Isaiah Rogers was a US architect who practiced in Mobile, Boston, New York City, New York, Louisville and Cincinnati, Ohio. Rogers was born in Marshfield, Massachusetts to Isaac Rogers, a farmer and shipwright, Hannah Ford. In 1823 he married Emily Wesley Tobey of Maine; the couple had eight children. Two of his sons followed him into the profession of architecture. Rogers was a student of Solomon Willard, he became one of the country's foremost hotel architects and was renowned for Boston's Tremont House, the Astor House in New York City and the Exchange Hotel in Richmond, Virginia. He designed the Burnett House in Cincinnati the largest and most elegant hotel in the Midwest, he designed New York's Astor Opera House. The Cathedral of the Assumption, Kentucky was designed in the Neo-Gothic style by William Keeley and Rogers. Upon its completion in 1852, the 287-foot spire was North America's tallest, his design for the fourth Hamilton County, Ohio Hamilton County Courthouse was for a massive three-story building, measuring 190 feet square.
The building bore a close resemblance to Rogers' Merchants Exchange building, Wall Street in New York City. He designed the Boston Merchants Exchange. Rogers was the last of five, who worked upon the Ohio Statehouse, he completed the building in 1861. in 1853 Rogers founded an architecture firm in Louisville, Kentucky with another architect named Henry Whitestone. That firm was named Rogers, Whitestone & Co. Architects and is still practicing today under the name of Luckett & Farley Architects, Engineers, & Interior Designers. From 1863 to 1865, due to his friendship with fellow Cincinnatian Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, he was Office of the Supervising Architect's Supervising Architect of the United States. In this role he designed and patented four burglar-proof vaults built in the northwest corner of the U. S. Treasury Building in 1864, their lining consisted of two layers of cast iron balls interposed between the traditional alternating plates of wrought iron and hardened steel.
The balls, held loosely in specially formed cavities, were designed to rotate upon contact with a drill, or any other tool, thereby preventing a burglar from penetrating. The design was first used for two vaults built in the New York Sub-Treasury, now Federal Hall National Memorial, in 1862. Similar vaults were built in custom houses in Detroit and Chicago. 1827 Tremont Theatre, Boston rebuilt as Tremont Temple 1829 Tremont House, Boston 1830 Old State House, redesign in the Classical Revival style to serve as a City Hall until 1841 1832-33 Commercial Wharf, Boston 1833 Bangor House, Maine 1833 Captain Robert Bennet Forbes House, Massachusetts 1836 John Jacob Astor House, a hotel on the site of Astor's home in New York City that lasted 80 years until city officials announced in 1913 that "the southern half of the hotel was to be torn down to accommodate construction of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company subway. Two years 217 Broadway was built" was first called the Astor House Building and as the Astor Building.
1836 Merchants Exchange building, Wall Street 1840 Egyptian revival gate for Old Granary Burying Ground in Boston 1841 Merchants Exchange 1842 New York Merchants Exchange the New York Customs House, New York City 1843 Egyptian Revival gate and fence for Touro Cemetery in Newport, Rhode Island 1845 Kent-Valentine House, Virginia 1846 Howard Athenaeum, Boston 1850s Thomas Gaff House, Indiana 1852 Cathedral of the Assumption in Louisville, Kentucky was designed by William Keeley and Rogers 1859 Oliver House, Ohio Maxwell House Hotel, Tennessee Richard Bond Notes Additional sourcesBurglar-proof vaults, US Department of the Treasury Merchants' Exchange, New York Architecture Images
James H. Windrim
James Hamilton Windrim was a Philadelphia architect who specialized in public buildings. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he apprenticed under John Notman, opened his own office in 1867; that same year, at age 27, he won the design competition for the Philadelphia Masonic Temple, the building for which he is best remembered. In 1871, he was named architect for the Stephen Girard Estate, designing several buildings at Girard College and a complex of stores on Market Street that became Snellenburg's Department Store; as Supervising Architect for the U. S. Treasury Department, 1889–91, he was responsible for all federal construction, he designed at least sixteen federal buildings across the country that consolidated post offices, federal offices and federal courts. He returned to his native city, served as Director of Public Works for the City of Philadelphia, 1891-95, he served as president of the Philadelphia Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 1879-86. His son, John T. Windrim, joined his architectural firm in 1882, took over after the father's retirement.
