The Office of Works was established in the English royal household in 1378 to oversee the building and maintenance of the royal castles and residences. In 1832 it became the Works Department forces within the Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Buildings, it was reconstituted as a government department in 1851 and became part of the Ministry of Works in 1940. The organisation of the office varied. In 1782 these offices were merged into Comptroller. From 1761 there were named Architects; the office had posts of Secretary, Master Mason and Master Carpenter. After James Wyatt's death in 1813 a non-professional Surveyor-General was appointed: Major-General Sir Benjamin Stephenson, he was assisted by three "Attached Architects": John Nash and Sir Robert Smirke. This arrangement ended in 1832 with the formation of the Works Department, when architect Henry Hake Seward was appointed Surveyor of Works and Buildings. 1578–1590 Thomas Blagrave 1594–1595 Robert Adams 1597–1604 William Spicer 1604–1606 David Cunninghame of Robertland 1606–1615 Simon Basil 1615–1643 Inigo Jones 1643–1653 Edward Carter 1653–1660 John Embree 1660–1669 Sir John Denham 1669–1718 Christopher Wren 1718–1719 William Benson 1719–1726 Sir Thomas Hewett 1726–1737 Richard Arundell 1737–1743 Henry Fox 1743–1760 Henry Finch 1760–1768 Thomas Worsley 1779–1782 Whitshed Keene 1423–1452 Robert Shiryngton 1456–1461 Peter Idley 1597–1606 Simon Basil 1606–1641 Thomas Baldwin 1641–1668 James Wethered 1668–1684 Hugh May 1689–1702 William Talman 1702–1726 John Vanbrugh 1726–1758 Thomas Ripley 1758–1769 Henry Flitcroft 1769–1782 William Chambers 1782–1796 William Chambers 1796–1813 James Wyatt 1718–1719 Colen Campbell 1719–1735 Westby Gill 1735–1748 William Kent 1748–1758 Henry Flitcroft 1758–1780 Stephen Wright 1780–1782 Robert Taylor 1660–1690 Andrew Lawrence 1690–1715 Michael Studholme 1716–1731 William Watkins 1731–1737 Richard Arundell 1737–1756 Thomas Ripley 1756–1757 John Offley 1757–1760 Sir Henry Erskine, 5th Baronet 1760–1771 Hon. Edward Finch 1771–1772 Thomas Whateley 1772–1782 Hon. Henry Fane 1660–1670 Adrian May 1670–1684 Hugh May 1689–1700 William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland 1700–1702 Richard Jones, 1st Earl of Ranelagh 1715–1726 John Vanbrugh 1726–1737 Charles Dartiquenave 1738–1760 Thomas Hervey 1761–1763 George Onslow, 1st Earl of Onslow 1763–1763 Lord Charles Spencer 1763–1764 John Marshe Dickinson 1764–1769 Charles Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan 1770–1782 William Varey 1660–1668 Hugh May 1668–1686 Philip Packer 1686–1706 Thomas Lloyd 1706–1726 Charles Dartiquenave 1726–1738 Hugh Howard 1738–1741 John Harris 1741–1742 Sir Robert Brown, 1st Baronet 1742–1743 Sir Charles Gilmour, 2nd Baronet 1743–1755 Denzil Onslow 1755–1782 George Augustus Selwyn 1761–1769 Sir William Chambers 1761–1769 Robert Adam 1769–1777 Sir Robert Taylor 1769–1782 James Adam 1777–1780 Thomas Sandby 1780–1782 James Paine 1715–1718 Nicholas Hawksmoor 1718–1719 Benjamin Benson 1719–1726 John Hallam 1726–1736 Nicholas Hawksmoor 1736–1766 Isaac Ware 1766–1775 William Robinson 1775–1782 Kenton Couse H. M. Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840 ISBN 0-300-07207-4 H. M. Colvin, The History of the King's Works, London: H.
M. S. O. ISBN 0-11-670571-X ISBN 0-11-670568-X ISBN 0-11-670832-8 ISBN 0-11-670571-X ISBN 0-11-670286-9 ISBN 0-11-671116-7
WRC: FIA World Rally Championship Arcade is a 2002 off-road arcade rally game released for the PlayStation, based upon the 2002 World Rally Championship season. The game was published by Sony Computer Entertainment. WRC: FIA World Rally Championship Arcade features 7 World Rally Championship manufacturer cars along with 14 track locations from 14 different countries that were included in the 2002 World Rally Championship; the tracks are held on various surfaces such as asphalt, gravel, ice and snow, range in difficulty from easy to difficult. Races can take place in wet-weather conditions. Cars vary in how fast they accelerate, how fast they are, their steering ability. A co-driver guides the player by informing them; the game has five game modes. The reviewer for Jeuxvideo.com felt the gameplay was sub-par due to it being "reduced to its simplest expression for a driving which turns out frankly not interesting" and noted its artificial intelligence was not developed to adapt to the player's on-track trajectory.
