United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory office and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services, the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, specifically enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in beforementioned section are, organizing, equipping, training and demobilizing. The Secretary oversees the construction and repair of ships, equipment. The Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, the CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary. The United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps
The Basic School
The Basic School is where all newly commissioned and appointed United States Marine Corps officers are taught the basics of being an Officer of Marines. The Basic School is at Camp Barrett, Virginia, each year over 1,700 new officers are trained, representing such diverse commissioning sources as the U. S. The Schools Five Horizontal Themes define the expectations of student officer at TBS. They are, A Man or Woman of Exemplary Character Has a clear understanding that a Marine commission brings with it special trust and confidence and the highest expectations of the American people. Most officers attend BOC as a second lieutenant immediately after commissioning at OCS or within a few months of graduation, some newly commissioned officers may serve a short period of time in an interim assignment before beginning TBS/BOC. The Officer Basic Course currently lasts 28 weeks, during which new officers receive classroom, classroom events include platform instruction, tactical decision games, sand table exercises, decision-forcing cases, and small group discussions.
There are various events, beginning with fireteam and squad level. The field events consist of realistic training and live fire ranges. They are assigned to India Company at Camp Barrett, sergeants or Staff NCOs who are selected are given additional leadership and management training during the Warrant Officer Basic Course. Graduates of the BOC who are selected for an infantry MOS remain at TBS for the twelve-week Infantry Officer Course, officers selected to serve in a Light Armored Reconnaissance battalion complete an additional six-week LAR crewman course conducted at the School of Infantry
A non-commissioned officer or noncommissioned officer is a military officer who has not earned a commission. Such is called sub-officer in some countries, Non-commissioned officers, in the English-speaking world, usually obtain their position of authority by promotion through the enlisted ranks. In contrast, commissioned officers hold higher ranks than NCOs, have more legal responsibilities, are paid more, commissioned officers usually earn their commissions without having risen through the enlisted ranks. Mustang is a term in the United States Armed Forces used to refer to a commissioned officer who began his or her career as an enlisted service member. The NCO corps usually includes all grades of corporal and sergeant, in some countries, the naval equivalent includes some or all grades of petty officer, although not all navies class their petty officers as NCOs. There are different classes of non-commissioned officer, including junior non-commissioned officers, the non-commissioned officer corps is often referred to as the backbone of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel.
Additionally, they are the leaders responsible for executing a military organizations mission. NCO training and education typically includes leadership and management as well as service-specific, senior NCOs are considered the primary link between enlisted personnel and the commissioned officers in a military organization. Their advice and guidance is important for junior officers, who begin their careers in a position of authority. In the Australian Army, Lance corporals and corporals are classified as junior NCOs, while sergeants, in the New South Wales Police Force, NCOs perform supervisory and coordination roles. The ranks of probationary constable through to leading senior constable are referred to as constables, all NCOs within the NSW Police are given a warrant of appointment under the Commissioners hand and seal. All officers within the Australian Defence Force Cadets are non-commissioned, ADFC officers are appointed by the Director-General of their respective branch. In the Canadian Forces, the Queens Regulations and Orders formally defined a non-commissioned officer as A Canadian Forces member holding the rank of Sergeant or Corporal.
In the 1990s, the term non-commissioned member was introduced to all ranks in the Canadian Forces from recruit to chief warrant officer. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the definition of NCO reflects the international use of the term. Junior Non-commissioned officers mess and billet with privates and seamen, their mess is usually referred to as the junior ranks mess, as a group, NCOs rank above privates and below warrant officers. The term non-commissioned members includes these ranks, in the Finnish Defence Force, NCOs includes all ranks from corporal to sergeant major. Ranks of lance corporal and leading seaman are considered not to be NCO ranks and this ruling applies to all branches of service and to the troops of the Border Guard
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, United States. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to historic sites, buildings. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis. Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress, students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation, approximately 1,200 plebes enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer, but only about 1,000 midshipmen graduate. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the according to starting salary. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academys Honor Concept, the United States Naval Academys campus is located in Annapolis, Maryland, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay.
