Department for International Trade
The Department for International Trade is a United Kingdom government department responsible for striking and extending trade agreements between the United Kingdom and non EU states. The department was created by Prime Minister Theresa May, shortly after she took office on 13 July 2016, following the United Kingdom's vote to leave the European Union. DIT's purpose is to develop and deliver a new trade policy for the United Kingdom, including preparing for and negotiating free trade agreements and market access deals with non-EU countries; the new department is a specialised body with significant new trade negotiating capacity. It took on the responsibilities of UK Trade and Investment, operated by both the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for Business Innovation and Skills, it took on the latter's other relevant trade functions, it is overseen by the Secretary of State for International Trade Liam Fox. As of February 2017 the department employed about 200 trade negotiators.
The UK Trade Remedies Authority was set up to protect Britain from unfair global trading practices after Briton left the EU. It was intended to be a separate department, but as of April 2019 continued to be a "shadow organisation" within the Department for International Trade. In October 2018 Sir David Wright was designated to head it; the TRA was expected to be a key part of Britain's drive to expand world trade after leaving the EU. It was intended to propose measures to limit the importation of goods subsidised by foreign governments in detriment of British producers, oppose tariffs imposed elsewhere on British imports; the Ministers in the Department for International Trade are as follows: Asia Task Force Department for International Trade Official Website
Department for Work and Pensions
The Department for Work and Pensions is the largest government department in the United Kingdom, is responsible for welfare and pension policy. The department has four operational organisations: Jobcentre Plus administers working age benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance, decides which claimants receive Employment and Support Allowance; the department was created on 8 June 2001 as a merger of the Department of Social Security, Employment Service and the policy groups of the Department for Education and Employment involved in employment policy and international issues. The department was tasked with creating Jobcentre Plus and the Pensions Service from the remains of the Employment Service and the Benefits Agency; the department is therefore responsible for pension policy. It aims "to help its customers become financially independent and to help reduce child poverty". In 2019 the department was found by an independent inquiry to have broken its own rules, in a case where a disabled woman killed herself in 2017 after her benefits were stopped when she missed a Work Capability Assessment because she had pneumonia.
Previous research published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health by Oxford University and Liverpool University had found that there were an additional 590 suicides between 2010 and 2013 in areas where such assessments were carried out. The researchers said that the DWP had introduced the policy of moving people off benefits without understanding the consequences; the DWP Ministers are: The Permanent Secretary is Peter Schofield. With the creation of the department in June 2001, the Pension Service was created, bringing together many different departments and divisions; the Pension Service is a'dedicated service for current and future pensioners'. The Pension Service consists of local Pension Centres and centrally-based centres, many of latter are based at the Tyneview Park complex in Newcastle upon Tyne. At Tyneview Park the following centres are found: Future Pension Centre provides state pension forecasts for people approaching retirement age. Newcastle Pension Centre dealt with the London area, the Home Counties, part of West Midlands.
Now the service is virtual. Pension Tracing Service helps track old pensions and pension schemes. International Pension Centre deals with all enquiries regarding the payment of state pension, bereavement benefits, incapacity benefits and other such benefits for those living abroad. Local Pension Centres deal with localised claims for retirement related benefits. Pension Centres are found all over the country. Benefits dealt with at local Pension Centres include: Pension Credit Winter Fuel Payments Cold Weather Payments The Disability and Carers Service offers financial support for those who are disabled and their carers, whether in or out of employment; the DCS have offices throughout the country and deal with the following benefits: Disability Living Allowance Attendance Allowance Carer's Allowance Vaccine Damage Payment Personal Independence PaymentThe department has been found to invite disabled people to interviews in buildings which are themselves not accessible to people with disabilities.
When the person does not attend the interview they deny the person disability benefits, causing malnutrition and destitution. The DWP systematically underpaid disabled claimants who were transferred from Incapacity Benefit to Employment and Support allowance risking hardship for claimants. A cross party committee of MP's, the Public Accounts Committee accused the DWP of a culture of indifference to claimants. Before 2008, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service were two separate executive agencies. Both former agencies kept their corporate branding and provided services under their separate identities; the decision was made due to the two agencies sharing about half of the same customers. The status of PDCS as an executive agency was removed on 1 October 2011 with the functions being brought back inside the department. Prior to July 2012 the Child Support Agency was the operating arm of the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission. All are now operated wholly from within the department, with the names continuing as brand identifiers.
