Office of the United States Trade Representative
The Office of the United States Trade Representative is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the President of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee and Trade Policy Review Group. Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva and Brussels, Belgium; the current U. S. Trade Representative is Ambassador Robert E. Lighthizer, announced by President-Elect Donald J. Trump on January 3, 2017. Lighthizer was confirmed by the Senate on May 11, 2017, by a vote of 82–14; the head of the office holds the title of United States Trade Representative, a Cabinet-level position, though not technically within the Cabinet, as is the case with office heads not of US Departments but rather of offices contained within the Executive Office of the President.
To fill the post, the President nominates someone for the position, the appointment is approved or rejected by a simple majority of the Senate. The United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives carry the title of Ambassador. Michael Froman served as the US Trade Representative until 2017, with Michael Punke and Robert Holleyman serving as Deputy US Trade Representatives. Ambassador Punke concurrently serves as the U. S. Ambassador to the World Trade Organization. On May 2, 2013, President Obama nominated Michael Froman to succeed Ambassador Ron Kirk as the U. S. Trade Representative; the Senate confirmed Froman on June 19, 2013, he was sworn into office on June 21, 2013. Robert Lighthizer, the current U. S. Trade Representative, was confirmed on April 2017, after being nominated by President Trump; the USTR participates in the World Trade Organization, in the Doha Development Round. This is managed by the USTR Office of WTO and Multilateral Affairs. Relevant WTO agreements include the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and the Generalized System of Preferences.
There are two key advisory committees. These two are the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees. APAC is made up of 34 organizations. ATAC is made up of 6 groups; these groups being Animal and Animal Products and Vegetables, Feed and Planting Seeds and Sweetener Products, Tobacco and Peanuts, Processed Foods. APAC and ATAC allow the private sector to play a role in the U. S. government when it comes to trade. In Agriculture, free trade agreements play a big role; as stated, “For 16 of the 20 countries that the U. S. has FTAs with, U. S. exporters will face zero tariffs on 98% or more of agricultural goods once the agreements are implemented.” Global trade is one area. They have the world's largest economy. Being competitive allows an increase in productivity and the growth of the economy. Expanding and shifting production has increased productivity and the country's economic growth rate as well. “Exports have contributed nearly a third of economic growth since mid-2009, account for 13.5 percent of our economy”.
USTR uses enforcement to secure U. S. trading. This is keen to American workers, farmers and businesses, it is interpreted to be open, making sure that everyone follows it. Some trade includes. Wildlife trafficking, illegal logging, marine conservation and protection are a few examples of this overlap; the purchasing done under the government makes up 10 to 15 percent of the country's GDP. In 1979, the first major Government Procurement Agreement appeared. Relations with Canada and Europe are noticeable in government procurement; the Office of Small Business, Market Access, Industrial Competitiveness manages manufactured goods that the United States exports. Two of the biggest goals are to expand export opportunities and strengthen enforcement of trade rules. Industrial tariffs are a huge commodity, for 96 percent of U. S. merchandise imports are nonagricultural goods. The Office of Intellectual Property and Innovation focuses on intellectual property laws and enforcing them worldwide. Trade agreements, the annual Special 301 review and report, World Trade Organization, pharmaceutical and medical technology industries are all key areas.
The Labor office holds the United States responsible in making sure. Worker's participation and rights is looked at through this office. Preference programs are used as aiding other countries, it provides greater access to the U. S. market. The Office of Services and Investment partakes in anything involving services and digital trade relevant to U. S. trade policy. International Investment provides both economic protection for American workers. Services allows the world to connect. Through businesses, technology and all other forms of services, people interact globally. In the United States, service industries make up two thirds of the GDP and four out of five private-sector jobs. Small businesses are significant in U. S. trade. The top exports going to Canada, China and the United Kingdom; the Office of Textiles is in charge of apparel. It works with Congress, domestic partners
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
Committee for the Preservation of the White House
The Committee for the Preservation of the White House is an advisory committee charged with the preservation of the White House, the official home and principal workplace of the President of the United States. The committee is made up of citizens appointed by the president for their experience with historic preservation, decorative arts, for their scholarship in these areas; the Committee for the Preservation of the White House was created by Executive Order in 1964 by President Lyndon Johnson to replace a temporary White House Furnishings Committee established by First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy during the Kennedy White House restoration. The committee is charged with establishing policies relating to the museum function of the White House, its state rooms and collections, it works with the White House Historical Association in making recommendations on acquisitions for the permanent collection of the White House and provides advice on changes to principal rooms on the ground floor, state floor, the historic guest suites on the residence floor of the White House Executive Residence.
