Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. Before his accession to the presidency, Ford served as the 40th vice president of the United States from December 1973 to August 1974. Ford is the only person to have served as both vice president and president without being elected to either office by the United States Electoral College. Born in Omaha and raised in Grand Rapids, Ford attended the University of Michigan and Yale Law School. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he enlisted in the U. S. Naval Reserve, serving from 1942 to 1946. Ford began his political career in 1949 as the U. S. representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district. He served in this capacity for the final nine of them as the House Minority Leader. In December 1973, two months after the resignation of Spiro Agnew, Ford became the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment by President Richard Nixon.
After the subsequent resignation of President Nixon in August 1974, Ford assumed the presidency. His 895 day-long presidency is the shortest in U. S. history for any president who did not die in office. As president, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords. With the collapse of South Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U. S. involvement in Vietnam ended. Domestically, Ford presided over the worst economy in the four decades since the Great Depression, with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure. In one of his most controversial acts, he granted a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. During Ford's presidency, foreign policy was characterized in procedural terms by the increased role Congress began to play, by the corresponding curb on the powers of the President. In the Republican presidential primary campaign of 1976, Ford defeated former California Governor Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, he narrowly lost the presidential election to the Democratic challenger, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter.
Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. His moderate views on various social issues put him at odds with conservative members of the party in the 1990s and early 2000s. After experiencing a series of health problems, he died at home on December 26, 2006. Ford was born Leslie Lynch King Jr. on July 14, 1913, at 3202 Woolworth Avenue in Omaha, where his parents lived with his paternal grandparents. He was Leslie Lynch King Sr. a wool trader. His father was a son of Martha Alicia King. Gardner separated from King just sixteen days after her son's birth, she took her son with her to Oak Park, home of her sister Tannisse and brother-in-law, Clarence Haskins James. From there, she moved to the home of her parents, Levi Addison Gardner and Adele Augusta Ayer, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Gardner and King divorced in December 1913, she gained full custody of her son. Ford's paternal grandfather Charles Henry King paid child support until shortly before his death in 1930.
Ford said that his biological father had a history of hitting his mother. In a biography of Ford, James M. Cannon, a member of the Ford administration, wrote that the separation and divorce of Ford's parents were sparked when, a few days after Ford's birth, Leslie King took a butcher knife and threatened to kill his wife, his infant son, Ford's nursemaid. Ford told confidants that his father had first hit his mother when she smiled at another man during their honeymoon. After living with her parents for two-and-a-half years, Gardner married Gerald Rudolff Ford on February 1, 1916. Gerald was a salesman in a family-owned varnish company, they now called her son Gerald Rudolff Ford Jr. The future president was never formally adopted and did not change his name until December 3, 1935, he was raised in Grand Rapids with his three half-brothers from his mother's second marriage: Thomas Gardner "Tom" Ford, Richard Addison "Dick" Ford, James Francis "Jim" Ford. Ford had three half-siblings from the second marriage of Leslie King Sr. his biological father: Marjorie King, Leslie Henry King, Patricia Jane King.
They never saw one another as children, he did not know them at all until 1960. Ford was not aware of his biological father until he was 17, when his parents told him about the circumstances of his birth; that year his biological father, whom Ford described as a "carefree, well-to-do man who didn't give a damn about the hopes and dreams of his firstborn son", approached Ford while he was waiting tables in a Grand Rapids restaurant. The two "maintained a sporadic contact" until Leslie King Sr.'s death in 1941. Ford said, "My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing."Ford was involved in the Boy Scouts of America, earned that program's highest rank, Eagle Scout. He is the only Eagle Scout to have ascended to the U. S. Presidency. Ford attended Grand Rapids South High School, where he was a star athlete and captain of the football team. In 1930, he was selected to the All-City team of the Grand Rapids City League.
He attracted the attention of college recruiters. Ford attended the University of Michigan, he washed dishes at his f
Council on Environmental Quality
The Council on Environmental Quality is a division of the Executive Office of the President that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States and works with agencies and other White House offices on the development of environmental and energy policies and initiatives. The first Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality was Russell E. Train, under President Richard Nixon. President Donald Trump nominated the agency's acting head, Mary Neumayr for the position in June 2018, her nomination was confirmed by the full Senate at the beginning of January 2019. The United States Congress established the CEQ within the Executive Office of the President as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, during the Richard Nixon administration; the CEQ was assigned additional responsibilities by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970. In enacting NEPA, Congress recognized that nearly all federal activities affect the environment in some way, mandated that federal agencies must consider the environmental effects of their actions during their planning and decision-making processes.
