Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement. "Marshal" is an ancient loanword from Norman French, which in turn is borrowed from Old Frankish *marhskalk, being still evident in Middle Dutch maerscalc, in modern Dutch maarschalk. It is cognate with Old High German mar-scalc "id.", modern German Marschall. It and meant "horse servant", from Germanic *marha- "horse" and *skalk- "servant"; this "horse servant" origin is retained in the current French name for farrier: maréchal-ferrant. The late Roman and Byzantine title of comes stabuli was a calque of the Germanic, which became Old French conestable and modern connétable, borrowed from the Old French, the English word "constable". In Byzantium, a marshal with elevated authority, notably a borderlands military command, was known as an exarch.
In many countries, the rank of marshal, cf. field marshal, is the highest army rank, outranking other general officers. The equivalent navy rank is admiral of the fleet. Marshals are but not appointed only in wartime. In many countries in Europe, the special symbol of a marshal is a baton, their insignia incorporate batons. In some countries, the term "marshal" is used instead of "general" in the higher air force ranks; the four highest Royal Air Force ranks are marshal of the Royal Air Force, air chief marshal, air marshal and air vice marshal. The five-star rank of marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth and Middle Eastern air forces. In the French Army and most National Armies modeled upon the French system, maréchal des logis is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant; some historical rulers have used special "marshal" titles to reward certain subjects. Though not military ranks, these honorary titles have been bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous grand marshal of Ayacucho Antonio José de Sucre.
Most famous are the Marshals of France, not least under Napoléon I. Another such title was that of Reichsmarschall, bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title as it had been "invented" for Göring, the only titleholder in history. In England during the First Barons' War the title "Marshal of the Army of God" was bestowed upon Robert Fitzwalter by election. Both the Soviet Union and Russia have army general as well as "marshal" in their rank system, the latter being an honorary rank; the following articles discuss the rank of marshal as used by specific countries: Feldmarschall and Feldmarschalleutnant Marshal of Bolivia Marshal Marshal Rigsmarsk Marshal of the German Democratic Republic Marshal of Finland France Marshal of France Marshal-of-Lodgings German Empire Generalfeldmarschall Japan Shōgun Italy Marshal of Italy Marshal – a warrant officer rank Land marshal of the Livonian Order Marshal of the Mongolian People's Republic Marshal Marshal of the air force Marshal of Paraguay Marshal of Peru Marszałek Polski Marshal Mareşal Field Marshal Marshal of the Russian Federation The Soviet Union had three marshals ranks: Marshal of the Soviet Union Chief marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches: the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops.
Marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches – the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops. Marshal of the branch is considered equivalent to the rank general of the army, used in the infantry and the marines. Mareşal Field marshal, marshal of the Royal Air Force Marshal of Venezuela Marshal of Yugoslavia See also: Mariscal and the upper condestable These ranks are considered the equivalent to a marshal: Chom Phon General of the army, fleet admiral and general of the Air Force Arteshbod Mushir Protostrator Stratarches Vojvoda Vrhovnik Wonsu Yuan Shuai Sima Gensui Nguyên soái or Thống chế The name is applied to the leader of military police organizations. Provost marshal – a term used in many countries Provost Marshal General – head of the military police in the United States Usually in monarchies, one or several of the senior digni
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Catholic Church. An archdeacon is responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, the principal subdivision of the diocese; the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as "A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese." The office has been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the "bishop's eye". In the Latin Catholic Church, the post of archdeacon an ordained deacon, was once one of great importance as a senior official of a diocese; the duties are now performed by officials such as auxiliary or coadjutor bishops, the vicar general, the episcopal vicars.
The title remains. The term "archdeacon" appears for the first time in Optatus of Mileve's history of Donatism of about 370, in which he applies it to someone who lived at the beginning of that century. From the office of the diaconus episcopi, a deacon whom the bishop selected to administer the church's finances under the bishop's personal direction, the office of archdeacon developed, as certain functions were reserved to him by law; these functions included not only financial administration but the discipline of the clergy, examination of candidates for priesthood. From the 8th century, there was in the West a further development of the authority of the archdeacon, who now enjoyed a jurisdiction independent of the bishop. Large dioceses had several archdeaconries, in each of which the archdeacon, had an authority comparable to that of the bishop, they were appointed not by the bishop but by the cathedral chapter or the king. However, from the 13th century, efforts were made to limit their authority.
