Defense Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency, an external intelligence service of the United States federal government, specializes in defense and military intelligence. A component of the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community, DIA informs national civilian and defense policymakers about the military intentions and capabilities of foreign governments and non-state actors, it provides intelligence assistance and coordination across uniformed military service intelligence components, which remain structurally separate from DIA. The agency's role encompasses the collection and analysis of military-related foreign political, industrial and medical and health intelligence. DIA produces one-fourth of all intelligence content that goes into the President's Daily Brief. DIA's intelligence operations extend beyond the zones of combat, half of its employees serve overseas at hundreds of locations and in U. S. Embassies in 140 countries; the agency specializes in the collection and analysis of human-source intelligence, both overt and clandestine, while handling U.
S. military-diplomatic relations abroad. DIA concurrently serves as the national manager for the technical measurement and signature intelligence and as the Defense Department manager for counterintelligence programs; the agency has no law-enforcement authority, contrary to occasional portrayals in American popular culture. DIA is a national-level intelligence organization that does not belong to a single military element or within the traditional chain of command, instead answering to the Secretary of Defense directly through the USDI. Three-quarters of the agency's 17,000 employees are career civilians who are experts in various fields of defense and military interest or application. DIA has a tradition of marking unclassified deaths of its employees on the organization's Memorial Wall. Established in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, DIA was involved in U. S. intelligence efforts throughout the Cold War and expanded, both in size and scope, after the September 11 attacks.
Because of the sensitive nature of its work, the spy organization has been embroiled in numerous controversies, including those related to its intelligence-gathering activities, to its role in torture, as well as to attempts to expand its activities on U. S. soil. The Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency is an intelligence officer who, upon nomination by the President and confirmation by the Senate, serves as the nation's highest-ranking military intelligence officer, he or she is the primary intelligence adviser to the Secretary of Defense and answers to the Director of National Intelligence. The Director is the Commander of the Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence and Reconnaissance, a subordinate command of United States Strategic Command, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska. Additionally, he or she chairs the Military Intelligence Board, which coordinates activities of the entire defense intelligence community. DIA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. on Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling with major operational activities at the Pentagon at each Unified Combatant Command as well as in more than a hundred U.
S. Embassies around the world where it deploys alongside other government partners and operates the U. S. Defense Attache Offices. Additionally, the agency has staff deployed at the Col. James N. Rowe Building at Rivanna Station in Charlottesville, National Center for Medical Intelligence in Fort Detrick, Maryland and Space Intelligence Center in Huntsville, Russell-Knox Building on Marine Corps Base Quantico, National Center for Credibility Assessment at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, Defense Intelligence Support Center in Reston, Virginia. DIA recently completed the renovation of an Intelligence Community Campus in Bethesda, which will serve as the new location of the National Intelligence University as well as a facility for DIA and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. DIA and the Central Intelligence Agency are distinct organizations with different functions. DIA focuses on national level defense-military topics, while CIA is concentrated on broader, more general intelligence needs of the President and Cabinet.
Additionally, due to DIA's designation as a combat support agency, it has special responsibilities in meeting intelligence requirements for the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Combatant Commanders, both in peace and at war. Although there are misconceptions in the media and public about the DIA–CIA rivalry, the two agencies have a mutually beneficial relationship and division of labor. According to a former senior U. S official who worked with both agencies, "the CIA doesn't want to be looking for surface-to-air missiles in Libya" while it is tasked with evaluating the Syrian opposition. CIA and DIA Operations Officers all go through the same type of clandestine training at an interagency Defense installation under CIA administration, best known in popular culture by its CIA nickname "The Farm". DIA is not a collective of all U. S. military intelligence units and the work it performs is not in lieu of that falling under intelligence components of individual services. Unlike the Russian GRU, which encompasses equivalents of nearly all joint U.