The Executive Order states that the Curator of the White House, Chief Usher of the White House, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the Chair of the United States Commission of Fine Arts, Director of the National Gallery of Art serve as Ex-Officio members of the committee. The Director of the National Park Service serves as Chair of the Committee, the First Lady serves as the Honorary Chair of the committee. In February 2010, Los Angeles interior designer Michael S. Smith was appointed to the committee. Category:Rooms in the White House White House Office of the Curator Abbott James A. and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5. Monkman, Betty C; the White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 0-7892-0624-2. Seale, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001.
ISBN 0-912308-85-0. Official White House website National Park Service website for the President's Park The White House Museum, a detailed online tour of the White House The White House Historical Association, with historical photos, online tours and exhibits and facts Twentieth Century American Sculpture at the White House, including artists Nancy Graves, Allan McCollum, Tom Otterness The American Presidency Project
Graphics and Calligraphy Office
The Graphics and Calligraphy Office is a unit of the Social Office at the White House, the official residence of the President of the United States. Located in the East Wing, the Graphics and Calligraphy Office coordinates and produces all non-political social invitations, place cards, presidential proclamations, letters patent, military commissions, official greetings. Headed by the White House Chief Calligrapher, the Graphics and Calligraphy Office reports to the White House Chief Usher, but works more with the Social Office, headed by the White House Social Secretary, charged with the planning and coordination of official entertainment at the White House; the design of White House invitations has evolved over time. Dinner invitations going back to the administration of John Adams, the first president to live in the White House, are archived and have inspired the current invitations. In President Adams' day invitations were letterpress printed with the passage reading "The President of the United States, requests the Pleasure of ______'s Company to Dine, on_____next at ___ o'Clock."
Space allowed for the hand penned insertion of "& Mrs. Adams" if the First Lady were to attend, as well as individual guests' names, the date and time. A flowing round hand type of penmanship was used; this style of writing was found in writing manuals in the 18th century. The custom of including a representation of the arms of the United States, by way of an eagle clutching an olive branch and arrows in its talons and a striped shield with stars became standard on invitations in the early 19th century. By the mid 19th century, the more formal Great Seal of the United States was placed at the head of invitations. Text was engraved in black script; the Great Seal was engraved in burnished gold. In 1880, President Rutherford B. Hayes had a new seal created for the presidency; the new Seal of the President of the United States shared similarities with the nation's Great Seal. The new presidential seal was applied to seal documents and the presidential flag. In 1902 President Theodore Roosevelt had the presidential seal applied to stationery and invitations in lieu of the Great Seal.
The style of invitations became codified with few changes to the present. While much of the work of the Graphics and Calligraphy Office is centered on social events, the office engrosses official documents including military commissions, presidential awards and proclamations. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5. Official White House website The White House Historical Association, with historical photos, online tours and exhibits and facts
Chief Technology Officer of the United States
The United States Chief Technology Officer formally an Assistant to the President, is in the Office of Science and Technology Policy. This position was created within the Office of Science and Technology Policy by President Barack Obama; the U. S. CTO helps the President and their team harness the power of data and technology on behalf of the American People; the team works with others both across and outside government on a broad range of work to upgrade government capability including using applied technology to help create jobs, creating paths to improve government services with lower costs, higher quality and increased transparency, helping upgrade agencies to use open data and expanding their data science capabilities, reduce the costs of health care and criminal justice, increase access to broadband, bring technical talent into government for policy and modern operations input, improve community innovation engagement by agencies working on local challenges, help keep the nation secure.
