United States Atomic Energy Commission
The United States Atomic Energy Commission known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U. S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective on January 1, 1947; this shift gave the members of the AEC complete control of the plants, laboratories and personnel assembled during the war to produce the atomic bomb. During its initial establishment and subsequent operationalization, the AEC played a key role in the institutional development of Ecosystem ecology, it provided crucial financial resources, allowing for ecological research to take place. More it enabled ecologists with a wide range of groundbreaking techniques for the completion of their research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the AEC approved funding for numerous bioenvironmental projects in the arctic and subarctic regions.
These projects were designed to examine the effects of nuclear energy upon the environment and were a part of the AEC's attempt at creating peaceful applications of atomic energy. An increasing number of critics during the 1960s charged that the AEC's regulations were insufficiently rigorous in several important areas, including radiation protection standards, nuclear reactor safety, plant siting, environmental protection. By 1974, the AEC's regulatory programs had come under such strong attack that the U. S. Congress decided to abolish the AEC; the AEC was abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which assigned its functions to two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, various other Federal agencies.
In creating the AEC, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the form of nuclear weapons for the nation's defense, but to promote world peace, improve the public welfare and strengthen free competition in private enterprise. At the same time, the McMahon Act which created the AEC gave it unprecedented powers of regulation over the entire field of nuclear science and technology, it furthermore explicitly prevented technology transfer between the United States and other countries, required FBI investigations for all scientists or industrial contractors who wished to have access to any AEC controlled nuclear information. The signing was the culmination of long months of intensive debate among politicians, military planners and atomic scientists over the fate of this new energy source and the means by which it would be regulated. President Truman appointed David Lilienthal as the first Chairman of the AEC. Congress gave the new civilian AEC extraordinary power and considerable independence to carry out its mission.
To provide the AEC exceptional freedom in hiring its scientists and engineers, AEC employees were exempt from the civil service system. The AEC's first order of business was to inspect the scattered empire of atomic plants and laboratories to be inherited from the U. S. Army; because of the need for great security, all production facilities and nuclear reactors would be government-owned, while all technical information and research results would be under AEC control. The National Laboratory system was established from the facilities created under the Manhattan Project. Argonne National Laboratory was one of the first laboratories authorized under this legislation as a contractor-operated facility dedicated to fulfilling the new AEC's missions; the Argonne was the first of the regional laboratories. Others were the Clinton labs and the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the Northeast, although a similar lab in Southern California did not eventuate. On 11 March 1948 Lilienthal and Kenneth Nichols were summoned to the White House where Truman told them "I know you two hate each other’s guts".
He directed that "the primary objective of the AEC was to develop and produce atomic weapons", Nichols was appointed a major general and replaced Leslie Groves as chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Lilienthal had opposed his appointment. Lilienthal was told to "forgo your desire to place a bottle of milk on every doorstop and get down to the business of producing atomic weapons. Nichols became General Manager of the AEC on 2 November 1953; the AEC was in charge of developing the U. S. nuclear arsenal, taking over these responsibilities from the wartime Manhattan Project. In its first decade, the AEC oversaw the operation of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, devoted to weapons development, in 1952, the creation of new second weapons laboratory in California, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the AEC carried out the "crash program" to develop the hydrogen bomb, the AEC played a key role in the prosecution of the Rosenbergs for espionage. The AEC began a program of regular nuclear weapons testing, both in the faraway Pacific Proving Grounds and at the Nevada Test Site in the western United States.
While the AEC supported much basic research, the vast majority of its early budget was devoted to nuclear weapons development and production. Within the AEC, high-level scientific and technical advice was provided by the General Advisory Committee headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. In its early years, the General
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, the Universities Research Association. Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Research Corridor. Fermilab's Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator. At 3.9 miles, it was the world's fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron's CDF and DØ detectors, it was shut down in 2011. In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE, NOνA and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS, MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE; the MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors.
An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE had fine-grained tracking capabilities; the NOνA experiment uses, the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab's NuMI beam, an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, site of the NOνA far detector. In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries; the site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors. Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory. Weston, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab; the laboratory was founded in 1967 as the National Accelerator Laboratory. The laboratory's first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation.
He is the namesake of the site's high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and, the center of activity on the campus. After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job, it was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman remains Director Emeritus; the science education center at the site was named in his honor. The directors include: John Peoples, 1989 to 1999 Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005 Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013 Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the presentFermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider; as of 2014, the first stage in the acceleration process takes place in two ion sources which turn hydrogen gas into H− ions. The gas is introduced into a container lined with molybdenum electrodes, each a matchbox-sized, oval-shaped cathode and a surrounding anode, separated by 1 mm and held in place by glass ceramic insulators.