The department's public bodies include: the Health and Safety Executive the Pensions Ombudsman the Pensions RegulatorThe department has corporate buildings in London, Blackpool, Aberdeen, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sheffield. Jobcentre Plus, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service operate through a network of around 1,000 Jobcentres, contact centres and benefit processing centres across the UK; the total annual budget of the department in 2011-12 is £151.6 billion, representing 28% of total UK Government spending. The department spends a far greater share of national wealth than any other department in Britain, by a wide margin; the department spends an average of £348
Department for Education
The Department for Education is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education and wider skills in England. A Department for Education existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment; the DfE was formed on 12 May 2010 by the incoming Cameron ministry, taking on the responsibilities and resources of the Department for Children and Families. In June 2012 the Department for Education committed a breach of the UK's Data Protection Act due to a security flaw on its website which made email addresses and comments of people responding to consultation documents available for download. In July 2016, the Department took over responsibilities for higher and further education and for apprenticeship from the dissolved Department for Business and Skills. Committee of the Privy Council on Education, 1839–1899 Education Department, 1856–1899 Board of Education, 1899–1944 Ministry of Education, 1944–1964 Department of Education and Science, 1964–1992 Department for Education, 1992–1995 Department for Education and Employment, 1995–2001 Department for Education and Skills, 2001–2007 Department for Children and Families, 2007–2010 The department is led by the Secretary of State for Education.
The Permanent Secretary is Jonathan Slater. DfE is responsible for education, children’s services and further education policy and wider skills in England, equalities; the predecessor department employed the equivalent of 2,695 staff as of April 2008 and as at June 2016, DfE had reduced its workforce to the equivalent of 2,301 staff. In 2015-16, the DfE has a budget of £58.2bn, which includes £53.6bn resource spending and £4.6bn of capital investments. The Department for Education's ministers are as follows: The management board is made up of: Permanent Secretary - Jonathan Slater Director-General, Social Care and Equalities - Indra Morris Director-General, Education Standards - Paul Kett Director-General and Funding - Andrew McCully Director-General and Further Education - Philippa Lloyd Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Insight and Transformation - Howard Orme Chief Executive, Education & Skills Funding Agency - Eileen MilnerNon-executive board members: Marion Plant OBE; the Education Funding Agency was responsible for distributing funding for state education in England for 3-19 year olds, as well as managing the estates of schools, colleges and the Skills Funding Agency was responsible for funding skills training for further education in England and running the National Apprenticeship Service and the National Careers Service.
The EFA was formed on 1 April 2012 by bringing together the functions of two non-departmental public bodies, the Young People's Learning Agency and Partnerships for Schools. The SFA was formed on 1 April 2010, following the closure of the Skills Council. Eileen Milner is the agency's Chief Executive; the National College for Teaching and Leadership is responsible for administering the training of new and existing teachers in England, as well as the regulation of the teaching profession and offers headteachers, school leaders and senior children's services leaders opportunities for professional development. It was established on 1 April 2013, when the Teaching Agency merged with the National College for School Leadership; the National College for Teaching and Leadership was replaced by the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency in April 2018. The Standards and Testing Agency is responsible for developing and delivering all statutory assessments for school pupils in England, it was formed on 1 October 2011 and took over the functions of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency.
