The Powerhouse Museum is the major branch of the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences in Sydney, the other being the historic Sydney Observatory. Although described as a science museum, the Powerhouse has a diverse collection encompassing all sorts of technology including decorative arts, communication, costume, media, computer technology, space technology and steam engines, it has existed in various guises for over 125 years, is home to some 400,000 artifacts, many of which are displayed or housed at the site it has occupied since 1988, for which it is named – a converted electric tram power station in the Inner West suburb of Ultimo constructed in 1902. It is well known, a popular Sydney tourist destination; the Powerhouse Museum may be relocated to Parramatta in the future. The Powerhouse Museum has its origins in a recommendation of the trustees of the Australian Museum in 1878 and the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879 and Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880; some exhibits from these events were kept to constitute the original collection of the new Technological and Sanitary Museum of New South Wales.
The museum was intended to be housed in the exhibition buildings known as the Garden Palace, which were destroyed by a fire in September 1882. A temporary home at the Agricultural Hall in the Domain served until relocated to new, purpose-built premises in Harris Street as the Technological Museum in August 1893, it incorporated the Sydney Observatory in 1982. The museum moved to its present location in March 1988, took its present name from this new location. In February 2015, the State Government controversially announced that the museum would be relocated to Parramatta, however this plan is now under review. On 18 July 2017, the Nine Network reported that the Powerhouse Museum would stay in its current location, an announcement from the NSW government in April 2017 suggested that the Powerhouse Museum may stay in its current location; the Powerhouse Museum houses a number of unique exhibits including the oldest operational rotative steam engine in the world, the Whitbread Engine. Dating from 1785, it is one of only a handful remaining, built by Boulton and Watt and was acquired from Whitbread's London Brewery in 1888.
This engine was named a Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1986. Another important exhibit is Locomotive No. 1, the first steam locomotive to haul a passenger train in New South Wales, built by Robert Stephenson & Company in 1854. The most popular exhibit is arguably "The Strasburg Clock Model", built in 1887 by a 25-year-old Sydney watchmaker named Richard Smith, it is a working model of the famous Strasbourg astronomical clock in Strasbourg Cathedral. Smith had never seen the original when he built it but worked from a pamphlet which described its timekeeping and astronomical functions; the museum hosts a number of permanent exhibitions, including many concerning different modes of transport and communication. The transport exhibition looks at transport through the ages, from horse-drawn carts through steam engines and planes to the latest hybrid technology. On display is Steam Locomotive No. 1243, which served for 87 years, oldest contractor built locomotive in Australia.
It stands beside a mock-up of a railway platform, on the other side of, the Governor of New South Wales's railway carriage, of the 1880s. In this exhibition is the original Central railway station destination board, relocated to the museum in the 1980s when the station was refurbished. Powerhouse Museum restored the locomotives 3830, restored to operational order in 1997 and 3265, restored in 2009 after 40 years off the rails. Sydney's last Hansom Cab was donated to the Museum by its driver, who left it at the gates of the Harris Street building. There is a horse-drawn bus and collection of motorbikes. Suspended aeroplanes, which can be better viewed from balconies, include the Catalina that Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor flew on the first flight from Australia to South America and in which he brought home 29 soldiers from New Guinea in 1945. There is a Queenair Scout, the first Flying Doctor Service plane. Among the cars is a 1913 Sheffield Simplex, one of only 8 in the world. A four-minute film shows old footage of public transport.
The Powerhouse Museum has Sydney trams C11, O805, R1738, steam tram motor 28A, hearse car 27s and Manly horse car 292. This exhibition is remarkable in that nearly all of the engines on display are operational and are demonstrated working on steam power. Together with the Boulton and Watt engine, the Museum's locomotives, steam truck and traction engines, they are a unique working collection tracing the development of steam power from the 1770s to the 1930s. Engines on display include an 1830s Maudslay engine, a Ransom and Jeffries agricultural engine and the Broken Hill Fire Brigade's horse-drawn pump-engine; the museum owns a collection of mechanical musical instruments, of which the fairground barrel organ is located in the steam exhibition, where it is powered by a small fairground engine. The Space exhibition looks at space and discoveries relating to it, it includes a life size model space-shuttle cockpit. It has a feature on Australian satellites and joins the Transport exhibit through an underground temporary exhibit walkway and two side entrances.