This was effected in part by the institution of the new office of vicar general, who would be a priest rather than a deacon. In 1553, the Council of Trent removed the independent powers of archdeacons. Those, in charge of different parts of the diocese ceased to be appointed. Only the archdeacon associated with the cathedral chapter continued to exist as an empty title, with duties entirely limited to liturgical functions; the title of archdeacon is still conferred on a canon of various cathedral chapters, the word "archdeacon" has been defined in relation to the Latin Catholic Church as "a title of honour conferred only on a member of a cathedral chapter". However, Eastern Catholic Churches still utilize archdeacons. Archdeacons serve the church within a diocese by taking particular responsibility for buildings, including church buildings, the welfare of clergy and their families and the implementation of diocesan policy for the sake of the Gospel within an archdeaconry. An archdeaconry is a territorial division of a diocese.
This type of dual role has only existed in the Bishop suffragan of Ludlow. An archdeacon is styled The Venerable instead of the usual clerical style of The Reverend. In the Church of England the position of an archdeacon can only be held by a priest, ordained for at least six years. In the Church of England, the legal act by which a priest becomes an archdeacon is called a collation. If that archdeaconry is annexed to a canonry of the cathedral, the archdeacon will be installed at that cathedral. In some other Anglican churches archdeacons can be deacons instead of priests; the Anglican ordinal presupposes that the functions of archdeacons include those of examining candidates for ordination and presenting them to the ordaining bishop. In some parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be consecrated as bishops, the position of archdeacon is the most senior office a female cleric can hold: this being the current situation, for example, in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. "lay archdeacons" have been appointed, most notably in the case of the former Anglican Communion Observer to the United Nations, Archdeacon Taimalelagi Fagamalama Tuatagoloa-Leota, who retained her title after having served as Archdeacon of Samoa.
In the Eastern Christian churches, an archdeacon is the senior deacon within a diocese and has responsibility for serving at hierarchical services. He has responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the service by directing the clergy and servers as appropriate; as such, he travels with the ruling bishop to various parts of the diocese, will sometimes act as his secretary and cell attendant, ensuring that he is able to balance his monastic life with his hierarchical duties. The archdeacon wears the double orarion, twice the length of the usual orarion, wraps under the right arm as well as hanging from the left shoulder. An archdeacon may come from either the married clergy. A protodeacon w
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary in different jurisdictions. A constable is the rank of an officer within the police. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title; the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli and originated from the Roman Empire. The title was imported to the monarchies of medieval Europe, in many countries developed into a high military rank and great officer of State. Most constables in modern jurisdictions are law enforcement officers. However, in the Channel Islands a constable is an elected office-holder at the parish level. A constable could refer to a castellan, the officer charged with the defense of a castle. Today, there is a Constable of the Tower of London. An equivalent position is that of Marshal, which derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", meant "stable keeper", which has a similar etymology. In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank in most police services.
It is categorised into the following from lowest to highest: probationary constable, constable first class, senior constable, leading senior constable. These variations depend on the individual state/territory police force in question. Senior constable refers to a police officer of the rank above constable and is denoted by way of two chevrons/stripes; the New South Wales Police Force has three grades of senior constable, namely senior constable, incremental senior constable and leading senior constable. A senior constable is senior to a constable but junior to an incremental senior constable. Promotion to senior constable can occur after a minimum of five years service, one year as a probationary constable in addition to four years as constable and upon passing probity checks and an exam. Incremental senior constable is attained after ten years of service automatically. One is appointed the rank of leading senior constable on a qualification basis but must have a minimum of seven years service amongst other criteria in order to be eligible.