A magnetron generates a plasma to form the ions near the metal surface. The ions are accelerated by the source to 35 keV and matched by low energy beam transport into the radio-frequency quadrupole which applies a 750 keV electrostatic field giving the ions their second acceleration. At the exit of RFQ, the beam is matched by medium energy beam transport into the entrance of the linear accelerator; the next stage of acceleration is linear particle accelerator. This stage consists of two segments; the first segment has 5 vacuum vessel for drift tubes, operating at 201 MHz. The second stage has operating at 805 MHz. At the end of linac, the particles are accelerated to about 70 % of the speed of light. Before entering the next accelerator, the H− ions pass through a carbon foil, becoming H+ ions; the resulting protons enter the booster ring, a 468 m circumference circular accelerator whose magnets bend beams of protons around a circular path. The protons travel around the Booster about 20,000 times in 33 milliseconds, adding energy with each revolution until they leave the Booster accelerated to 8 GeV.
The final acceleration is applied by the Main Injector, the smaller of the two rings in the last picture below. Completed in 1999, it has become Fermilab's "particle switchyard" in that it can route protons to any of the experiments installed along the beam lines after accelerating them to 120 GeV; until 2011, the Main Injector provided protons to the antiproton ring and the Tevatron for further acceleration but now provides the last push before the particles reach the beam line experiments. Recognizing higher dema
The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, east of Batavia and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider of the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva, Switzerland. The Tevatron was a synchrotron that accelerated protons and antiprotons in a 6.28 km ring to energies of up to 1 TeV, hence its name. The Tevatron was completed in 1983 at a cost of $120 million and significant upgrade investments were made in 1983–2011; the main achievement of the Tevatron was the discovery in 1995 of the top quark—the last fundamental fermion predicted by the standard model of particle physics. On July 2, 2012, scientists of the CDF and DØ collider experiment teams at Fermilab announced the findings from the analysis of around 500 trillion collisions produced from the Tevatron collider since 2001, found that the existence of the suspected Higgs boson was likely with only a 1-in-550 chance that the signs were due to a statistical fluctuation.
The findings were confirmed two days as being correct with a likelihood of error less than 1 in a million by data from the LHC experiments. The Tevatron ceased operations on 30 September 2011, due to budget cuts and because of the completion of the LHC, which began operations in early 2010 and is far more powerful; the main ring of the Tevatron will be reused in future experiments, its components may be transferred to other particle accelerators. December 1, 1968, saw the breaking of ground for the linear accelerator; the construction of the Main Accelerator Enclosure began on October 3, 1969, when the first shovel of earth was turned by Robert R. Wilson, NAL's director; this would become the 6.3 km circumference Fermilab's Main Ring. The linac first 200 MeV beam started on December 1, 1970; the booster first 8 GeV beam was produced on May 20, 1971. On June 30, 1971, a proton beam was guided for the first time through the entire National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator system including the Main Ring.
The beam was accelerated to only 7 GeV. Back the Booster Accelerator took 200 MeV protons from the Linac and "boosted" their energy to 8 billion electron volts, they were injected into the Main Accelerator. On the same year before the completion of the Main Ring, Wilson testified to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy on March 9, 1971, that it was feasible to achieve a higher energy by using superconducting magnets, he suggested that it could be done by using the same tunnel as the main ring and the new magnets would be installed in the same locations to be operated in parallel to the existing magnets of the Main Ring. That was the starting point of the Tevatron project; the Tevatron was in research and development phase between 1973 and 1979 while the acceleration at the Main Ring continued to be enhanced. A series of milestones saw acceleration rise to 20 GeV on January 22, 1972, to 53 GeV on February 4 and to 100 GeV on February 11. On March 1, 1972, the NAL accelerator system accelerated for the first time a beam of protons to its design energy of 200 GeV.
By the end of 1973, NAL's accelerator system operated at 300 GeV. On 14 May 1976 Fermilab took its protons all the way to 500 GeV; this achievement provided the opportunity to introduce a new energy scale, the teraelectronvolt, equal to 1000 GeV. On 17 June of that year, the European Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator had achieved an initial circulating proton beam of only 400 GeV; the conventional magnet Main Ring was shut down in 1981 for installation of superconducting magnets underneath it. The Main Ring continued to serve as an injector for the Tevatron until the Main Injector was completed west of the Main Ring in 2000. The'Energy Doubler', as it was known produced its first accelerated beam—512 GeV—on July 3, 1983, its initial energy of 800 GeV was achieved on February 16, 1984. On October 21, 1986, acceleration at the Tevatron was pushed to 900 GeV, providing a first proton–antiproton collision at 1.8 TeV on November 30, 1986. The Main Injector, which replaced the Main Ring, was the most substantial addition, built over six years from 1993 at a cost of $290 million.
