2011 New South Wales state election
Elections to the 55th Parliament of New South Wales were held on Saturday, 26 March 2011. The 16-year-incumbent Labor Party government led by Premier Kristina Keneally was defeated in a landslide by the Liberal–National Coalition opposition led by Barry O'Farrell. Labor suffered a two-party swing of 16.4 points, the largest against a sitting government at any level in Australia since World War II. From 48 seats at dissolution, Labor was knocked down to 20 seats—the worst defeat of a sitting government in New South Wales history, one of the worst of a state government in Australia since federation; the Coalition picked up a 34-seat swing to win a strong majority, with 69 seats–the largest majority government, in terms of percentage of seats controlled, in NSW history. It is only the third time since 1941. New South Wales has compulsory voting, with an optional preferential ballot in single-member seats for the lower house and single transferable vote with optional preferential above-the-line voting in the proportionally represented upper house.
The election was conducted by the New South Wales Electoral Commission. *Figure is Greens vs Liberal **Figure is from the 2007 state election, where Rob Oakeshott was the independent candidate. In addition, the Liberals retained Penrith, which were gained from Labor at by-elections. Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election; the centre-left Labor Party, led by Premier Kristina Keneally, the centre-right Liberal Party, led by Leader of the Opposition Barry O'Farrell, were the two main parties in New South Wales. In the 2007 state election, of 93 seats total, Labor won 52 seats, the Liberals won 22 seats and the Nationals, led by Andrew Stoner, who are in coalition with the Liberals, won 13 seats. Six seats were retained by independents. Smaller parties which hold no seats in the lower house but achieved significant votes in 2007 include The Greens and the Christian Democratic Party. On 18 October 2008, four state electorates went to by-elections as a result the resignation of the Premier, two of his ministers, an independent who left after winning a federal by-election.
The results in Ryde and Lakemba showed the largest by-election swing against Labor in its history. The results showed a significant swing towards the Liberal Party with a swing of 22.7 percentage points in former health minister Reba Meagher's seat of Cabramatta, but was retained by ALP candidate Nick Lalich, a swing of 13 points against Labor in former premier Morris Iemma's seat of Lakemba retained by an ALP candidate, Robert Furolo. Ryde, once a safe Labor seat, with a swing of 23.1 points delivered former deputy premier John Watkins' seat to Victor Dominello. Peter Besseling, the independent candidate, won Port Macquarie, left vacant after the resignation of Nationals-turned-independent member Rob Oakeshott, over the Nationals by a two-party margin of 54.5–45.5%, despite a swing of 23.7 points to the Nationals. On 19 June 2010 a by-election in the electoral district of Penrith was triggered as a result of the resignation of Labor Party MP Karyn Paluzzano, with Liberal candidate Stuart Ayres winning the seat with a two-party-preferred swing of more than 25 points, the biggest swing against an incumbent government in New South Wales history, until the 2013 Miranda by-election which eclipsed it with a 26-point two-party swing against the Liberal/National government.
Expiry of 54th Parliament: 12am on Friday, 4 March 2011 Issue of Writs: 5 March 2011 Close of Nominations: 10 March 2011 Polling Day: Saturday 26 March 2011 Return of the Writs: 30 April 2011 Meeting of 55th Parliament: By Monday, 16 May 2011 The Labor Party launched their campaign on 5 February 2011 in Liverpool within the electoral district of Macquarie Fields. Premier Keneally launched the Labor Party's campaign slogan "Protecting jobs – Supporting families". In attendance for the launch were former Prime Minister Bob Hawke and former Premiers Wran and Carr; the Liberal and Nationals Coalition launched their campaign on 20 February 2011 at the Joan Sutherland Performing Arts Centre in Penrith within the electoral district of Penrith with the slogan: "Real Change for NSW". In attendance for the launch were both Liberal and Nationals Leaders O'Farrell and Stoner as well as federal Liberal Party leader Tony Abbott, former Liberal Premiers and Leaders Greiner and Chikarovski; the Coalition had been leading in opinion polling for three years, were unbackable favourites throughout the campaign to win the election.