Leading senior constable is a specialist position of which there are limited allocated numbers within any section/unit or local area command. If an officer is transferred to another duty type or station, the officer is relieved of the position of leading senior constable, it is a position for field training officers who oversee the training and development of inexperienced probationary constables or constables. Within Victoria Police, a senior constable is the rank above a constable while above a senior constable is a leading senior constable; when first introduced into Victoria Police, the leading senior constable was a classification not a rank, somewhat like "detective". Leading senior constables were appointed to assist in the training and mentoring of more junior members; the last round of wage negotiations however saw leading senior constable become a rank in its own right, one that a lot of members will pass on their way from constable to sergeant though it is not necessary and is permissible to be promoted to sergeant direct from senior constable.
The general form of address for both senior constable and leading senior constable is "senior" and this is acceptable in courts. In Canada, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank with most law enforcement services, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In Newfoundland the provincial police are the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary whereby all officers are addressed by the term "constable". In addition, the chief officers of some municipal police services in Canada, notably Vancouver Police Department, carry the title of chief constableIn Canadian French, constable is translated to agent, except in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where it is translated as gendarme.) Appointments can further be separated into: Special constables RCMP special constables are appointed for specific skills, for example, aboriginal language skills. They are peace officers under the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. Outside of the RCMP, special constables are not police officers but are appointed to serve certain law enforcement functions.
For example, SPCA agents or court/jail security officers. Auxiliary constables, or reserve constables, are volunteers with a policing agency, they only have peace officer status when engaged in specific authorized tasks only. Provincial civil constables deal with matters of a civil nature. In the Danish armed forces the ranks "Konstabel", "Overkonstabel" and "Overkonstabel af 1. Grad" are used for professional enlisted soldiers and airmen; the rank is more or less equal to a Private, Private 1st class and Lance corporal but higher than the rank "menig" which translates into "private" and only applies to drafted soldiers. In the Finnish Police, the lowest rank of police
Ham is pork from a leg cut, preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without smoking. As a processed meat, the term "ham" includes both whole cuts of meat and ones that have been mechanically formed. Ham is made around the world, including a number of coveted regional specialties, such as Westphalian ham and some varieties of Spanish jamón. In addition, numerous ham products have specific geographical naming protection, such as Prosciutto di Parma and Prosciutto Toscano in Europe, Smithfield ham in the US; the preserving of pork leg as ham has a long history, with Cato the Elder writing about the "salting of hams" in his De Agri Cultura tome around 160 BC. There are claims. Larousse Gastronomique claims an origin from Gaul, it was well established by the Roman period, as evidenced by an import trade from Gaul mentioned by Marcus Terentius Varro in his writings. The modern word "ham" is derived from the Old English ham or hom meaning the hollow or bend of the knee, from a Germanic base where it meant "crooked".
It began to refer to the cut of pork derived from the hind leg of a pig around the 15th century. Because of the preservation process, ham is a compound foodstuff or ingredient, being made up of the original meat, as well as the remnants of the preserving agent, such as salt, but it is still recognised as a food in its own right. Ham is produced by curing raw pork by salting known as dry curing, or brining known as wet curing. Additionally, smoking may be employed. Besides salt, several ingredients may be used to obtain flavoring and preservation, from black pepper to saffron. Traditional dry cure hams may use only salt as the curative agent, such as with San Daniele or Parma hams, although this is comparatively rare; this process involves cleaning the raw meat, covering it in salt while it is pressed draining all the blood. Specific herbs and spices may be used to add flavour during this step; the hams are washed and hung in a dark, temperature-regulated place until dry. It is hung to air for another period of time.
The duration of the curing process varies by the type of ham, for example, Serrano ham curing in 9–12 months, Parma hams taking more than 12 months, Iberian ham taking up to 2 years to reach the desired flavour characteristics. Some dry cured hams, such as the Jinhua ham, take 8 to 10 months to complete. Most modern dry cure hams use nitrites, which are added along with the salt. Nitrates are used because they prevent bacterial growth and, in a reaction with the meat's myoglobin, give the product a desirable dark red color; the amount and mixture of salt and nitrites used have an effect on the shrinkage of the meat. Because of the toxicity of nitrite, some areas specify a maximum allowable content of nitrite in the final product. Under certain conditions during cooking, nitrites in meat can react with degradation products of amino acids, forming nitrosamines, which are known carcinogens; the dry curing of ham involves a number of enzymatic reactions. The enzymes involved are exopeptidases; these enzymes cause proteolysis of muscle tissue, which creates large numbers of small peptides and free amino acids, while the adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to create free fatty acids.