The "EcoLogic" exhibition focuses on the challenges facing the environment, human impact, ways and technologies to stop this effect. There is a house setup called Ecohouse where people toggle light variables to see the outcome as well as
Fire and Rescue NSW
Fire and Rescue NSW, an agency of the Government of New South Wales, Australia, is responsible for firefighting and hazmat services in the major cities, metropolitan areas and towns across rural and regional New South Wales. Fire and Rescue NSW is the seventh largest urban fire service in the world, with over 6,800 firefighters serving at 335 fire stations throughout the state, supported by 465 administrative and trades staff and 5,700 community fire unit volunteers. FRNSW are the busiest fire service in Australia, attending over 124,000 incidents a year and undertaking 52,000 community activities in 2017/18. FRNSW works with the NSW Rural Fire Service in regional areas, along with other agencies including the NSW State Emergency Service, NSW Parks and Wildlife Service and the NSW Forestry Corporation; the agency operates under the Fire Brigades Act 1989, with a substantial history dating back well over 100 years to the establishment of the New South Wales Fire Brigades in 1910, the Metropolitan Fire Brigade prior to that in 1884.
The agency is led by the Commissioner of Fire and Rescue NSW Paul Baxter NZIM, who reports to the Minister for Emergency Services. The minister is responsible to the Parliament of New South Wales. Early firefighting in New South Wales was made up of a number of small insurance and volunteer based fire brigades located predominantly around central Sydney. Following a series of major fires, most notably the Garden Palace Fire in 1882, firefighting in Sydney was formalised into one organisation on February 14th 1884, resulting in the formation of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade; the MFB operating out of the former Insurance Brigade Headquarters on Bathurst Street but soon began to seek new locations for expansion. The first station opened by the MFB was No. 3 Stanmore in 1886. This was soon followed by the construction of their new Headquarters on Castlereagh Street in 1888, which remains New South Wales' oldest operational fire station to this day. In 1910, the Fire Brigades Act was extended to cover not just Sydney but the entire state of New South Wales.
The former Metropolitan Fire Brigade as a result became the New South Wales Fire Brigades. The organisation continued to grow, with many towns across the state seeking to establish permanent fire services after major fires of their own; the NSWFB's expansion continued through the early 20th Century to become responsible for hundreds of stations and thousands of firefighters after significant post war cuts in 1945. Through the mid to late 20th Century, NSWFB firefighters faced some of the most dangerous and deadly emergencies in the states history, including the 1979 Luna Park Ghost Train Fire, the 1977 Granville Rail Disaster, the 1981 Sylvania Heights Nursing Home Fire, the 1981 Rembrandt Hostel Fire, the 1989 Downunder Hostel Fire and the 1989 Newcastle Earthquake, along with countless major bushfire emergencies including the 1968, 1974/75, 1979 and 1980 bush fire seasons; the 1990s and early 2000s saw significant changes in firefighting as a whole. Development in training and equipment saw the more widespread use of Breathing Apparatus and Thermal Imaging Cameras, along with improved Personal Protective Equipment and more modern appliances.
In 1991, NSWFB took over primary rescue response from the NSW Police in a number of areas in Sydney. This saw a shift in the brigade, as they began to increase their capabilities in general and specialist rescue; this period saw a number of major emergencies across the state, including the 1991 Palm Grove Hostel Fire, the 1994 Bushfires, the 1995 Speed Street Fire, the 1997 Thredbo Landslide, the 1997 Bushfires, the 1999 Glenbrook Train Derailment, the 1999 Sydney Hailstorm, the 2001 Bushfires, the 2002/03 Bushfires, the 2003 Waterfall Train Derailment and the 2006 Bushfires. Since the late 2000s, the brigade have been working to modernise themselves as a world class fire service. In 2011, the New South Wales Fire Brigades became Fire and Rescue NSW, to better emphasise their growing role in rescue. FRNSW have been focused on further developing their Personal Protective Equipment. In 2013, firefighters received new Personal Protective Clothing, featuring a Nomex and Kevlar blend called Titan, combined with an inner moisture barrier to prevent steam burns.
This was followed by the roll out of new MSA and Pac Fire Firefighting and General Purpose Helmets and in 2015, new MSA Breathing Apparatus sets in 2017 and new flash hoods and firefighting gloves in 2018. In 2016, FRNSW rolled out Mobile Data Terminals to every station, which are portable tablets that allow firefighters to access live resources, call details, advanced maps, weather radars, data sheets and much more. FRNSW have been working to incorporate further new technologies into their fleet, including the development of their two high tech Mobile Command Centres, the incorporation of Compressed Air Foam Systems into their appliances, the development of a remote Turbine Assisted Firefighting Unit, the development of the Hytrans Bulk Water Transfer System and the development of their Remote Piloted Aircraft System. In 2016, FRNSW relocated their Headquarters to a brand new building at Greenacre, which serves as a modern work space for both operational and administrative staff; this was followed in 2018 by the construction of the new Emergency Services Academy at Orchard Hills, which provides firefighters with a modern practical learning environment, aiming to maintain and improve firefighter safety and skills.