The final Newspoll had support for Labor at an all-time low with 23 percent of the primary vote and 35.9 percent of the two-party vote. Bookmakers were paying $1.01 for a Coalition win with Labor getting as much as $36 and one agency paid out the winnings and declared the winner a week earlier. At one point, Labor was predicted to win as few as 13 seats, seven less than the actual result. According to several pollsters, Labor was in danger of losing several seats where it had not been threatened in decades, as well as several that it had held for a century or more. Indeed, there were concerns; the Liberal/National Coalition won the largest proportional number of seats in NSW state history with 69 of 93 seats in the lower house —in contrast, Labor won 69 of 99 seats at Neville Wran's second "Wranslide" in 1981 election. Labor won 20 seats, the lowest for Labor in NSW Parliament in over a century, the worst defeat that a sitting government in NSW has suffered. Many prominent Labor MPs and ministers lost their seats including Verity Firth, David Borger, Matt Brown, Jodi McKay, V
Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney
The Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney is a heritage-listed major 30-hectare botanical garden, event venue and public recreation area located at Farm Cove on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. Opened in 1816, the garden is the oldest scientific institution in Australia and one of the most important historic botanical institutions in the world; the overall structure and key elements were designed by Charles Moore and Joseph Maiden, various other elements designed and built under the supervision of Allan Cunningham, Richard Cunningham, Carrick Chambers. The garden is owned by the Government of New South Wales and administered by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust; the Botanic Garden, together with the adjacent Domain were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The Garden and The Domain are open every day of the access is free, its stunning position on Sydney Harbour, the Sydney Opera House and the large public parklands of The Domain ensure it is one of the most visited attractions in Sydney.
The garden is bordered by the Cahill Expressway to the south and west, Macquarie Street to the northwest, Art Gallery Road to the east, Sydney Harbour to the north. The first farm by European settlers on the Australian continent, at Farm Cove, was established in 1788 by Governor Phillip. Although that farm failed, the land has been in constant cultivation since that time, as ways were found to make the infertile soils more productive; the Botanic Garden was founded on this site by Governor Macquarie in 1816 as part of the Governor's Domain. Australia's long history of collection and study of plants began with the appointment of the first Colonial Botanist, Charles Fraser, in 1817; the Botanic Gardens is the oldest scientific institution in Australia and, from the earliest days, has played a major role in the acclimatisation of plants from other regions. After a succession of colonial botanists and superintendents, including the brothers Richard and Allan Cunningham, both early explorers, John Carne Bidwill was appointed as the first Director in 1847.
Charles Moore was the most influential Director, with his responsibility spanning 48 years, from 1848 to 1896. Moore was succeeded by Joseph Maiden who added much to Moore's maturing landscape, served for a period of 28 years. Charles Fraser, Superintendent 1821-31, was the first botanist appointed to develop the gardens along scientific lines. Fraser made many inland excursions with John Oxley and brought back plants and specimens. Fraser's plantings between 1827-8 from his Brisbane district and northern NSW travels survive, include hoop pines, weeping lilly pillies, a hoop pine, 2 swamp oaks on the eastern side of the palm grove. On his death in 1831 he was succeeded by Richard Cunningham, his brother, the explorer Allan Cunningham was a director. A native red cedar Fraser collected in 1822 thought to have been from the Parramatta region has been genetically tested and found to have been collected in the Dorrigo region; this tree grows still near the Palm House. In 1825 Governor Brisbane directed that the Garden extend west of Farm Cove Creek, for an experimental garden, to acclimatise Australian plants for export and imported plants.
Between 1829 and 1860 the wine growing industry of New South Wales began in the Garden with some vines being brought out with the First Fleet, a large supplementary collection of 543 vine cultivars donated by James Busby in the 1820s and early 1830s. For 25 years, vines propagated from these plants were distributed throughout the colony and the parent plants were uprooted in 1860. In the 1830s the Lower Garden area at the head of Farm Cove was developed and the shoreline laid out in an ornamental fashion with serpentine paths.< In 1833 four gardens were recognised: the botanic garden. Between 1837 and 1845 the Government House was built in The Domain's north. In 1847 the fig tree avenue of Moreton Bay figs was planted, lining main public entry to gardens from Macquarie Street eastward; the East India Company windmill stood in The Domain near Government House stables. It was located close to the statue of a huntsman with dogs by Henri Henri Alfred Jacquemart, still in the grounds of the Royal Botanical Garden.