The STA is regulated by Ofqual. The DfE is supported by 10 public bodies: Education and children's policy is devolved elsewhere in the UK; the department's main devolved counterparts are as follows: Scotland Scottish Government – Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Department of Education Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Wales Welsh Government – Department for Education and Skills The Department for Education released a new National Curriculum for schools in England for September 2014, which included'Computing'. Following Michael Gove's speech in 2012, the subject of Information Communication Technology has been disapplied and replaced by Computing. With the new curriculum, materials have been written by commercial companies, to support non-specialist teachers, for example,'100 Computing Lessons' by Scholastic; the Computing at Schools organisation has created a'Network of Teaching Excellence'to support schools with the new curriculum. In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of various units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments, it has just over 2,000 staff, most of whom work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Minister's Office are part of the Cabinet Office; the Cabinet Office's core functions are: Supporting the Prime Minister to define and deliver the Government’s objectives, implement political and constitutional reform, drive forward from the centre particular cross-departmental priority issues such as public service improvement, social exclusion and the third sector. This includes working with the Treasury to drive efficiency and reform across the public sector. Other functions include oversight of the Crown Commercial Service and the accreditation of Social Impact Contractors; the department was formed in December 1916 from the secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence under Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary.
Traditionally the most important part of the Cabinet Office's role was facilitating collective decision-making by the Cabinet, through running and supporting Cabinet-level committees. This is still its principal role, but since the absorption of some of the functions of the Civil Service Department in 1981 the Cabinet Office has helped to ensure that a wide range of Ministerial priorities are taken forward across Whitehall, it contains miscellaneous units that do not sit well in other departments. For example: The Historical Section was founded in 1906 as part of the Committee for Imperial Defence and is concerned with Official Histories; the Joint Intelligence Committee was founded in 1936 and transferred to the department in 1957. It deals with intelligence assessments and directing the national intelligence organisations of the UK; the Ceremonial Branch was founded in 1937 and transferred to the department in 1981. It was concerned with all ceremonial functions of state, but today it handles honours and appointments.
In modern times the Cabinet Office takes on responsibility for areas of policy that are the priority of the Government of the time. The units that administer these areas migrate in and out of the Cabinet Office as government priorities change; the Cabinet Office Ministers are as follows: The Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service is Sir Mark Sedwill. The Cabinet Office supports the work of: the Leader of the House of Commons. Cabinet committees have two key purposes: To relieve the burden on the Cabinet by dealing with business that does not need to be discussed at full Cabinet. Appeals to the Cabinet should be infrequent, Ministers chairing Cabinet Committees should exercise discretion in advising the Prime Minister whether to allow them. To support the principle of collective responsibility by ensuring that though a question may never reach the Cabinet itself, it will be considered. In this way, the final judgement is sufficiently authoritative that Government as a whole can be expected to accept responsibility for it.
In this sense, Cabinet Committee decisions have the same authority as Cabinet decisions. The main building of the Cabinet Office is at 70 Whitehall, adjacent to Downing Street; the building connects three distinct properties, as well as the remains of Henry VIII's 1530 tennis courts, part of the Palace of Whitehall, which can be seen within the building. The Whitehall frontage was designed by Sir John Soane and completed by Sir Charles Barry between 1845 and 1847 as the Treasury Buildings. To the west Dorset House connects the front of the building to William Kent's Treasury, which faces out onto Horse Guards Parade; the latter is built over the site of the Cockpit, used for cock fighting in the Tudor period, subsequently as a theatre. In the early 1960s the buildings were restored and many of the Tudor remains were exposed and repaired. Significant renovations between 2010 and 2016 converted many of the floors to open plan and created new office space; the Cabinet Office Briefing Rooms are located on this site.
The department occupies other buildings in Whitehall and the surrounding area, including part of 1 Horse Guards, as well as sites in other parts of the country. The Cabinet Office has the following responsibilities at a UK national level. Political and constitutional reform the Home Civil Service the Electoral Commission the Boundary Commissions the Independent Parliamentary Standards AuthorityIts main counterparts in the devolved nations are as follows: Scotland Office of the First Minister Northern Ireland Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Department of Enterprise and Investment Department of Finance and Personnel Department for Social Development Wales British Civil Service United Kingdom budget Prime Minister's Strategy Unit Social Exclusion Task Force Cabinet Office Briefing Room Public Sector Internal Identity Federation Official website Cabinet Office official Twitter feed
Department for International Development
The Department for International Development is a United Kingdom government department responsible for administering overseas aid. The goal of the department is "to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty". DFID is headed by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for International Development; the position has been held, by Penny Mordaunt. In a 2010 report by the Development Assistance Committee, DFID was described as "an international development leader in times of global crisis"; the UK aid logo is used to publicly acknowledge DFID's development programmes are funded by UK taxpayers. DFID's main programme areas of work are Education, Social Services, Water Supply and Sanitation and Civil Society, Economic Sector, Environment Protection and Humanitarian Assistance. In 2009/10 DFID’s Gross Public Expenditure on Development was £6.65bn. Of this £3.96bn was spent on Bilateral Aid and £2.46bn was spent on Multilateral Aid. Although the Department for International Development’s foreign aid budget was not affected by the cuts outlined by the Chancellor of the Exchequer’s 2010 spending review, DFID will see their administration budgets slashed by 19 percent over the next four years.