In 2018, Fire and Rescue NSW rolled out the ‘Plus Plan’, an org
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east. At the 2016 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 17,252. "Sydney CBD" is occasionally used to refer not only to the CBD proper, but its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket and Woolloomooloo. The Sydney CBD is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region.
The city centre employs 13% of the Sydney region's workforce. Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity generated in the city in 2015/16 was $118 billion. Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for entertainment, it is home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures. The Sydney CBD is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare; the streets run on a warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement. The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream.
Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east -- west. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians; the colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842. In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area; these riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were targeted; the recruits clashed with soldiers. A number of eight people sustained injuries.
Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled; these riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955; the Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including: Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council; the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies.
The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Australia, it is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's, St Philip's and Scots Church The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802.
The site where St Patrick’s Church stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill. Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre at Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the 20th century's most distinctive buildings. Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, the building was formally opened on 20 October 1973 after a gestation beginning with Utzon's 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition; the Government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958 with Utzon directing construction. The government's decision to build Utzon's design is overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect's ultimate resignation; the building and its surrounds occupy the whole of Bennelong Point on Sydney Harbour, between Sydney Cove and Farm Cove, adjacent to the Sydney central business district and the Royal Botanic Gardens, close by the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Though its name suggests a single venue, the building comprises multiple performance venues which together host well over 1,500 performances annually, attended by more than 1.2 million people.
Performances are presented by numerous performing artists, including three resident companies: Opera Australia, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. As one of the most popular visitor attractions in Australia, the site is visited by more than eight million people annually, 350,000 visitors take a guided tour of the building each year; the building is managed by the Sydney Opera House Trust, an agency of the New South Wales State Government. On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, having been listed on the Register of the National Estate since 1980, the National Trust of Australia register since 1983, the City of Sydney Heritage Inventory since 2000, the New South Wales State Heritage Register since 2003, the Australian National Heritage List since 2005; the facility features a modern expressionist design, with a series of large precast concrete "shells", each composed of sections of a sphere of 75.2 metres radius, forming the roofs of the structure, set on a monumental podium.
The building is 183 m long and 120 m wide at its widest point. It is supported on 588 concrete piers sunk as much as 25 m below sea level. Although the roof structures are referred to as "shells", they are precast concrete panels supported by precast concrete ribs, not shells in a structural sense. Though the shells appear uniformly white from a distance, they feature a subtle chevron pattern composed of 1,056,006 tiles in two colours: glossy white and matte cream; the tiles were manufactured by the Swedish company Höganäs AB which produced stoneware tiles for the paper-mill industry. Apart from the tile of the shells and the glass curtain walls of the foyer spaces, the building's exterior is clad with aggregate panels composed of pink granite quarried at Tarana. Significant interior surface treatments include off-form concrete, Australian white birch plywood supplied from Wauchope in northern New South Wales, brush box glulam. Of the two larger spaces, the Concert Hall is in the western group of shells, the Joan Sutherland Theatre in the eastern group.
The scale of the shells was chosen to reflect the internal height requirements, with low entrance spaces, rising over the seating areas up to the high stage towers. The smaller venues are beneath the Concert Hall. A smaller group of shells set to the western side of the Monumental Steps houses the Bennelong Restaurant; the podium is surrounded by substantial open public spaces, the large stone-paved forecourt area with the adjacent monumental steps is used as a performance space. The Sydney Opera House includes a number of performance venues: Concert Hall: With 2,679 seats, the home of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and used by a large number of other concert presenters, it contains the Sydney Opera House Grand Organ, the largest mechanical tracker action organ in the world, with over 10,000 pipes. Joan Sutherland Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 1,507 seats, the Sydney home of Opera Australia and The Australian Ballet; until 17 October 2012 it was known as the Opera Theatre. Drama Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 544 seats, used by the Sydney Theatre Company and other dance and theatrical presenters.
Playhouse: A non-proscenium end-stage theatre with 398 seats. Studio: A flexible space with 280 permanent seats and a maximum capacity of 400, depending on configuration. Utzon Room: A small multi-purpose venue for parties, corporate functions and small productions. Recording Studio Outdoor Forecourt: A flexible open-air venue with a wide range of configuration options, including the possibility of utilising the Monumental Steps as audience seating, used for a range of community events and major outdoor performances. Other areas are used for performances on an occasional basis. Venues are used for conferences and social functions; the building houses a recording studio, restaurants and retail outlets. Guided tours are available, including a frequent tour of the front-of-house spaces, a daily backstage tour that takes visitors backstage to see areas reserved for performers and crew members. Planning began in the late 1940s, when Eugene Goossens, the Director of the NSW State Conservatorium of Music, lobbied for a suitable venue for large theatrical productions.