In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as the No.1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 9th best overall liberal arts college in the U. S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, Military Academy and the U. S. Air Force Academy, and is tied for the No.5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U. S. Naval Academy as No.24 overall in its report Americas Top Colleges, nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must pass a fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes, the U. S. government pays for tuition and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015, from this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses.
Midshipmen only receive a portion of their pay in cash while the rest is released during firstie year. Midshipmen fourth-class to midshipmen second-class receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses. Students at the academy are addressed as Midshipman, an official military rank. The same term comprises both males and females, upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot, they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries
Officer Candidate School (United States Navy)
The United States Navys Officer Candidate School provides initial training for officers of the line and select operational Staff Corps communities in the United States Navy. Along with United States Naval Academy and Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps, qualified U. S. citizens who hold a bachelors degree meet with an Officer Recruiter and prepare packages for consideration. Officer Candidates are already associated with a designator when they begin their training at OCS and this is in contrast to USNA and NROTC, where trainees are not associated with a community until soon before commissioning. OCS classes are numbered by the fiscal year of their graduation. All those in training at OCS are mustered at the pay grade of E-5 unless they are prior enlisted already holding a higher pay grade, while attending OCS the students hold a special title known as Officer Candidate. Officer Candidate uniforms are similar to those worn at NROTC programs and USNA, Candidates who do not meet milestones can be held back in training or removed from the program.
Adherence to a Code of Honor is mandatory, violators are removed, upon successful completion of the 12-week course the candidates are commissioned as active duty Ensigns in the United States Navy. The new officers join their predetermined designator communities and are eligible for orders to the fleet or follow-on training. Originally, the Navy operated two officer candidate programs, Officer Candidate School at Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island, and Aviation Officer Candidate School at NAS Pensacola, Florida. During the summer months, AVROC classes would typically enter every other week, for AVROCs, the advantage of their program was that their Pay Entry Base Date was adjusted to the day they signed up for the AVROC program, typically two to three years before their commissioning. As a result, when they were commissioned, they received a higher base pay rate reflecting two to three years of service versus their traditional non-prior service AOCS counterparts. AVROCs were otherwise indiscernible from traditional AOCs, another subset of the traditional AOCs was the Naval Aviation Cadet Program.
NavCads, who had some college, but typically lacked a degree, completed the entire AOCS curriculum. AOCS stopped taking NavCad civilian and enlisted candidates in 1968 and the program was discontinued, AOCS was a department of the Naval Aviation Schools Command and organized as a regiment with three battalions until just following the Vietnam War, when it was reduced in size to two battalions. Each battalion consisted of several AOCS classes graduating every two to three weeks, like OCS, AOCS emphasized Leadership and Military training. Unlike OCS, AOCS classes were numbered by graduation date in the calendar, in September 2007, OCS returned to Newport as a result of the 2005 BRAC Commission. Tradition dictated that when AOCS graduates were commissioned, the first salute they received was from their former Marine Corps Drill Instructor, when AOCS and OCS merged, the unified OCS program retained the Marine Corps tradition alongside Navy Recruit Division Commanders. This continuing Marine presence is the origin of the slogan Navy owned, Marine Corps trained, the 1982 film An Officer and a Gentleman is set at AOCS on a fictional naval air station in Washington state
II Marine Expeditionary Force
II MEF falls under the command of U. S. Marine Corps Forces Command, and is a service retained force, meaning it is not assigned or allocated to any of the Geographic Combatant Commands. However, II MEF regularly provides subordinate units in support of operations, european Command, U. S. Africa Command, and U. S. Southern Command Areas of Responsibility, as well as in support of other U. S. unified, II MEF units are available for and prepared to respond to contingency requirements worldwide. The size and composition of any MAGTF will be dependent upon the mission assigned, one mission that could be assigned to the MEB would be assignment for planning and utilization of equipment stored aboard Maritime Prepositioning Ships. At the same time, tactical aircraft of the MEB are flight ferried to an airfield in or near the area of operation, the MEB can be sustained for 30 days by the supplies aboard the ships. The only routinely deployed MAGTFs, the 22d, 24th and 26th MEUs deploy on a basis to the Mediterranean Sea area to serve as the landing force for the Commander.