Built of stone, it was used for grinding the grain of the settlers. According to Freeman’s Journal, the windmill was built by the East India Company who were granted land around Farm Cove; the Governor of New South Wales took forcible possession of the mill which resulted in a drawn-out lawsuit between the company and the government. During the dispute the Collector of Internal Revenue, Mr Wm. McPherson hired a manager to live in the cottages next to the mill. At this time, where the Bent-street entrance is was occupied as a large dairy, kept by Mr W. Stone. There was a large gate near the dairy; this was the entrance to the company’s mill, but it could not be called a public entrance in the accepted meaning, it being on private property. In 1835 Sir Richard Bourke had the mill taken down and removed. In 1848 John Carne Bidwill was appointed Director, by Governor Fitzroy. Me
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Centennial Park, New South Wales
Centennial Park is a suburb split between the local government area of the City of Sydney and the City of Randwick, in the eastern suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Centennial Park is located 4 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district, in the eastern suburbs of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia; the western fringe of the suburb is within the City of Sydney. It features quality houses on large blocks as well as large multi-unit buildings; the bulk of the suburb is within the City of Randwick. The parklands extend further into the suburb of Queens Park, adjacent to the park of the same name in that suburb; the residential development developed as a result of a decision to sell off land adjacent to the park to raise money for the park development. In 1904, 101 acres of land were subdivided. To ensure high standards of residential development, certain requirements were imposed. No wooden buildings or terrace homes were allowed. Between 1905 and 1925, a wide range of substantial, quality homes were built, featuring a mixture of Federation and Crafts, Victorian and Old English styles.
Homes are centred on Martin Road, Robertson Road, Lang Road and Cook Road. Patrick White house, in Martin Road, was the home of writer Patrick White for many years, until his death, it is heritage-listed. The Crossways, Martin Road, is an example of the international Crafts style, it was designed by Waterhouse and Lake and built in 1908. The Crossways was built as part of the subdivision of 1904 that created the suburb, was the home of physician/surgeon Dr Craig Gordon, it is heritage-listed. Devon, in Martin Road, is a distinctive example of the Crafts style, it is heritage-listed. Murrulla, in Martin Road, is a two-storey home in the Federation Anglo-Dutch style, rare in residential architecture; the first known occupant was Solomon Cohen in 1908. The house has a state heritage listing; the Bungalow, in Robertson Road, is a heritage-listed home in the California Bungalow style. It has a skillion roof that distinguishes it from other bungalows like the ranger's cottage in the park. Devoncliffe, Lang Road, is a two-storey mansion designed in the Federation Free Classical style and made of sandstone.
It is heritage-listed. Walshome, in Lang Road, was built c.1890 and features the polychrome brickwork style, popular at the time. It is an example of the architecture of the Boom Era, when people were building elaborate homes to display their wealth, it is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Stanton Hall, Martin Road, is an example of the Inter-War Free Classical style, is heritage-listed Centennial Park has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 3R Oxford Street: Centennial Park Reservoir 5R Oxford Street: Woollahra Reservoir 20 Martin Road: Patrick White house In the 2016 Census, there were 2,376 people in Centennial Park. 57.0% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 6.1%. 70.6% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion, so described 34.9% and Catholic 24.0%
Parramatta is a prominent suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, 20 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. Parramatta is the administrative seat of the City of Parramatta and is regarded as the second Central Business district of Sydney. Parramatta, founded by the British in 1788, the same year as Sydney, is the oldest inland European settlement in Australia and the economic capital of Greater Western Sydney. Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force and Sydney Water have relocated to Parramatta from the centre of Sydney. Established in 1799, the Old Government House is a world heritage site and museum within Parramatta Park and is Australia's oldest surviving public building. Parramatta is a major business and commercial centre, home to Westfield Parramatta, the ninth largest shopping centre in Australia. Parramatta is the major transport hub for Western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, as well as having a ferry wharf and future light rail and metro services.