The normal venue for such productions, the Sydney Town Hall, was not considered
Nowra, New South Wales
Nowra is a town in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 160 kilometres south-southwest of the state capital of Sydney With its twin-town of Bomaderry, as at the 2016 census, Nowra had an estimated population of 35,795, it is the seat and commercial centre of the City of Shoalhaven. Geologically, the city is situated in the southern reaches of the Sydney basin; the region around Nowra is a farming community, sustaining a thriving dairy industry and a number of State forests, but is increasingly a retirement and leisure area for Canberra and Sydney. The naval air station HMAS Albatross is located about 10 kilometres south-west of Nowra; the name Nowra written by Europeans as'nou-woo-ro', is an Aboriginal word for black cockatoo. The Nowra region, south of Bomaderry Creek was inhabited by the Wodi-Wodi tribe of the Yuin nation while north of Bomaderry Creek was inhabited by the Dharawal Aboriginal people prior to European arrival. Around 1824, ex-convict Mary Reibey applied for a land grant in the Burrier area, on the southern side of the Shoalhaven River.
The Nowra township was recognised in 1852. Less than ten years in 1861, a postal service was established. In that year, the racehorse'Archer', trained in Nowra by Etienne de Mestre, won the first Melbourne Cup. By 1885, Nowra was declared a town. A major landmark in the area is the house Bundanon, which began as a single-storey weatherboard structure built about 1840. In 1866, a two-storey sandstone house, made of locally quarried stone, was built in front of the weatherboard house; the sandstone house features timber verandahs and is now listed on the Register of the National Estate. Nowra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Pleasant Way: Graham Lodge 35 West Street: Meroogal Nowra is on the Shoalhaven River, which hosted the Australian National wakeboarding championships, it is a popular fishing location; the river divides Nowra from Bomaderry and North Nowra, is bridged by the historic Nowra Bridge. The Shoalhaven River is a salt water river; the Shoalhaven River meets the sea through the canal that joins the Shoalhaven and Crookhaven Rivers, dug by convicts under direction of local entrepreneur and pioneer Alexander Berry.
It is located near Berry, Jervis Bay, Kangaroo Valley, Culburra Beach, Greenwell Point, Shoalhaven Heads and Cambewarra. With the warmest month's mean being just 22 °C, Nowra has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification, making it the southernmost city on the coastal strip to be within this climate zone, albeit an isolated one — Nearby coastal cities to the north, such as Wollongong and Kiama, have an oceanic climate as their warmest month's mean doesn't reach the 22 °C threshold; the population of Nowra - Bomaderry was 35,795 as at the 2016 census. According to the 2006 census, 87.9% of the population of Nowra was born in Australia, with North-West Europe being the most common birthplace of immigrants at 7.5% of the population. 6.1% of the total population are Indigenous Australians. There are 11,386 households in Nowra. There are a total of 8,248 families, with 2,838 containing two Adults with children under 15 and/or dependent students, 1,163 being one parent families with children under 15 and/or dependent students.
The suburb of Nowra had a population of 9,193 at the 2016 census. The town has a modern primary school, a town hall, a large retirement village and a tourist industry. In the summer months, when visitors flock to the beaches, to enjoy swimming, surfing and relaxing in the restaurants and cafés plus hunting for treasures in the shops and boutiques. There are two vineyards producing one with cellar-door sales. Nowra has three public high schools, Nowra High School, Shoalhaven High School and Bomaderry High School. There are several non-government schools, which are all denominational; the Catholic high school is linked to St Michael's Catholic Primary School located in Nowra. There are seven public primary schools in the Nowra area as well: East Nowra Public School, Nowra Public School, Bomaderry Public School, Illaroo Road Public School, North Nowra Public School, Nowra Hill Public School and Terara Public School; the University of Wollongong has a campus in Nowra, there is a campus of TAFE NSW Illawarra Institute located in Bomaderry.
There are two hospitals in Nowra, the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, a hub for Oncology services, Nowra Private Hospital. The four major codes of football in Australia are all popular in the Nowra area. Rugby union is represented by the Shoalhaven Rugby Club, the team plays out of Rugby Park in South Nowra; the club won the 2008 premiership in the Illawarra district competition, has produced international and provincial players such as Andrew Walker and Alex Kanaar. Australian rules football is played by three clubs from the Shoalhaven area, with the Nowra Albatross Vikings playing at West Street Oval, the Bomaderry Tigers at Artie Smith Oval. Further south, the Bay and Basin Bombers play at the Leisure Centre at Vincentia; these four clubs are all members of the South Coast AFL, fielding senior teams. Rugby league has traditionally bee