S. military intelligence operations, DIA assists and coordinates the activities of individual service-level intelligence units, but they remain separate entities. As a general rule, DIA handles national-
Mark Thomas Esper is an American politician and corporate executive serving as the 23rd and current United States Secretary of the Army since 2017. Prior to his current position, he served as vice president of government relations at Raytheon. Esper graduated from Laurel Highlands High School in 1982, he received his Bachelor of Science in engineering from the United States Military Academy in 1986. Esper was a Dean's List student at West Point and recipient of the Douglas MacArthur Award for Leadership, he received a master's degree in public administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard in 1995 and a Doctor of Philosophy from George Washington University in 2008. Esper served as an Infantry Officer with the 101st Airborne Division and deployed with the "Screaming Eagles" for the 1990-91 Gulf War, his battalion was part of the famous "left hook". For his actions, Esper was awarded a Bronze Star, the Combat Infantryman's Badge, various service medals, he led an Airborne Rifle Company in Europe and served as an Army Fellow at the Pentagon.
Esper was on active duty for over ten years before transitioning to the District of Columbia Army National Guard and the Army Reserve, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Esper was chief of staff at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, from 1996-1998. From 1998 to 2002, Esper served as a senior professional staffer for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, he was a senior policy advisor and legislative director for U. S. Senator Chuck Hagel, he was policy director for the House Armed Services Committee from 2001 to 2002. From 2002 to 2004, Esper served in the George W. Bush administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations Policy, where he was responsible for a broad range of nonproliferation, arms control, international security issues, he was Director for National Security Affairs for the U. S. Senate under Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist from 2004 to 2006. Esper was executive vice president at the Aerospace Industries Association in 2006 and 2007.
From September 2007 to February 2008, Esper served as national policy director to Senator Fred Thompson in his 2008 presidential campaign. From 2008 to 2010, Esper served as executive vice president of the Global Intellectual Property Center and vice president for Europe and Eurasia at the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, he was hired as vice president of government relations at defense contractor Raytheon in July 2010. Esper was recognized as a top corporate lobbyist by The Hill in 2015 and 2016. President Trump announced his intention to nominate Esper as United States Secretary of the Army on July 19, 2017, he was Trump's third nominee for the position, following the withdrawals of Vincent Viola and Mark E. Green, he was confirmed to this post by an 89–6 vote of the U. S. Senate on November 15, 2017 and sworn in on November 20, 2017. Official biography
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr. is a defense policy analyst, a distinguished senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. A West Point graduate, Krepinevich spent 21 years as an officer in the U. S. Army, serving on the personal staff of three Defense Secretaries and in the Office of Net Assessment, retiring in the rank of lieutenant colonel. While in the army, Krepinevich received an M. P. A. and a Ph. D. from Harvard University and published an influential book, The Army and Vietnam, in which he argued that the United States could have won the Vietnam War had the Army adopted a small-unit pacification strategy in South Vietnam's villages, rather than conducting search and destroy operations in remote jungles. While working for the Office of Net Assessment in 1992, Krepinevich authored "The Military-Technical Revolution: A Preliminary Assessment," an influential document in the development of thinking about the "Revolution in Military Affairs." Following his retirement from the army, Krepinevich assumed his current position as director of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, a non-profit think tank focused on defense and national security issues.
While at CSBA he has served on the National Defense Panel and Defense Policy Board, advised senior military and civilian policymakers. In 2005, he published an influential Foreign Affairs article on "How to Win in Iraq". Informed by Krepinevich's previous research on Vietnam, the article called for the adoption of a population-centric counterinsurgency strategy much like the approach implemented during the "Surge" of U. S. forces two years later. In 2009 he published 7 Deadly Scenarios: A Military Futurist Explores War in the 21st Century, which presents seven hypothetical scenarios that would challenge the U. S. military. His recent work has addressed the challenges posed by the modernization of China's military forces, Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons, the proliferation of precision-guided munitions. Most Krepinevich co-authored, with his CSBA colleague Barry Watts, The Last Warrior: Andrew Marshall and the Shaping of Modern American Defense Strategy. Both authors had worked for Andrew Marshall at the Office of Net Assessment.