Major upgrades have occurred around Parramatta railway station with the creation of a new transport interchange, the ongoing development of the Parramatta Square local government precinct. Radiocarbon dating suggests; the Darug people who lived in the area before European settlement regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They called the area Baramada or Burramatta which means "head of waters", "the place where the eels lie down" or "eel waters". To this day many eels and other sea creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the saltwater of Port Jackson meets the freshwater of the Parramatta River; the Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon. Parramatta was founded in the same year as Sydney; as such, Parramatta is the second oldest city in Australia, being only 10 months younger than Sydney. The British Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had only enough food to support themselves for a short time and the soil around Sydney Cove proved too poor to grow the amount of food that 1,000 convicts and administrators needed to survive.
During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most place for a successful large farm. Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River and the point at which the river became freshwater and therefore useful for farming. On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a detachment of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his way upriver to a location that he called The Crescent, a defensible hill curved round a river bend, now in Parramatta Park; as a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name "Rose Hill" after British politician George Rose. On 4 June 1791 Phillip changed the name of the township to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people. A neighbouring suburb acquired the name "Rose Hill", which today is spelt "Rosehill". In an attempt to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the condition that he develop a viable agriculture.
There, Ruse became the first person to grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was the site of the pioneering of the Australian wool industry by John Macarthur's Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King's account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect, he saw undulating grassland interspersed with magnificent trees and a great number of kangaroos and emus; the Battle of Parramatta, a major battle of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars, occurred in March 1797 where resistance leader Pemulwuy led a group of Bidjigal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on a government farm at Toongabbie, challenging the British Army to fight. Governor Arthur Phillip built a small house for himself on the hill of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger residence which improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the present day, making it the oldest surviving Government House anywhere in Australia.
It was used as a retreat by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor making it his principal home for a short period in the 1820s. In 1803, another famous incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted criminal named Joseph Samuel from England. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging. In the second attempt, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third attempt, the new rope broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine intervention. In 1814, Macquarie opened a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta as part of a policy of improving relations between Aboriginal and European communities; this school was relocated to "Black Town". Parramatta has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Parramatta has a humid subtropical climate with mild to cool winters and warm, sometimes hot summers, rainfall spread throughout the year. Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, though the humidity is in the comfortable range, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity than late winter/early spring.
Summer maximum temperatures are quite variable reaching above 35 °C, on average 8.1 days in summer, sometimes rema
Bill Dunn (Australian politician)
William Fraser Dunn was a Labor Party politician and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1910 until 1950. He served as Minister for Agriculture for eight years, as well as deputy leader and leader of the Labor Party in New South Wales. Dunn was born in Queanbeyan, he was educated at the local public school which he left at the age of 15 to assist on his father's farm. Following an injury he joined the New South Wales Department of Education and taught at various schools in NSW regional areas, he joined the ALP in 1895 and was the party's successful candidate for the seat of Mudgee in the 1910 election. He resigned from the Labor Party and parliament in protest at the party's land policy in 1911; this left the party without a majority in the parliament and the policy was changed, allowing Dunn to win the resulting by-election as the endorsed ALP candidate. He continued as the member for Mudgee until the seat was replaced by the multi-member seat of Wammerawa in 1920, he represented this electorate until the single member seat of Mudgee was recreated in 1927 and, with the exception of the period 1932-1935, he remained the member for Mudgee until his retirement in 1950.
In 1915-1918 he was granted leave from parliament to serve as a captain in the First Australian Imperial Force. Dunn was the Minister for Agriculture in the governments of John Storey, James Dooley, Jack Lang, William McKell and the first ministry of James McGirr. Under his leadership the ministry expanded its activities in organised marketing and co-operative development. Although Dunn had no factional power base in the Labor Party, his geniality resulted in his advancement within the parliamentary caucus, he was the deputy leader of the party in 1922-23 and was selected by the federal executive of the ALP as a stopgap parliamentary leader during a factional party schism related to the expulsion of James Dooley from the party. Jack Lang claimed that Dunn spent much of his time as party leader wandering around parliament house, trying to get Labor party members to attend a caucus meeting
Royal National Park
The Royal National Park is a protected national park, located in Sutherland Shire in the Australian state of New South Wales, just south of Sydney. The 151-square-kilometre national park is about 29 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district near the localities of Loftus and Waterfall, it was the third national park in the world. It was founded by Sir John Robertson, Acting Premier of New South Wales, formally proclaimed on 26 April 1879, its original name was National Park, but it was renamed in 1955 after Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia passed by in the train during her 1954 tour. The park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006; the park includes the settlements of Audley and Bundeena. There was once a railway line connected to the Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line but this closed and was converted to a heritage tramway operated by the Sydney Tramway Museum in Loftus. Audley can be accessed by road, from Loftus, Waterfall or Otford, there are several railway stations on the outskirts of the park.