Tevatron collider Run II begun on March 1, 2001, after successful completion of that facility upgrade. From the beam had been capable of delivering an energy of 980 GeV. On July 16, 2004, the Tevatron achieved a new peak luminosity, breaking the record held by the old European Intersecting Storage Rings at CERN; that Fermilab record was doubled on September 9, 2006 a bit more than tripled on March 17, 2008, multiplied by a factor of 4 over the previous 2004 record on April 16, 2010. The Tevatron ceased operations on 30 September 2011. By the end of 2011, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN had achieved a luminosity ten times higher than Tevatron's and a beam energy of 3.5 TeV each ~3.6 times the capabilities of the Tevatron. The acceleration occurred in a number of stages; the first stage was the 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton pre-accelerator, which ionized hydrogen gas and accelerated the negative ions created using a positive voltage. The ions passed into the 150 meter long linear accelerator which used oscillating electrical fields to accelerate the ions to 400 MeV.
The ions passed through a carbon foil, to remove the electrons, the charged protons moved into the Booster. The Booster was a small circular synchrotron
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U. S. Army base, its name stems from its location within the Town of Brookhaven 60 miles east of New York City. Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology and bioscience, nanoscience and national security; the 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and National Synchrotron Light Source II. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab. BNL is staffed by 2,750 scientists, engineers and support personnel, hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year; the laboratory has its own police station, fire department, ZIP code. In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre area, coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New Atlantic Railway.
Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service. Although conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab's mission has expanded, its foci are now: Nuclear and high-energy physics Physics and chemistry of materials Environmental and climate research Nanomaterials Energy research Nonproliferation Structural biology Accelerator physics Brookhaven National Lab was owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency's successor, the United States Department of Energy. DOE subcontracts the operation to universities and research organizations, it is operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility's high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.
Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston. Involvement was solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, MIT, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, Yale University.
Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility. On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was transferred from the U. S. War Department to the new U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, predecessor to the U. S. Department of Energy. In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor; this reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000. In 1952 Brookhaven began using the Cosmotron.
At the time the Cosmotron was the world's highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle. The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron; the AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, CP violation. In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings; the groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, the project was cancelled in 1983; the National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. After ISABELLE'S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator.
In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world's only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest
Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System
The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. ATLAS is the first superconducting linear accelerator for heavy ions at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier; the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne should not be confused with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Ions are generated from one of two sources: the 9-MV electrostatic tandem Van de Graaff accelerator or the Positive Ion Injector, a 12-MV low-velocity linac and electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the ions are sent from one of these two into the 20-MV'booster' linac to the 20-MV'ATLAS' linac section. The ATLAS linac section contains each one of seven different type; each type accelerates ions to a particular velocity. Each resonator is tunable to allow for a wide range of velocities; the ions in the ATLAS linac are aligned into a beam which exits the linac into one of three experimental areas. The experiment areas contain scattering chambers and spectrographs, beamlines, a gamma-ray facility, particle detectors.
The energy levels of the ions produces by ATLAS. Understanding reactions between nuclei from low energies to the highest energies. Nuclei with specific properties can be studied to understand fundamental interactions. Niobium is the primary metal used to construct the tubes in the individual in-line resonators. Niobium is used because it is cheap, yet it is a superconductor at high temperatures; the difficulties is in its malleability, quite poor making it difficult to construct the shapes needed for the resonators. The machinists working at ATLAS are some of the only people in the world able to work with niobium to the degree necessary for construction and repair of the ATLAS parts. Atom Trap at ATLAS Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer Enge Split Pole Spectrograph Fragment Mass Analyzer Gammasphere Helical Orbit Spectrometer Large Scattering Chamber Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron "The ATLAS Facility". ATLAS: Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System. Retrieved October 6, 2005.
"Low Energy Nuclear Physics Research". ATLAS: Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System. Retrieved October 6, 2005
United States Secretary of Energy
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act; the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality; the current Secretary of Energy is Rick PerryFormer Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is the only secretary to be dismissed from the post.
Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was the first female and African-American holder. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clinton's second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on January 20, 2001, serving under the administration of George W. Bush. Steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20, 2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama, he is the longest-serving Secretary of Energy and the first individual to join the Cabinet having received a Nobel Prize. Parties Democratic Republican As of April 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan Jr.. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was Samuel Bodman on September 7, 2018. List of living former members of the United States Cabinet United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy
National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, or NERSC, is a high performance computing user facility operated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the United States Department of Energy Office of Science. As the mission computing center for the Office of Science, NERSC houses high performance computing and data systems used by 7,000 scientists at national laboratories and universities around the country. NERSC's newest and largest supercomputer is Cori, ranked 5th on the TOP500 list of world's fastest supercomputers in November 2016. NERSC is located on the main Berkeley Lab campus in California. NERSC was founded in 1974 as the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center, or CTRCC, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, The center was created to provide computing resources to the fusion energy research community and began with a Control Data Corporation 6600 computer; the first machine procured directly by the center was a CDC 7600, installed in 1975 with a peak performance of 36 megaflop/s.
In 1976, the center was renamed the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center. Subsequent supercomputers included a Cray-1, called the "c" machine, installed in May 1978, in 1985 the world's first Cray-2, the "b" machine, nicknamed "Bubbles" because of the bubbles visible in the fluid of its unique direct liquid cooling system. In 1983, the center began providing a small portion of its resources to researchers outside the fusion community; as the center supported science across many research areas, it changed its name to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center in 1990. In 1995, the Department of Energy made the decision to move NERSC from LLNL to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A cluster of Cray J90 systems was installed in Berkeley before the main systems at Livermore were shut down for the move in 1996, thus ensuring continuous support for the research community; as part of the move, the center was renamed the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, but kept the NERSC acronym.
In 2000, NERSC moved to a new site in Oakland to accommodate the growing footprint of air-cooled supercomputers. In November 2015, NERSC is housed in Shyh Wang Hall; as with the move from LLNL, a new system was first installed in Berkeley before the machines in Oakland were taken down and moved. View the interactive timeline created in 2014 in recognition of NERSC's 40 years of HPC leadership. View the list of computer systems installed at NERSC since 1996. To reflect NERSC's mission to support scientific research, the center names its major systems after scientists; the center is located in Shyh Wang Hall, one of the nation's most energy-efficient supercomputer facilities. The building was financed by the University of California which manages Berkeley Lab for the U. S. Department of Energy; the utility infrastructure and computer systems are provided by DOE. The newest supercomputer, Cori, is named in honor of Gerty Cori, a biochemist, the first American woman to receive a Nobel Prize in science.
Cori is a Cray XC40 system with 622,336 Intel processor cores and a theoretical peak performance of 30 petaflop/s. Cori was delivered in two phases; the first phase — known as the Data Partition — was installed in late 2015 and comprises 12 cabinets and more than 1,600 Intel Xeon "Haswell" compute nodes. It was customized to support data-intensive science and the analysis of large datasets through a combination of hardware and software configurations and queue policies; the second phase of Cori, installed in summer 2016, added another 52 cabinets and more than 9,300 nodes with second-generation Intel Xeon Phi processors, making Cori the largest supercomputing system for open science based on KNL processors. With 68 active physical cores on each KNL and 32 on each Haswell processor, Cori has 700,000 processor cores; the two phases of Cori are integrated via the Cray Aries interconnect, which has a dragonfly network topology that provides scalable bandwidth. Cori features a Burst Buffer based on the Cray DataWarp technology.
The Burst Buffer, a 1.5 PB layer of NVRAM storage, sits between compute node memory and Cori's 30-petabyte Lustre parallel scratch file system. The burst buffer provides about 1.5 TB/sec of I/O bandwidth, more than twice that of the scratch file system. NERSC has added software-defined networking features to Cori to more efficiently move data in and out of the system, giving users end-to-end connectivity and bandwidth for real-time data analysis, a real-time queue for time-sensitive analyses of data. NERSC's other large system is Edison, a Cray XC30 named in honor of American inventor and scientist Thomas Edison, which has a peak performance of 2.57 petaflop/s. Installed in 2014, Edison consists of 133,824 compute cores for running scientific applications, 357 terabytes of memory, 7.56 petabytes of online disk storage with a peak I/O bandwidth of 168 gigabytes per second. Other systems at NERSC include: PDSF, a networked distributed computing cluster designed to meet the detector simulation and data analysis requirements of physics and nuclear science collaborations.
PDSF is the longest continually operating Linux cluster in the world. Genepool, an Intel-based cluster dedicated to the computing needs of the DOE Joint Genome Institute. A 100 petabyte High Performance Storage System installation for archival storage. In use since 1998, HPSS is a modern, performance-oriented mass storage system. NERSC was one of the original developers of HPSS, along with five other DOE labs and IBM. N