Windrim died in Philadelphia at age 79. Windrim designed the Smith Memorial Arch in West Fairmount Park, which features a bronze bust of him by sculptor Samuel Murray. Philadelphia Masonic Temple, NE corner Broad & Filbert Streets. Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Logan Square. Kemble-Bergdoll Mansion, 2201-05 Green Street. Windrim added the carriage house in 1889. Falls Bridge over Schuylkill River, Fairmount Park, with George S. Webster, chief engineer, City of Philadelphia. Smith Memorial Playground & Playhouse, Reservoir Drive, East Fairmount Park. Smith Memorial Arch, South Concourse & Lansdowne Drive, West Fairmount Park, with John T. Windrim. North American Building, 121 South Broad Street; this was the tallest building in Philadelphia for about a year, until the 1901 completion of City Hall Tower. Commonwealth Title & Trust Company Building, 1201-05 Chestnut Street, with John T. Windrim. Main Building, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 132 South 10th Street. Lafayette Building, NE corner Fifth & Chestnut Streets, with John T. Windrim.
Philadelphia Trust, Safe Deposit and Insurance Company, 415 Chestnut Street. Agricultural Hall, Centennial Exposition, West Fairmount Park. Snellenberg's Department Store, 1100-42 Market Street. Built by the Stephen Girard Estate. Western Saving Fund Society, 1000-08 Walnut Street. Bank of North America, 305-07 Chestnut Street, with John T. Windrim. National Saving And Trust Company, New York Avenue & Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, D. C.. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 401 Carson Street, Carson City, designed by Mifflin E. Bell, completed by Windrim. Altoona Masonic Temple, 1111-19 Eleventh Street, Pennsylvania. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 425 West Main Street, Virginia, with Will A. Freret. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 120 North Duke Street, Pennsylvania. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 1400 Walnut Street, Mississippi. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, Pennsylvania. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, Shelby & Fort Streets, Michigan. U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, 830 Boonville Avenue, Missouri, with Willoughby J. Edbrooke.
U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, California. Works by or about James H. Windrim at Internet Archive James H. Windrim from Philadelphia Architects and Buildings. James H. Windrim at Find a Grave
Alfred B. Mullett
Alfred Bult Mullett was a British-American architect who served from 1866 to 1874 as Supervising Architect, head of the agency of the United States Treasury Department that designed federal government buildings. His work followed trends in Victorian style, evolving from the Greek Revival to Second Empire to Richardsonian Romanesque. Mullett was born at Taunton in England; when he was eight years old, his family emigrated to Glendale, where in 1843 his father bought an 80-acre farm. He matriculated at Farmers' College in College Hill, studied mathematics and mechanical drawing, but left as a sophomore in 1854, he trained in the Cincinnati office of architect Isaiah Rogers and became a partner, until he left on less than friendly terms in 1860, to establish his own practice. His first known individual design is the Church of the New Jerusalem, a board-and-batten Gothic Revival church built at Glendale in 1861. After serving with the Union army, Mullett in 1863 relocated to Washington to again work under Rogers, since 1862 the de facto Supervising Architect at the Treasury Department.
But he undermined his superior's position until an exasperated Rogers resigned in 1865, the year Mullet married Pacific Pearl Myrick. Although dismissed as "an obscure draftsman" from Cincinnati, he used political skill to get appointed Supervising Architect in 1866, so designed fireproof federal buildings across the nation custom houses, post offices and courthouses. Responsible for contracting local architects and/or construction companies to deal with subcontractors, source materials and other matters, he gained a reputation as a micromanaging authoritarian with an explosive temper. Influenced by the 1864–1868 remodeling of the Louvre's Pavillon de Flore by Hector Lefuel and Richard Morris Hunt, Mullett produced six massive fortress-like Second Empire federal buildings in St. Louis, Philadelphia, New York and Washington D. C. where the State and Navy Building rose near the White House. These stone and cast iron structures, with mansard roofs and multiple tiers of columns, were expensive.
He was dogged by accusations of extravagance and subjected to five separate investigations into his ties to the corrupt "Granite Ring". Mullett reluctantly resigned in 1874 while under attack from reforming Treasury Secretary Benjamin Bristow and others, he was investigated for negligence when three men were killed on May 1, 1877 by a floor failure at the City Hall Post Office, New York City. In 1882, he set up a practice in New York with Hugo Kafka and William G. Steinmetz establishing Alfred B. Mullett & Sons to practice with his two elder sons, but the government never paid him for major commissions, he remained a popular political target. The New York Sun called him "the most arrogant and preposterous little humbug in the United States." In 1890, in financial trouble and ill health, Mullett killed himself in Washington. Over his career he produced some 40 government buildings, two of the six huge Second Empire piles remain standing in St. Louis and Washington. During the Modernist period, critics accused him of using overblown ornament to hide weak form.