This would mean a reduction in back-office costs to account for only 2 percent of their total spend by 2015. In June 2013 as part of the 2013 Spending Round outcomes it was announced that DFID's total programme budget would increase to £10.3bn in 2014/15 and £11.1bn in 2015/16 to help meet the UK government's commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on ODA. DFID is responsible for the majority of UK ODA; the National Audit Office 2009 Performance Management review looked at how DFID has restructured its performance management arrangements over the last 6 years. The report responded to a request from DFID’s Accounting Officer to re-visit the topic periodically, which the Comptroller and Auditor General agreed would be valuable; the study found that DFID had improved in its general scrutiny of progress in reducing poverty and of progress towards divisional goals, however noted that there was still clear scope for further improvement. In 2016 DFID was taken to task with accusations of misappropriation of funding in the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.
Whistleblower Sean McLaughlin commenced legal action against the Department in the Eastern Caribbean Court, questioning the DFID fraud investigation process. The DFID Ministers are as follows: The current Permanent Secretary is Matthew Rycroft, having assumed office in January 2018; the main piece of legislation governing DFID's work is the International Development Act, which came into force on 17 June 2002, replacing the Overseas Development and Co-operation Act. The Act makes poverty reduction the focus of DFID's work, outlaws tied aid; as well as responding to disasters and emergencies, DFID works to support the United Nations' eight Millennium Development Goals, namely to: Halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger Ensure that all children receive primary education Promote sexual equality and give women a stronger voice Reduce child death rates Improve the health of mothers Combat HIV & AIDS, malaria and other diseases Make sure the environment is protected Build a global partnership for those working in development.all with a 2015 deadline.
Former Secretary of State Hilary Benn has indicated that on current trends, we will not achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Although by 2010 thanks to high growth in India and China who had 62% of the world's poor in 1990 there has been significant global progress towards meeting the millennium goals; the Department has its origins from the Ministry of Overseas Development created during the Labour government of 1964–70, which combined the functions of the Department of Technical Cooperation and the overseas aid policy functions of the Foreign, Commonwealth Relations, Colonial Offices and of other government departments. After the election of a Conservative government in October 1970, the Ministry of Overseas Development was incorporated into the Foreign Office and renamed the Overseas Development Administration; the ODA was overseen by a minister of state in the Foreign Office, accountable to the Foreign Secretary. Though it became a section of the Foreign Office, the ODA was self-contained with its own minister, the policies and staff remained intact.
When a Labour government was returned to office in 1974, it announced that there would once again be a separate Ministry of Overseas Development with its own minister. From June 1975 the powers of the minister for overseas development were formally transferred to the Foreign Secretary. In 1977 to shore up its difficult relations with UK business, the government introduced the Aid and Trade Provision; this enabled aid to be linked to nonconcessionary export credits, with both aid and export credits tied to procurement of British goods and services. Pressure for this provision from UK businesses and the Department of Trade and Industry arose in part because of the introduction of French mixed credit programmes, which had begun to offer French government support from aid funds for exports, including for projects in countries to which France had not given substantial aid. After the election of the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher in 1979, the ministry was transferred back to the Foreign Office, as a
High Speed 1
High Speed 1 the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, is a 67-mile high-speed railway linking London with the Channel Tunnel. The line carries international passenger traffic between the United Continental Europe; the line crosses the River Medway, under the River Thames, terminating at St Pancras International station on the north side of central London. It cost £5.8 billion to build and opened on 14 November 2007. Trains reach speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour on section 1 and up to 230 kilometres per hour on section 2. Intermediate stations are at Stratford International in London, Ebbsfleet International Station and Ashford International in Kent. International passenger services are provided by Eurostar, with journey times of London St Pancras to Paris Gare du Nord in 2 hours 15 minutes, St Pancras to Brussels-South in 1 hour 51 minutes; as of November 2015, Eurostar has used a fleet of 27 Class 373/1 multi-system trains capable of 300 kilometres per hour and 320 kilometres per hour Class 374 trains.
