbers of farmers in business, forcing the region to move towards tourism and the services industry; the peninsula is one of Quebec's most popular tourism regions. The Gaspé National Park is located in the Chic-Chocs, Forillon National Park is at the peninsula's northeastern tip. A section of the International Appalachian Trail travels through the peninsula's mountains. Bonaventure National Park is located here; as of September 2018 the area hosts Canada's 3rd UNESCO Global Geopark - Géoparc de Percé. Quebec Route 132 circles the peninsula, with one branch following the coast and the other cutting across it at Sainte-Flavie. Acadia Gaspé, Quebec List of people from the Gaspé Peninsula List of regions of Quebec Percé, Quebec Gaspesie.net Gaspesie.com Municipalities and cities of Gaspé region Tourism Gaspésie "Gaspé". Encyclopedia Americana.