United States Department of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, helping to set industrial standards; this organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D. C. Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary; the department was created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor; the United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939.
In 1940, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Agriculture Department, the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished; the United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation; the Minority Business Development Agency was created on March 5, 1969 established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created on October 3, 1970. The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion.
The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades. The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, Department of the Treasury; the Economic Development Administration would be eliminated. On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports; the new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, the Small Business Administration, which are all independent agencies.
The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U. S. exports in five years. The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. That year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan; the reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority; the Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements.
Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view. The overall plan has been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems; the plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal, released in February 2015.
Title 13 of the C
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership declaration requirements to inform decision making. Assessment may be executed on behalf of a state, military or commercial organisation with ranges of information sources available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where there requires additional information, the analyst may direct some collection. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerning intelligence assessment relating to international relations and military science. Intelligence assessment is based on a customer requirement or need, which may be a standing requirement or tailored to a specific circumstance or a Request for Information; the "requirement" is passed to the assessing agency and worked through the intelligence cycle, a structured method for responding to the RFI.
The RFI may indicate. The RFI is reviewed by a Requirements Manager, who will direct appropriate tasks to respond to the request; this will involve a review of existing material, the tasking of new analytical product or the collection of new information to inform an analysis. New information may be collected through one or more of the various collection disciplines; the nature of the RFI and the urgency placed on it may indicate that some collection types are unsuitable due to the time taken to collect or validate the information gathered. Intelligence gathering disciplines and the sources and methods used are highly classified and compartmentalised, with analysts requiring an appropriate high level of security clearance; the process of taking known information about situations and entities of importance to the RFI, characterizing what is known and attempting to forecast future events is termed "all source" assessment, analysis or processing. The analyst uses multiple sources to mutually corroborate, or exclude, the information collected, reaching a conclusion along with a measure of confidence around that conclusion.
Where sufficient current information exists, the analysis may be tasked directly without reference to further collection. The analysis is communicated back to the requester in the format directed, although subject to the constraints on both the RFI and the methods used in the analysis, the format may be made available for other uses as well and disseminated accordingly; the analysis will be written to a defined classification level with alternative versions available at a number of classification levels for further dissemination. This approach, known as Find-Fix-Finish-Exploit-Assess, is complementary to the intelligence cycle and focused on the intervention itself, where the subject of the assessment is identifiable and provisions exist to make some form of intervention against that subject, the target-centric assessment approach may be used; the subject for action, or target, is identified and efforts are made to find the target for further development. This activity will identify where intervention against the target will have the most beneficial effects.
When the decision is made to intervene, action is taken to fix the target, confirming that the intervention will have a high probability of success and restricting the ability of the target to take independent action. During the finish stage, the intervention is executed an arrest or detention or the placement of other collection methods. Following the intervention, exploitation of the target is carried out, which may lead to further refinement of the process for related targets; the output from the exploit stage will be passed into other intelligence assessment activities. Intelligence cycle List of intelligence gathering disciplines Military intelligence Surveillance Threat assessment Futures studies SurveysAndrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush Black and Morris, Benny Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services Bungert, Heike et al. eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century essays by scholars Dulles, Allen W.
The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1200 pages Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology Odom, Gen. William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It, popular Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century Richelson, Jeffery T; the U. S. Intelligence Community Shulsky, Abram N. and Schmitt, Gary J. "Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence", 285 pages West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 West, Nigel.
Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision World War IBeesly, Patrick. Room 40.. Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.