Following a 2010-11 force structure review, II MEF is the only force in the Marine Corps presently commanded by a two-star general officer. Smith Hall Globalsecurity. org II MEFs official website
United States Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test
The United States Marine Corps requires that all Marines perform a Physical Fitness Test and a Combat Fitness Test once per calendar year. Each test must have an interval of 6 months, the PFT ensures that Marines are keeping physically fit and in a state of physical readiness. It consists of pull-ups or push-ups, crunches and a 3-mile run, on 1 October 2008 the Marine Corps introduced the additional pass/fail Combat Fitness Test to the fitness requirements. The CFT is designed to measure abilities demanded of Marines in a war zone, for this test, Marines choose to either perform pull-ups or push-ups. However, the score is only attainable if pull-ups are chosen. The pull-ups may be done with either an overhand grip or an underhand chin-up grip, changes in grip are allowed as long as the feet dont touch the ground and only the hands come in contact with the pull-up bar. The pull-up begins at the dead-hang with arms extended and the body hanging motionless, a successful pull-up is performed without excess motion, the body rising until the chin is above the bar, and body lowered back to the dead-hang position.
Until 2017, male marines were required to perform pull-ups, the flexed hang was started with the chin above the pull-up bar. The timer was started and did not stop until the arms fully extended. The feet could not touch the ground or any part of the bar at any time. The Marine Corps had originally indicated that, as of January 1,2014, when more than half of female recruits were unable to meet this standard, the change was delayed. In 2017, the flexed-arm hang event was be eliminated, crunches are executed while lying on the back with the feet flat on the ground together or 12 inches apart, knees bent at a 90 degree angle, and arms on the ribcage or chest. One crunch is completed when the body is lifted until both arms touch the thighs and lowered until the shoulder blades touch the ground. The arms must be in constant contact with the chest or rib cage, the exercise is performed with the heels of the feet kept in constant contact with the ground. The Marine is given two minutes to complete as many crunches as possible, the Marine runs three miles on reasonably flat ground.
The 3 miles is approximately 5 kilometers, the scoring for each part of the test is dependent upon a Marines sex and age group. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
In many institutional contexts this kind of relation transgresses legal, moral or professional norms forbidding certain categories of social contact across socially or legally defined classes. The term often therefore tends to connote impropriety, unprofessionalism or unethical behavior, a vast number of institutions worldwide implement policies forbidding forms of fraternization for many specific reasons. Views on fraternization are mixed and may depend on the relations, organizations may relax, change, or reinforce restrictions to reflect changes in the prevailing organizational view or doctrine regarding fraternization. Within militaries and members of enlisted ranks are typically prohibited from personally associating outside of their professional duties, excessively familiar relationships between officers of different ranks may be considered fraternization, especially when between officers in the same chain of command. The Christmas Truce was an instance of fraternization in World War I.
In order to impress the German people with the Allied opinion of them, a strict policy was adhered to by General Dwight D. Eisenhower. However, thanks to pressure from the U. S. State Department and individual U. S. congressmen, in June 1945 the prohibition against speaking with German children was made less strict. In July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain circumstances, in September the no contact policy was abandoned in Austria and Germany. In the earliest stages of the occupation U. S. soldiers were not allowed to pay maintenance for a child they admitted having fathered, marriages between U. S. soldiers and Austrian women were not permitted until January 1946, and with German women until December 1946. The British military had a ban in place for their troops during the Allied occupation. In spite of the ban, soldiers still knowingly had contact with local women, field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, Eisenhowers counterpart, was against the ban and it was lifted in July 1945.
These prohibitions are controversial, however, as they may come into conflict with rules on tenure, court decisions in some U. S. states have allowed employers a limited legal right to enforce non-fraternization policies among employees. Professional and college-level sports teams in the U. S. have enacted anti-fraternization policies between athletes and cheerleaders, very few American Football teams allow casual contacts between players and cheerleaders. Reasons for this policy include interference with concentration, potential fallout for the images of teams, and the possibility of sex crimes or sexual harassment, and attendant legal liability