The website felt the variations of circuits allowed the usage of braking to be optional, which it believed was surprising for a rallying game. Consoles+ compared WRC: FIA World Rally Championship Arcade's graphics to that of Sega Rally 2 on the Dreamcast and gave the game an 82 percent rating, saying, "Sony offers us a purely arcade rallye game."Play2Mania was critical of the game's music, sound effects and the voice of the co-driver as being of a poor quality but felt the gameplay was not complex and entertaining. A reviewer for PSone Magazine wrote that WRC: FIA World Rally Championship Arcade would appeal to large portion of rallying enthusiasts who disliked simulation games
Taiwan known as the Republic of China, is divided into multi-layered statutory subdivisions. Due to the complex political status of Taiwan, there is a significant difference in the de jure system set out in the original constitution and the de facto system in use today. Constitutionally, the ROC is divided into provinces and special municipalities, with each province subdivided into cities and counties; the provinces are no longer functional. With provinces non-functional in practice, Taiwan is divided into 22 subnational divisions each with a local government led by an elected head and a local council. Matters for which local governments are responsible or responsible include social services, urban planning, public construction, water management, environmental protection and public safety. There are three types of subnational divisions: special municipalities and counties. Special municipalities and cities are further divided into districts for local administration. Counties are further divided into county-administered cities.
These divisions have a degree of autonomy. They have government offices with elected leaders and local councils, which share responsibilities with the county; when the ROC retreated to Taiwan in 1949, its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions. However, since its retreat, the ROC has controlled only Taiwan Province and some islands of Fujian Province; the ROC controls the Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the Spratly Islands, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan. Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control. Taipei became a special municipality in 1967 and Kaohsiung in 1979; the two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government. In 2010, New Taipei and Tainan were upgraded to special municipalities, and in 2014, Taoyuan County was upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality.
This brought the top-level divisions to their current state:According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million. This provision does not apply to any county, although it applied to Taipei County and Taoyuan County. In 1945, after World War II, the Republic of China acquired Taiwan and Penghu from the Empire of Japan. In 1949 and 1950, the government of the Republic of China led by the Kuomintang lost the Chinese Civil War and retreated to Taipei, Taiwan; the government lost all its jurisdiction over mainland China, with only some offshore islands remaining. This history gives two different sources of the current Taiwanese administrative divisions on the Free area of the Republic of China or Taiwan Area. Taiwan Province: The island of Taiwan and Penghu: inherited from the divisions of Taiwan under the Empire of Japan. Fujian Province: Kinmen and the Matsu Islands – inherited from the divisions of mainland China under the Republic of China.
Hainan Special Administrative Region: Formerly administered by the ROC, the island was conquered in 1950 by the PRC and since became a province. Zhejiang Province: Formerly administered by the ROC, the PRC conquered most of the province in 1949; however it controlled Dachen Islands until 1955. Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control; the two provincial governments were downscaled and much of their functions transferred to the central or county governments. Six special municipalities have been created. Since 1949, the most controversial part of the political division system has been the existence of Taiwan Province, as its existence was part of a larger controversy over the political status of Taiwan. Since 1998, most of the duties and powers of Taiwan Provincial Government have been transferred to the central government, through amendments to the constitution; the much smaller Fukien province, Fujian Provincial Government has been downsized since 1956. There has been some criticism of the current administrative scheme as being inefficient and not conducive to regional planning.
In particular, most of the administrative cities are much smaller than the actual metropolitan areas, there are no formal means for coordinating policy between an administrative city and its surrounding areas. Before 2008, the likelihood of consolidation was low. Many of the cities had political demographics which were different from their surrounding counties, making the prospect of consolidation politically charged. For example, while the Kuomintang argued that combining Taipei City, Taipei County, Keelung City into a metropolitan Taipei region would allow for better regional planning, the Democratic Progressive Party argued that this was an excuse to eliminate the government of Taipei County, which it had at times controlled, by swamping it with votes from Taipei City and Keelung City, which tended to vote Kuomintang. On 1 October 2007, Taipei County was upgraded to a quasi-municipality on the same level as Kaohsiung City and Taipei City; this allowed the county to have the organizational and budgetary framework of a de jure municipality, but it was still formally styled as a county.
Taichung County and Tainan City lobbied the central government for similar status. Taoyuan County was upgraded to a quasi-municipality on 1 January 2011, as its population was above 2 million on the date of elevation. Under President Ma Ying-jeou's administration, the central