The New York City Hall Post Office was dubbed "Mullett's monstrosity." Following another shift in popular taste, however, he is recognized for his contribution to monumental Victorian architecture. 1861 — Church of the New Jerusalem, Ohio 1866-1870 — Carson City Mint, Carson City, Nevada 1867 — Courthouse and Post Office, Wisconsin 1867 — Post Office, Maine 1867-1870 — Custom House and Post Office, New York 1868-1871 — Office Building and U. S. Light-House Depot Complex, St. George, Staten Island, New York 1869-1870 - Old Custom House and Post Office Wiscasset, Maine 1869-1873 — Post Office and Sub-Treasury Building Boston, Massachusetts 1869-1874 — San Francisco Mint, San Francisco, California 1869-1880 — City Hall Post Office and Courthouse, New York City 1869-1875 — Pioneer Courthouse, Oregon 1870 — Courthouse and Post Office, South Carolina 1871-1888 — State and Navy Building aka Old Executive Office Building aka Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Washington, D. C. 1871-1881 - U. S. Custom House, Louisiana 1871 — US Assay Office, Idaho 1872 — Custom House and Post Office, Illinois 1872 — US Custom House, Maine 1873-1879 — Post Office and Customs House, Indiana 1873-1884 — Old Post Office, St. Louis, Missouri 1874 — Customs House, Tennessee 1874-1885 — Courthouse and Post Office, Ohio 1874-1884 — Courthouse and Post Office, Pennsylvania 1874-1878 — Federal Building, North Carolina 1876-1879 - Evansville Post Office, Indiana 1877 — Custom House and Post Office, Port Huron, Michigan 1873-1882 — Courthouse and Post Office, Connecticut 1887 - Major General John A. Logan Mausoleum, U.
S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery, Washington, D. C. 1887 — Sun Building, Washington, D. C. for the publisher of the Baltimore Sun newspaper. C. 1889 — Mullett Rowhouses, Washington, D. C. 1890 — Camp House mansion, Tennessee Craig, Lois A. and the staff of the Federal Architecture Project, The Federal Presence: Architecture and National Design, 1972 Mullett, A. B. Diaries & C Annotated Documents and Reminiscence Regarding a Federal Architect Engineer Architect, Mullett Smith Printers, 1985. Smith, D. Mullett. A. B. Mullett: His Relevance in American Archi
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
James A. Wetmore
James Alfonso Wetmore was an American lawyer and administrator, best known as the Acting Supervising Architect of the U. S. Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department from 1915 through 1933. Wetmore is and incorrectly described as the "architect" of the many federal buildings that bear his name, he was a long-time civil servant in the Treasury Department, was not a professional architect. As Supervising Architect, he managed a staff of nearly 1700 architects and draftsmen who designed at least 2000 federal government buildings, including courthouses and post offices. Wetmore grew up in Hornell, he completed high school, worked in the Netherlands and Scotland, as a court stenographer at the Department of the Interior from 1885. He transferred to the Treasury Department in 1893. Wetmore took night classes at George Washington University Law School, earning a degree in 1896, when his position was Assistant Chief Clerk. In November 1896, he was promoted to Head of the Law and Records Division of the Office of the Supervising Architect, within the Treasury Department in Washington, DC by President Grover Cleveland.
He replaced Judge Fleming, removed due to his involvement in the free silver movement. Wetmore held that position until 1911. In June 1907, he was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt, along with four other officials, to a special committee to "fully investigate and examine into the forms of contracts used by the various departments and offices of the government." In 1911, he became the Executive Officer to James Knox Taylor. He was the EO, which put him in charge of all non-technical operations of the office, under Taylor, under his successor Oscar Wenderoth who took over in 1912. For a period in 1912 after the resignation of Taylor, Wetmore was acting Supervising Architect until Wenderoth relocated to Washington. Wenderoth resigned in April 1915 to return to private practice in a firm that specialized in designing bank interiors. Following Wenderoth's departure in 1915, Wetmore was named as the Acting Supervising Architect, he held this position for twenty years, until his retirement in 1933.
He believed the position would be temporary until an architect was selected to be the Supervising Architect. However, he had a thorough understanding of the operation of the office and worked well with its architects which accounted for his remaining in the position. Although outsiders did not always understand why a lawyer was running the office, the duties were administrative. During much of his tenure, Louis A. Simon was responsible for the direction of much of the actual design work. Simon succeeded Wetmore as head of the office. Wetmore was interested in architecture, influenced government building design by promoting standardization. In collaboration with William Gibbs McAdoo, the Secretary of the Treasury from 1913–1918, buildings were to be designed with "scale and finishes" that directly reflected their "location and income"; this push to standardization of public building design was in conflict with the Tarsney Act, which permitted private architects to design federal buildings after being selected in a competition under the supervision of the Supervising Architect.