Aneesh Chopra was named by President Obama as the nation's first CTO in April 2009, confirmed by the Senate on August 7, 2009. Chopra resigned effective February 8, 2012 and was succeeded by Todd Park the CTO of the department of Health and Human Services. On September 4, 2014 Megan Smith was named as the CTO. Chief Information Officer of the United States Chief Technology Officer of the Department of Health and Human Services
Eisenhower Executive Office Building
The Eisenhower Executive Office Building —formerly known as the Old Executive Office Building and earlier as the State and Navy Building—is a U. S. government building situated just west of the White House in the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Maintained by the General Services Administration, it is occupied by the Executive Office of the President, including the Office of the Vice President of the United States. Located on 17th Street NW, between Pennsylvania Avenue and State Place, West Executive Drive, the building was commissioned by President Ulysses S. Grant, it was built between 1871 and 1888, on the site of the original 1800 War/State/Navy Building and the White House stables, in the French Second Empire style. While the building exterior received substantial criticism at first, it has since been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it was for years the world's largest office building, with 566 rooms and about ten acres of floor space. Many White House employees have their offices in the EEOB.
In 1802, the Washington Jockey Club lay at the rear of what is now the site of Decatur House at H Street and Jackson Place, crossing Seventeenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue to Twentieth Street—today the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—having been completed only four years earlier in 1798, as the stonemasons had finished the brick and painters applied white paint to the President's House. The building—originally called the State and Navy Building because it housed the Departments of State and the Navy—was built between 1871 and 1888 in the French Second Empire style, it was designed by Alfred B. Mullett, Supervising Architect. Patterned after French Second Empire architecture that clashed with the neoclassical style of the other Federal buildings in the city, it was regarded with scorn and disdain, Mullett, the exterior architect, ended his life by suicide, while in litigation; the OEOB was referred to by Mark Twain as "the ugliest building in America." President Harry S. Truman called it "the greatest monstrosity in America."
Historian Henry Adams called it Mullett's “architectural infant asylum.”Much of the interior was designed by Richard von Ezdorf using fireproof cast-iron structural and decorative elements, including massive skylights above each of the major stairwells and doorknobs with cast patterns indicating which of the original three occupying departments occupied a particular space. The total cost to construct the building came in at $10,038,482.42 when construction ended in 1888, after 17 years. The original tenants of the building outgrew it and vacated it in the late 1930s; the building came to be seen as inefficient and was nearly demolished in 1957. In 1969, the building received the highest recognition possible, becoming a National Historic Landmark. In 1981, plans began to restore all the "secretary of" suites; the main office of the Secretary of the Navy was restored in 1987 and is now used as the ceremonial office of the Vice President of the United States. Shortly after September 11, 2001, the 17th Street side of the building was vacated and has since been modernized.
The building continues to house various agencies that compose the President's Executive Office, such as the Office of the Vice President, the Office of Management and Budget, the National Security Council. Its most public function is that of the Vice President's Ceremonial Office, used for special meetings and press conferences. Many celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the Old Executive Office Building. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming President, it has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, 24 Secretaries of State. Sir Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met there with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Presidents have occupied space in the EEOB as well. Herbert Hoover worked out of the Secretary of the Navy's office for a few months following a fire in the Oval Office on Christmas Eve 1929.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first televised Presidential news conference in the building's Indian Treaty Room on January 19, 1955. President Richard Nixon maintained a private "hideaway" office in room 180 of the EEOB during his presidency, from where he preferred to work, using the Oval Office only for ceremonial occasions. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was the first in a succession of Vice Presidents who have had offices in the building; the first wife of a Vice President to have an office in the building was Marilyn Quayle, wife of Dan Quayle, Vice President to George H. W. Bush; the Old Executive Office Building was renamed the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building when President Bill Clinton approved legislation changing the name on November 9, 1999. President George W. Bush participated in a rededication ceremony on May 7, 2002. A small fire on December 19, 2007 damaged an office of the vice-president's staff and included the VP ceremonial office. According to media reporting, the office of the Vice President's Political Director, Amy Whitelaw, was damaged in the fire.