Bundeena and Maianbar can be accessed by road through the park or by the passenger ferry service from Cronulla. There are barbecue areas and picnic sites throughout the park. Over 100 kilometres of walking tracks take in a wide range of scenery. Cycling is allowed on some fire trails and only on specially marked tracks within the Park; the specially marked mountain biking tracks are bi-directional. A fee of $12.00 applies. The most popular walk is the Coast Walk, which skirts the park's eastern edge and delivers exceptional coastal scenery, it is a 30 kilometre track, involving walking from Bundeena to Otford, or vice versa. It's recommended; this walk is done as part of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award. The Wallumarra Track was constructed in 1975 to meet the growing need for Environmental Education and as a supplement to the park's walking track system; the park is intensely used for environmental education by schools, TAFEs, universities and other groups. The park has been burnt in bushfires on several occasions, most notably in 1939, 1994 and in the 2001 Black Christmas fires.
Australian native bush regenerates after bushfires and as of 2008 few signs of these fires remain visible. In times of extreme fire danger the parks service might close the park to ensure visitor safety. There are camping sites at North Era and Uloola Falls; these are the only places where camping is permitted within the park, they are regulated with a booking/registration system, which requires pre-booking a site. The park is free for people on foot. Royal National Park contains a wide variety of terrain. Landscapes in the park vary from coastal cliffs broken by beaches and small inlets to an ancient high plateau broken by extensive and deep river valleys; the river valleys drain from south to north where they run into Port Hacking, the extensive but shallow harbor inlet which forms the northern border of the park. When looking across the park from east to west the rugged folds of valley after valley fade into the distance; the geology of the site consists of the Triassic Hawkesbury Sandstone with some sections of the park having the more recent richer Wianamatta shale capping.
Deep below the Hawkesbury sandstone belt lies Narrabeen Shales, mixture of shale and sandstone under which and within which are untapped coal seams which run right through Sydney and are mined extensively where they come closer to the surface south of the National Park near Wollongong. Sections of recent alluvium fringes of estuarine watercourse where the endangered ecological communities. Running the full coastal length of the park is a coastal heathland characterised by hardy, low-growing, salt-tolerant shrubs that spread across rocky, hard terrain with little topsoil; the coast itself is composed of high cliffs reaching a height of nearly one hundred metres at the southern end. These cliffs are punctuated by a number of fine, sandy beaches open to the ocean and providing fine swimming and surfing. Several of the beaches can be reached by road, others only by several hours bush walking. There are a small number of rocky coves; the beaches, two of which have volunteer surf life saving clubs and large car parks, are amongst the most visited areas of the park.
These heath lands are a hotspot for many small birds that have forsaken the suburbs of Sydney such as the New Holland honeyeater. Common vegetation on the exposed heaths on the headlands and cliffside paths include Coastal rosemary, bracelet honey-myrtle, she-oak, white kunzea, grass trees, ridged heath-myrtle, snakehood orchids, prostrate forms of coast banksia and long-leaf matrush. Common vegetation on top of the ancient sand dunes above the coastal path include Silver banksia, scrub-oak, silky hakea and pine heath. Sections of rare and threatened clifftop grasslands occur along exposed and windy sites which are dominated by long-leaf mat-rush and kangaroo grass. Many heath specialist birds are present in the heaths which include Lewin's honeyeater, New Holland honeyeater, beautiful firetail, chestnut-rumped heathwren and the southern emu-wre