Under NEPA, CEQ works to balance environmental and social objectives in pursuit of NEPA's goal of "productive harmony" between humans and their environment. The CEQ produces an annual report for the president on the state of the environment, oversees federal agency implementation of environmental impact assessments, acts as a referee when agencies disagree over the adequacy of such assessments. NEPA tasks CEQ with ensuring that federal agencies meet their obligations under the Act, granting the body a significant role in environmental protection. Through inter-agency working groups and coordination with other EOP bodies, CEQ works to advance the president's agenda on the environment, natural resources, energy. President Bill Clinton appointed Kathleen McGinty and George T. Frampton Jr. to chair the agency. President George W. Bush's CEQ chairman was James L. Connaughton, serving from 2001 to 2009, he was a partner at the law firm Sidley Austin LLP, where he lobbied to reduce government regulation on behalf of clients including the Aluminum Company of America and the Chemical Manufacturers Association of America.
During the Bush Administration, there were concerns over links between CEQ staffers and the industries it oversaw. BBC Environment Analyst Roger Harrabin described it as "a hard-line group of advisers with close links to the U. S. oil industry." One CEQ chief of staff under President Bush, Philip Cooney, was a lobbyist employed by the American Petroleum Institute. In June 2005, The New York Times published an internal CEQ memo provided by federal whistleblower Rick Piltz; the memo showed Cooney had edited government climate reports in order to play down links between emissions and global warming. Cooney, who claimed he had been planning to resign for two years, resigned two days after the scandal broke "to spend more time with his family." After resigning, Cooney went to work for ExxonMobil in their public affairs department. In 2005 Piltz created a watchdog organization Climate Science Watch, a program of the Government Accountability Project. Under President Barack Obama, Nancy Sutley served as Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality from January 2009 until February 2014.
Following Sutley's departure, Michael Boots served as acting head of the Council until March 2015. Christy Goldfuss was appointed to succeed Boots, served in the same capacity, as "managing director", until the end of Obama's term, in January 2017. In October 2017, President Donald Trump nominated Kathleen Hartnett White, former chair of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, to be chair of CEQ. However, her nomination was withdrawn in February 2018 as she did not garner enough support in the Senate. CEQ chief of staff and acting head Mary Neumayr was nominated and considered in summer 2018 as chair, subject to full Senate confirmation vote. Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality Executive Office of the President of the United States The Global 2000 Report to the President Council on Environmental Quality Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Council on Environmental Quality
The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays; the final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register. S. government, it is in the public domain. The Federal Register provides a means for the government to announce to the public changes to government requirements and guidance. Proposed new rules and regulations Final rules Changes to existing rules Notices of meetings and adjudicatory proceedings Presidential documents including Executive orders and administrative orders. Both proposed and final government rules are published in the Federal Register.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requests public comment on a proposed rule and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed. The public comments are considered by the issuing government agency, the text of a final rule along with a discussion of the comments is published in the Federal Register. Any agency proposing a rule in the Federal Register must provide contact information for people and organizations interested in making comments to the agencies and the agencies are required to address these concerns when it publishes its final rule on the subject; the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, its contents are judicially noticed; the United States Government Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on activities; each daily issue of the printed Federal Register is organized into four categories: Presidential Documents Rules and Regulations Proposed Rules Notices Citations from the Federal Register are FR, e.g. 71 FR 24924.
The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and re-published in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. Copies of the Federal Register may be obtained from the U. S. Government Publishing Office. Most law libraries associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries; the Federal Register has been available online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, either in paper or microfiche format. Outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. As part of the Federal E-Government eRulemaking Initiative, the web site Regulations.gov was established in 2003 to enable easy public access to agency dockets on rulemaking projects including the published Federal Register document. The public can use Regulations.gov to access entire rulemaking dockets from participating Federal agencies to include providing on-line comments directly to those responsible for drafting the rulemakings.