Domestic high-speed commuter services serving the intermediate stations and beyond began on 13 December 2009. The fleet of 29 Class 395 passenger trains reach speeds of 225 kilometres per hour. DB Cargo UK run freight services on High Speed 1 using adapted Class 92 locomotives, enabling flat wagons carrying continental-size swap body containers to reach London for the first time; the CTRL project saw new bridges and tunnels built, with a combined length nearly as long as the Channel Tunnel itself, significant archaeological research undertaken. In 2002, the CTRL project was awarded the Major Project Award at the British Construction Industry Awards; the line was transferred to government ownership in 2009, with a 30-year concession for its operation being put up for sale in June 2010. The concession was awarded to a consortium of Borealis Infrastructure and Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan in November 2010, but does not include the freehold or rights to any of the associated land. In July 2017 HS1 Ltd. was acquired by a consortium of funds advised and managed by InfraRed Capital Partners Limited and Equitix Investment Management Limited.
A high-speed rail line, LGV Nord, has been in operation between the Channel Tunnel and the outskirts of Paris since the Tunnel's opening in 1994. This has enabled Eurostar rail services to travel at 300 km/h for this part of their journey. A similar high-speed line in Belgium, from the French border to Brussels, HSL 1, opened in 1997. In Britain, Eurostar trains had to run at a maximum of 160 km/h on existing tracks between London Waterloo and the Channel Tunnel; these tracks were shared with local traffic, limiting the number of services that could be run, jeopardising reliability. The case for a high-speed line similar to the continental part of the route was recognised by policymakers, the construction of the line was authorised by Parliament with the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 1996, amended by the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 2008. An early plan conceived by British Rail in the early 1970s for a route passing through Tonbridge met considerable opposition on environmental and social grounds from the Leigh Action Group and Surrey & Kent Action on Rail.
A committee was set up to examine the proposal under Sir Alexander Cairncross. The next plan for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link involved a tunnel reaching London from the south-east, an underground terminus in the vicinity of King's Cross station. A late change in the plans, principally driven by the Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine's desire for urban regeneration in east London, led to a change of route, with the new line approaching London from the east; this opened the possibility of reusing the underused St Pancras station as the terminus, with access via the North London Line that crosses the throat of the station. The idea of using the North London line proved illusory, it was rejected in 1994 by the Transport Secretary, John MacGregor, as too difficult to construct and environmentally damaging; the idea of using St Pancras station as the core of the new terminus was retained, albeit now linked by 20 kilometres of specially built tunnels to Dagenham via Stratford. London & Continental Railways was chosen by the UK government in 1996 to build the line and to reconstruct St Pancras station as its terminus, to take over the British share of the Eurostar operation, Eurostar.