Krepinevich's pending departure from CSBA was announced following a July 2015 meeting by the think tank's board of directors. In March 2016, he became a senior distinguished fellow at CSBA. Official CSBA Biography Appearances on C-SPAN
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Defense Logistics Agency
The Defense Logistics Agency is a combat support agency in the United States Department of Defense, with more than 26,000 civilian and military personnel throughout the world. Located in 48 states and 28 countries, DLA provides supplies to the military services and supports their acquisition of weapons, repair parts, other materials; the agency disposes of excess or unusable equipment through various programs. Through other U. S. federal agencies, DLA helps provide relief supplies to victims of natural disasters, as well as humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced persons. DLA is headquartered in Fort Belvoir Virginia, near Washington, D. C. DLA Headquarters contains numerous offices responsible for supporting the overall agency, it has The agency has several major subordinate activities operating in the field: DLA Aviation, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia supplies aircraft parts and expertise. DLA Disposition Services, based in Battle Creek, helps the military dispose of excess items.
In addition to typical military materiel, such as vehicles and uniforms, Disposition Services helps the military donate computers to primary schools, through the DoD Computers for Learning program. Defense Logistics Agency Distribution, headquartered in New Cumberland, transports items for DOD and other customers. DLA Energy provides fuel for aircraft and the U. S. space program, as well as commercial space exploration. It has provided helium for the U. S. Border Patrol surveillance aerostats. DLA Troop Support, headquartered in Philadelphia, supplies uniforms, medical, construction equipment, other items to deployed military members, it supporting the U. S. Department of Agriculture, helps provide fresh fruits and vegetables for some U. S. primary schools and eligible Indian reservations. DLA Land and Maritime, headquartered in Columbus, provide parts and maintenance for military ground vehicles and some ships. DLA operates three full-time organizations embedded with three unified combatant commands of the U.
S. military: DLA CENTCOM & SOCOM, DLA Europe & Africa, DLA Pacific. The seeds of the Defense Logistics Agency were planted in World War II, when America's military needed to get vast amounts of munitions and supplies quickly. During the war, the military services began to coordinate more when it came to procurement of petroleum products, medical supplies and other commodities; the main offices of the Army and Navy for each commodity were collocated. After the war, the call grew louder for more complete coordination throughout the whole field of supply—including storage, distribution and other aspects of supply. In 1947, there were seven supply systems in the Army, plus an Air Technical Service Command, 18 systems in the Navy, including the quartermaster of the Marine Corps. Passage of the National Security Act of 1947 prompted new efforts to eliminate duplication and overlap among the services in the supply area and laid the foundation for the eventual creation of a single integrated supply agency.
The act created the Munitions Board, which began to reorganize these major supply categories into joint procurement agencies. Meanwhile, in 1949, the Commission on the Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, a presidential commission headed by former President Herbert Hoover, recommended that the National Security Act be amended so as to strengthen the authority of the Secretary of Defense so that he could integrate the organization and procedures of the various phases of supply in the military services; the Munitions Board was not as successful as hoped in eliminating duplication among the services in the supply area. Congress became disenchanted with the board, in the Defense Cataloging and Standardization Act of 1952, transferred the board's functions to a new Defense Supply Management Agency; the Eisenhower Reorganization Plan Number 6 abolished both this agency and the Munitions Board, replacing them with a single executive, an Assistant Secretary of Defense for Supply and Logistics.
Meanwhile, the Korean War led to several investigations by Congress of military supply management, which threatened to impose a common supply service on the military services from the outside. Integrated management of supplies and services began in 1952 with the establishment of a joint Army-Navy-Air Force Support Center to control identification of supply items. For the first time, all the military services bought and issued items using a common nomenclature; the Defense Department and the services defined the material that would be managed on an integrated basis as "consumables", meaning supplies that are not repairable or are consumed in normal use. Consumable items called commodities were assigned to one military service to manage for all the services; the pressure for consolidation continued. In July 1955, the second Hoover Commission recommended centralizing management of common military logistics support and introducing uniform financial management practices, it recommended that a separate and civilian-managed agency be created with the Defense Department to administer all military common supply and service activities.
The military services feared that such an agency would be less responsive to military requirements and jeopardize the success of military operations. Congress, remained concerned about the Hoover Commission's indictment of waste and inefficiencies in the military services. To avoid having Congress take the matter away from the military DoD reversed its position; the solution proposed and approved by the Secretary of Defense was to appoint "single managers" for a selected group of common supply and servic