To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the agency side of regulations.gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present. GovPulse.us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundation's Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity and maps of current rules. On July 25, 2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse.us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. On August 1, 2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content; the API is RESTful, utilizing the HATEOAS architecture with results delivered in the JSON format. Details are available at the developers page and Ruby and Python client libraries are available.
In addition to purchasing printed copies or subscriptions, the contents of the Federal Register can be acquired via several commercial databases: Citation Technologies offers the complete Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations through subscription-based web portals such as CyberRegs. HeinOnline: Full coverage available dating back to 1936 in an image-based searchable PDF format. LexisNexis: Searchable text format since 45 FR 44251. Westlaw: Searchable text format since 46 FR 1; the Unified Agenda and the official English text of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which became effective January 1, 1988, are included. Sunshine Act Meeting Notices are not available prior to 1991. Unified Agenda documents are not available prior to October 1989; the Federal Register system of publication was created on July 26, 1935, under the Federal Register Act. The first issue of the Federal Regis
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Cass Robert Sunstein FBA is an American legal scholar in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, law and behavioral economics, the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2012. For 27 years, Sunstein taught at the University of Chicago Law School. Sunstein is the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard Law School. Studies of legal publications between 2009 and 2013 found Sunstein to be the most cited American legal scholar by a wide margin, followed by Erwin Chemerinsky and Richard A. Epstein. Sunstein was born on September 21, 1954 in Waban, Massachusetts to Marian, a teacher, Cass Richard Sunstein, a builder, both Jewish, he graduated in 1972 from Middlesex School and in 1975 with a B. A. from Harvard College, where he was a member of the varsity squash team and the Harvard Lampoon. In 1978, Sunstein received a J. D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School, where he was executive editor of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review and part of a winning team of the Ames Moot Court Competition.
He served as a law clerk first for Justice Benjamin Kaplan of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the United States Supreme Court. Sunstein joined the Office of Legal Counsel in the Justice Department as an attorney-advisor and took a job as an assistant professor of law at the University of Chicago Law School, where he became an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science. In 1985, Sunstein was made a full professor of both political law; the university honored him in 1993 with its "distinguished service" accolade, permanently changing his title to Karl N. Llewellyn Distinguished Service Professor of Jurisprudence in the Law School and Department of Political Science. Sunstein was the Samuel Rubin Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia Law School in the fall of 1986 and a visiting professor at Harvard Law School in the spring 1987, winter 2005, spring 2007 terms, he teaches courses in constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, as well as the required first-year course "Elements of the Law", an introduction to legal reasoning, legal theory, the interdisciplinary study of law, including law and economics.
In the fall of 2008, he joined the faculty of Harvard Law School and began serving as the director of its Program on Risk Regulation: The Program on Risk Regulation will focus on how law and policy deal with the central hazards of the 21st century. Anticipated areas of study include terrorism, climate change, occupational safety, infectious diseases, natural disasters, other low-probability, high-consequence events. Sunstein plans to rely on significant student involvement in the work of this new program. On January 7, 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Sunstein would be named to head the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs; that news generated controversy among environmentalists. Sunstein's confirmation was long blocked because of controversy over allegations about his political and academic views. On September 9, 2009, the Senate voted for cloture on Sunstein's nomination as Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget.
The motion passed in a 63–35 vote. The Senate confirmed Sunstein on September 2009 in a 57 -- 40 vote. In his research on risk regulation, Sunstein is known for developing, together with Timur Kuran, the concept of availability cascades, wherein popular discussion of an idea is self-feeding and causes individuals to over weigh its importance. Sunstein's books include After the Rights Revolution, The Partial Constitution and the Problem of Free Speech, Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict, Free Markets and Social Justice, One Case at a Time and Reason, Why Societies Need Dissent, Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle, Radicals in Robes: Why Extreme Right-Wing Courts Are Wrong for America, Are Judges Political? An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge, and, co-authored with Richard Thaler, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health and Happiness. Sunstein's 2006 book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge, explores methods for aggregating information.