The act, under which several Taylor-era buildings were designed, was repealed in 1913 as it was felt that designing buildings with government architects would most efficiently cause the desired standardization. As Supervising Architect, he spoke to the Society of Constructors of Federal Buildings, he addressed the 1917 annual convention by reporting that "The Treasury Department completed plans and contracts for a public building every four days and each building has averaged a cost of $50,000." He noted that 90% of these were post offices. Buildings were to be designed with specific criteria. A "Class A" building was one, on a major street of a major city, surrounded by expensive buildings, expected to generate at least $800,000 in revenue; these buildings would have marble or granite exteriors, marble interiors, ornamental bronze, other similar fixtures. A small post office with revenue of under $15,000 would be made of brick, with standard wood windows and doors and would appear "ordinary".
Critics felt. During World War I, much of the work of the office stopped due to the priorities of the war. Construction was postponed except for the completion of building under construction, of new facilities such as hospitals and immigration stations that aided the war effort. At McAdoo's direction, Wetmore tried to keep the staff together but many were lost to the armed forces and other agencies.. Construction resumed, although costs had escalated and buildings could not be constructed at the costs estimated before the war. Work did proceed and the demand for new buildings increased. Wetmore was now serving under Andrew W. Mellon. Mellon, who like Wetmore, was interested in architecture, kept Wetmore in his "acting" position because he "had been ably performing the duties for several years". Wetmore continued to advocate the use of government architects, in opposition to private architects who wanted to be able to work on federal projects, he said the use of private architects was appropriate "only in exceptional cases."
Wetmore was named the chairman of the Federal Real Estate Board after its creation in 1922. The board was created to reduce expenses. Wetmore
United States Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. Established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue, the Treasury prints all paper currency and mints all coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint, respectively. S. government debt instruments. The Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet. Senior advisor to the Secretary is the Treasurer of the United States. Signatures of both officials appear on all Federal Reserve notes; the first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, sworn into office on September 11, 1789. Hamilton was appointed by President George Washington on the recommendation of Robert Morris, Washington's first choice for the position, who had declined the appointment. Hamilton established—almost singlehandedly—the nation's early financial system and for several years was a major presence in Washington's administration.
His portrait appears on the obverse of the ten-dollar bill, while the Treasury Department building is depicted on the reverse. The current Secretary of the Treasury is Steven Mnuchin, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 13, 2017. Jovita Carranza, appointed on April 28, 2017, is the incumbent treasurer; the history of the Department of the Treasury began in the turmoil of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress at Philadelphia deliberated the crucial issue of financing a war of independence against Great Britain. The Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments; the delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, promising redemption in coin on faith in the revolutionary cause. On June 22, 1775—only a few days after the Battle of Bunker Hill—Congress issued $2 million in bills. On July 29, 1775, the Second Continental Congress assigned the responsibility for the administration of the revolutionary government's finances to joint Continental treasurers George Clymer and Michael Hillegas.
The Congress stipulated. To ensure proper and efficient handling of the growing national debt in the face of weak economic and political ties between the colonies, the Congress, on February 17, 1776, designated a committee of five to superintend the Treasury, settle accounts, report periodically to the Congress. On April 1, a Treasury Office of Accounts, consisting of an Auditor General and clerks, was established to facilitate the settlement of claims and to keep the public accounts for the government of the United Colonies. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the newborn republic as a sovereign nation was able to secure loans from abroad. Despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans, the united colonies were unable to establish a well-organized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14, 1777; the Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million in paper Continental bills devalued rapidly.
By May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies, giving rise to the expression "not worth a Continental". Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nation's finances. Morris, a wealthy colonial merchant, was nicknamed "the Financier" because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moment's notice, his staff included a comptroller, a treasurer, a register, auditors, who managed the country's finances through 1784, when Morris resigned because of ill health. The treasury board, consisting of three commissioners, continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789; the First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4, 1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. On September 2, 1789, Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be a Department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department.
Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. Hamilton had served as George Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolution and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution; because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a logical choice for solving the problem of the new nation's heavy war debt. Hamilton's first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the nation's financial health. To the surprise of many legislators, he insisted upon federal assumption and dollar-for-dollar repayment of the country's $75 million debt in order to revitalize the public credit: "he debt of the United States was the price of liberty; the faith of America has been pledged for it, with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation." Hami
Robert Mills (architect)
Robert Mills, a South Carolina architect known for designing both the first Washington Monument, located in Baltimore, Maryland, as well as the better known monument to the first president in the nation's capital, Washington, DC. He is sometimes said to be the first native-born American to be professionally trained as an architect.} Charles Bulfinch of Boston has a clearer claim to this honor. Mills studied in Charleston, South Carolina, as a student of Irish architect James Hoban, worked with him on his commission for the White House; this became the official home of US presidents. Both Hoban and Mills were Freemasons. Mills studied and worked with Benjamin Henry Latrobe of Philadelphia, he designed numerous buildings in Philadelphia and South Carolina, where he was appointed as superintendent of public buildings. His Washington Monument in Washington, DC was not completed until 30 years after his death. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, to Ann and William Mills, Robert received private education as a child.
He attended the College of Charleston, where he graduated at age 19. He had studied with Irish architect James Hoban. Mills followed his mentor Hoban to Washington, DC, as he had gotten the commission for design and construction of the White House in the new capital. During this time, Mills met Thomas Jefferson, who became the first full-term resident of the new presidential residence. In 1802 Mills moved to Philadelphia, where he became an associate and student of Benjamin Henry Latrobe; some Philadelphia buildings that Mills designed are Washington Hall, Samson Street Baptist Church, the Octagon Church for the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia. He designed the Upper Ferry Bridge covering. Mills designed the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, Georgia in 1807, built between 1809 and 1812. In 1808 Mills created blueprints for a prison to be used for reform of prisoners. In 1811 the prison was constructed in New Jersey. "With the possible' exception of Eastern States Penitentiary in Philadelphia, it is considered "the most significant prison building in the United States", according to the Historic Burlington County Prison Museum Association.
In 1812, Mills designed the Monumental Church in Virginia. It was built to commemorate the deaths of 72 people in the Richmond Theatre fire. Moving to Baltimore, Mills designed St. John's Episcopal Church, the Maryland House of Industry, the First Baptist Church of Baltimore in 1817, a Greek Revival mansion at the northeast corner of West Franklin and Cathedral streets; the mansion was occupied from 1857 to 1892 by the Maryland Club, a dining and leisure society of Southern-leaning gentlemen. Mills is noted for designing the nation's first Washington Monument, located in Baltimore with four surrounding park squares; these were named Washington Place along the north-south axis of North Charles Street, Mount Vernon Place along East and West Monument streets. This development took place in the new Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood; this land had belonged been part of Howard's Woods, the country estate and mansion "Belvedere" of Col. John Eager Howard, north of old Baltimore Town. Howard was a Revolutionary War commander of the famed "Maryland Line" regiment of the Continental Army.
Construction on Baltimore's signature landmark began in 1815 and was completed in 1829. In 1820, Mills was appointed as acting commissioner of the Board of Public Works in South Carolina. In 1823, he was the superintendent of public buildings. In the next few years, he designed numerous buildings in South Carolina, including court houses, the campus of the University of South Carolina and the Fireproof Building in Charleston. In 1825, he wrote an Atlas of the State of South Carolina. One year he published Statistics of South Carolina, he reputedly designed the Old Horry County Courthouse, Union County Jail, Wilson House, which have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1836 Robert Mills won the competition for the design of the Washington Monument on the future Mall of the National Capital, Washington D. C; this is his best known work. Construction began in 1848, but was interrupted in 1854 and postponed by the outbreak of the American Civil War. Construction of the monument resumed in 1879 after the Reconstruction era.
It was dedicated in thirty years after the architect's death. He designed the Department of Treasury building, east of the Executive Mansion, several other federal buildings in Washington, D. C. including the U. S. Patent Office Building, patterned after the Parthenon, it has been renovated and adapted as two adjoining museums of the Smithsonian Institution: the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery). He designed the old General Post Office. In South Carolina, Mills designed county courthouses in at least 18 counties, some of the public buildings in the capital Columbia, a few private homes, he designed portions of the Landsford Canal in Chester County, on the Catawba River in South Carolina. Mills was an early advocate of fireproof construction; when a fire broke out in the Kingstree, South Carolina Building, which he designed, the county records on the first floor were protected due to his fireproofing measures. But a fire destroyed much of his Lancaster County, South Carolina Courthouse in August 2008.
Mills died in Washington, D. C. in 1855. He was buried there at the Congressional Cemetery. Mills was inducted into the South Carolina Business Hall of Fame in 2007; the broadest context for Mills' architecture wa