The original LCR consortium members were National Express, Virgin Group, S. G. Warburg & Co, Bechtel and London Electric. While the project was under development by British Rail it was managed by Union Railways, which became a wholly owned subsidiary of LCR. On 14 November 2006, LCR adopted High Speed 1 as the brand name for the completed railway. Official legislation and line-side signage have continued to refer to "CTRL"; as the 1987 Channel Tunnel Act made government funding for a Channel tunnel rail link unlawful, construction did not take place as it was not financially viable. Construction was delayed until passage of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Act 1996 which provided construction powers that ran for the following 10 years; the chief executive of the time Rob Holden stated that it was the "largest land acquisition programme since the Second World War". The whole route was to hav
Train operating company
A train operating company is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail brand. TOCs have existed since the privatisation of the network under the Railways Act 1993. There are two types of TOC: most hold franchises let by the government, following bids from various companies, to operate services on certain routes for a specified duration, while a small number of open access operators hold licences to provide supplementary services on chosen routes; these operators can run services for the duration of the licence validity. The franchised operators have changed since privatisation: previous franchises have been divided, merged, re-let to new operators, or renamed; the term is sometimes used to describe companies operating passenger or freight rail services over tracks that are owned by another company or a national network owner. Franchises were let by the Office of Passenger Rail Franchising; this was in turn replaced by the Strategic Rail Authority.
For England and Wales, franchising is now the responsibility of the Department for Transport in the majority of cases. In Scotland, it is the responsibility of the Scottish Government. In two parts of England, local government agencies are responsible: in Merseyside, the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive lets the Merseyrail franchise, while in London, Transport for London oversees the new London Overground and Crossrail concessions; the Rail Delivery Group provides a commonality for the TOCs and provides some centralised co-ordination. Its activities include the provision of a national timetable and online journey planner facility, the operation of the various Railcard discount schemes. Eurostar is a member of the RDG, though it is not itself a TOC. For historical and geographical reasons the railway network of the United Kingdom is split into two independent systems: one in Great Britain, one in Northern Ireland, linked to the railway system of the Republic of Ireland. In Great Britain, passenger train services are operated by a number of companies, referred to as Train Operating Companies or TOCs on the basis of regional franchises awarded by the Department for Transport Rail Group.
Until 2005 this role was performed by the Strategic Rail Authority. The infrastructure of the railways in England and Wales – including tracks and signalling – is owned and operated not by the train companies but by Network Rail, which took over responsibility from Railtrack in 2002. Most passenger trains are owned by a small number of Rolling Stock Companies and are leased to the individual TOCs. However, a handful of TOCs maintain some of their own rolling stock. Train operating companies operate most of the network's stations, in their role as station facility owners, in which they lease the buildings and associated land from Network Rail. Network Rail manages some major railway stations and several stations are operated by London Underground or other companies. All passenger TOCs in Great Britain are owned; the majority of these hold franchises to operate rail services on specific parts of the railway and come under the auspices of the National Rail brand. In addition, companies are able to bid for "paths" to operate their own services, which the franchises do not operate – these operators are classed as open-access operators and are not franchise holders.
In Great Britain, there are two open-access operators: Hull Trains runs services between London King's Cross and Hull, Grand Central, which operates between London King's Cross and Sunderland and between London King's Cross and Bradford. In addition, there are operators that fall outside the purview of National Rail, which operate specific services which are recent additions to Britain's railways; the main examples are Eurostar, which operates to the continent via the Channel Tunnel, Heathrow Express, which runs fast services from London to Heathrow Airport. A number of metropolitan railways on the network are operated by the local franchise holder in conjunction with the passenger transport executive or other civic body responsible for administering public transport. One of these bodies, the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive, is responsible for one of three National Rail franchises not awarded by central government, namely the Merseyrail franchise, while certain National Rail services in North London came under the control of Transport for London in November 2007 as London Overground.
Two other franchises, the Scottish national franchise operated by Abellio ScotRail, the Welsh domestic franchise, operated by Transport for Wales, are awarded by the devolved governments of the two constituent nations. The Rail Delivery Group is the coordinating body of the train operating companies in Great Britain and owns the National Rail brand, which uses the former British Rail double-arrow logo and organises the common ticketing structure. Many of the train operating companies are in fact parts of larger companies which operate multiple franchises; the railway network in Northern Ireland is managed differently from the rest of the UK. The sole company in Northern Ireland that operates trains is NI Railways, who are a subsidiary of Translink, the publicly-owned transport corporation, which runs the Metro buses in Belfast and Ulsterbus coaches around the country. NIR is not a TOC under the terms of the Railways Act 1993; the cross-border service Enterprise is jointly operated with Iarnród Éireann, the national railway company of the Republic of Irelan