Sunstein's 2004 book, The Second Bill of Rights: FDR's Unfinished Revolution and Why We Need It More than Ever, advocates the Second Bill of Rights proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Among these rights are a right to an education, a right to a home, a right to health care, a right to protection against monopolies, his 2001 book, Republic.com, argued that the Internet may weaken democracy because it allows citizens to isolate themselves within groups that share their own views and experiences, thus cut themselves off from any information that might challenge their beliefs, a phenomenon known as cyberbalkanization. He recanted many of the views expressed in the book before his confirmation as administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in order to receive Senate confirmation. Asked by Rudy Takala if Sunstein's views nonetheless persisted in the Obama administration, U. S. Federal Communica
Corporation for National and Community Service
The Corporation for National and Community Service is a U. S. federal government agency that engages more than five million Americans in service through AmeriCorps and Serve America, Senior Corps, other national service initiatives. The agency's mission is to "support the American culture of citizenship and responsibility". While a government agency, CNCS acts much like a foundation and is the nation’s largest annual grant maker supporting service and volunteering. CNCS known as the "Corporation for National Service" or "CNS," was created as an independent agency of the United States government by the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993. CNCS delivers several programs that are designed to help communities address poverty, the environment and other unmet human needs; the programs include: AmeriCorps is a national service program designed to engage Americans in a variety of service. Programs under the AmeriCorps umbrella include AmeriCorps National and AmeriCorps State programs, National Civilian Community Corps, VISTA.
On April 21, 2009, the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act was signed into law which reauthorized and expanded the AmeriCorps volunteer service program; the new law would more than triple the number of available AmeriCorps volunteer slots from current 75,000 to 250,000 by fiscal year 2017 with 50% of these positions becoming full-time. The measure would tie college tuition aid to demonstrated favorable community impacts. National Civilian Community Corps Volunteers in Service to America Senior Corps USA Freedom Corps President's Volunteer Service Award Presidential Freedom Scholarship Program FEMA Corps On September 12, 2014, President Barack Obama launched the Employers of National Service initiative at the 20th Anniversary of AmeriCorps event on the South Lawn of the White House. Employers participating in the initiative connect to the talent pipeline of AmeriCorps, Peace Corps, other service year alumni, by indicating in their hiring processes that they view national service experience as a plus.
The initiative is a collaboration between CNCS with the Peace Corps, Service Year Alliance, AmeriCorps Alums, the National Peace Corps Association. To date, over 500 employers have joined the initiative; the Commission on National and Community Service was a new, independent federal agency created as a consequence of the National and Community Service Act of 1990, signed into law by President George H. W. Bush; the Commission was intentioned to mean to bring about a renewed focus on encouraging volunteering in the United States and was charged with supporting four streams of service: Service-learning programs for school-aged youth Higher education service programs Youth corps National service demonstration modelsIn 1993 the Corporation for National and Community Service was created by merging another agency, ACTION, the Commission on National and Community Service together, thus ending the Commission. Known as Serve America and Serve America engaged students in community-based organizations and schools in service learning programs.
In 2011 the United States House Appropriations Committee declined additional funding for Learn and Serve, the program was discontinued. 1990: President George H. W. Bush signs the National and Community Service Act of 1990 into law, ushering in a renewed federal focus on encouraging volunteering in the U. S; this legislation created the new independent federal agency called the Commission on National and Community Service. 1992: Enacted as part of the 1993 National Defense Authorization Act, the National Civilian Community Corps is created as a demonstration program to explore the possibility of using post-Cold War military resources to help solve problems here at home. It is modeled on the United States military. 1993: President Bill Clinton signs into passage The National and Community Service Trust Act, formally merging the federal offices of ACTION and the Commission on National and Community Service, including Serve America and NCCC, to form CNCS, along with the addition of the new AmeriCorps program.
2002: President George W. Bush creates the USA Freedom Corps. Past CEOs of CNCS include: Community service National service in the United States Service learning Gerald Walpin The Corporation for National and Community Service website Corporation for National and Community Service – History Corporation for National and Community Service – Legislation Corporation for National and Community Service in the Federal Register History of Service Learning in Higher Education website Booknotes interview with Steven Waldman on The Bill: How the Adventures of Clinton's National Service Bill Reveal What is Corrupt, Cynical -- and Noble -- About Washington, January 29, 1995