Theodore Roosevelt – while Assistant Secretary of the Navy William Howard Taft – while Secretary of War Herbert Hoover – temporary offices after White House fire Franklin Roosevelt – while Assistant Secretary of the Navy Harry S. Truman – temporary offices during reconstruction of the White House Dwight Eisenhower – while assigned to the Army General Staff Lyndon Johnson – while Vice President Richard Nixon – had "hideaway" office Gerald Ford – wh
White House Military Office
The White House Military Office —an entity of the White House Office, which itself is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President—provides military support for White House functions, including food service, presidential transportation, medical support, emergency medical services, hospitality services. The White House Military Office is headed by the White House Military Office Director. Today's White House Military Office is an amalgamation of several independent offices and agencies. Military representation aiding Presidents predates the construction of the White House and originated with General George Washington's Aide-de-Camp, whose role as Personal Aide to the President has continued and is filled by the military aides to the President; these roles carry a wide variety of responsibilities, from critical military command and control missions to ceremonial duties at presidential events. The White House Garage was created by an act of Congress in 1909. Over the years it was transformed into a military organization and became a regular unit in 1963 by the name of the U.
S. Army Transportation Agency, it was renamed the White House Transportation Agency. Camp David was established in 1942 to provide the President a safe and relaxing residence away from the White House; that same year, the White House Communications Agency was formed to assure that the President always had access to safe and reliable means of communication. Two years President Franklin D. Roosevelt called for the creation of the Presidential Pilot's Office to provide air transportation to the President and his staff; the White House Medical Unit was established in the West Wing in 1945. The White House Mess contained in the West Wing, was established in 1951 and has been run by the Navy since. Marine Helicopter Squadron One was created in 1957 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower was vacationing in Newport, Rhode Island, had to return to the White House on short notice, he flew the first portion of the trip aboard HMX-1. On May 8, 2009, Louis Caldera, the Director of the White House Military Office, resigned amid controversy over the Air Force One photo op incident.
His successor was announced on October 16, 2009, as George D. Mulligan Jr. Marine Helicopter Squadron One Presidential Airlift Group White House Communications Agency White House Medical Unit White House Mess White House sentries, four Marine Corps non-commissioned officers who act as a ceremonial guard outside the West Wing of the White House. White House Transportation Agency NSF Thurmont The WHMO is headed by a Director who oversees the policies involving Department of Defense assets, he ensures that White House requirements are communicated to the WHMO Directorates and meet the highest standards of presidential quality. The WHMO's operational units are the most visible element of the WHMO's support to the President; the WHMO units include the: White House Communications Agency, Presidential Airlift Group, White House Medical Unit, Camp David, Marine Helicopter Squadron One, Presidential Food Service, White House Transportation Agency, White House Social Aides, Military Aides to the President.
The Social Aides, of whom there are 40-45 at a time, are uniformed officers of the rank of 1st Lieutenant / Lieutenant, junior grade to Major / Lieutenant Commander, have a purely social role, taking care of visitors to the White House. They are volunteers, serving 2 to 4 afternoons a month; the Military Aides are Majors / Lieutenant Commanders and Lieutenant Colonels / Commanders, one from each of the five armed forces, have the task of carrying the President's emergency satchel, the so-called nuclear football. The White House Military Office includes staff dedicated to Operations and Technology Management Financial Management and Comptroller, WHMO Counsel, Security. Together the WHMO's entities provide essential service to the President as well as help assure the continuity of the Presidency. Most uniformed personnel assigned to the WHMO are eligible to wear the Presidential Service Badge after "a period of at least one year." The White House Military Office is the subject of an episode of Major Dad titled "General Disturbance", which aired on April 9, 1993.
In it, General Marcus Craig becomes the new Deputy Director of WHMO and his whole staff, including Major John MacGillis, is transferred to Washington, DC with him. Presidential Service Association Bill Gulley White House Presidential Service Association