Salt and phosphates act as strong inhibitors of proteolytic activity. Animal factors influencing enzymatic activity include age and breed. During the process itself, conditions such as temperature, water content, redox potential, salt content all have an effect; the salt content in dry-cured ham varies throughout a piece of meat, with gradients determinable through sampling and testing or non-invasively through CT scanning. Wet-cured hams are brined, which involves the immersion of the meat in a brine, sometimes with other ingredients such as sugar added for flavour. Meat is kept in the brine for around 3 to 14 days. Wet curing has the effect of increasing volume and weight of the finished product, by about 4%; the wet curing process can be achieved by pumping the curing solution into the meat. This can be quicker, increase the weight of the finished product by more than immersion, ensure a more distribution of salt through the meat; this process is quicker than traditional brining being completed in a few days.
Ham can be additionally preserved through smoking, in which the meat is placed in a smokehouse to be cured by the action of smoke. The main flavor compounds of smoked ham are guaiacol, its 4-, 5-, 6-methyl derivatives as well as 2,6-dimethylphenol; these compounds are produced by combustion of lignin, a major constituent of wood used in the smokehouse. In many countries the term is now protected with a specific definition. For instance, in the United States, the Code of Federal Regulations says that "the word'ham', without any prefix indicating the species of animal from which derived, shall be used in labeling only in connection with the hind legs of swine". In addition to the main categories, some processing choices can affect legal labeling. For instance, in the United States, a "smoked" ham must have been smoked by hanging over burning wood chips in a smokehouse or an atomized spray of liquid smoke such that the product appearance is equivalent. However, injecting "smoke flavor" is not legal grounds for claiming the ham was "smoked".
Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, was destroyed by the Mamluks, its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade; this second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin. At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade, but at its height in the mid-12th century, the kingdom encompassed the territory of modern-day Israel and the southern parts of Lebanon.
From the Mediterranean Sea, the kingdom extended in a thin strip of land from Beirut in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located further north: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli. While all three were independent, they were tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and west lay the states of Armenian Cilicia and the Byzantine Empire, with which Jerusalem had a close relationship in the twelfth century. Further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad; the fragmentation of the Muslim east allowed for the initial success of the crusade, but as the 12th century progressed, the kingdom's Muslim neighbours were united by Nur ad-Din Zangi and Saladin, who vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast.
In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, another crusader state founded during the Third Crusade. Dynastic ties strengthened with Tripoli and Armenia; the kingdom was soon dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. Emperor Frederick II claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a civil war among the kingdom's nobility; the kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian and Mongol invaders. As a minor kingdom, it received little financial or military support from Europe; the Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291. The kingdom was ethnically and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority, they imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, there were close familial and political connections with the West throughout the kingdom's existence.
The kingdom inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians Greek and Syriac Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims; the native Christians and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders, who came from France, spoke French. There were a small number of Jews and Samaritans. According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, there were 1,000 Samaritans in Nablus, 200 in Caesarea and 300 in Ascalon. Since sets a lower bound for the Samaritan population at 1,500, since the contemporary Tolidah, a Samaritan chronicle mentions communities in Gaza and Acre. Benjamin of Tudela estimated the total Jewish population of 14 cities in the kingdom to be 1,200, making the Samaritan population of the time larger than the Jewish for the only time in history; the First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.
However, the main objective became the control of the Holy Land. The Byzantines were at war with the Seljuks and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria; the Sunni Seljuks had ruled the Great Seljuk Empire, but this empire had collapsed into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in 1092. Malik-Shah was succeeded in the Anatolian Sultanate of Rûm by Kilij Arslan I, in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul; this disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimid Caliphate, which had extended further into Syria before the arrival of the Seljuks. Warfare between
Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya and lends the modern city its name. Antioch was founded near the end of the fourth century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals; the city's geographical and economic location benefited its occupants such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Royal Road. It rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East; the city was the capital of the Seleucid Empire until 63 B. C. when the Romans took control. From the early 4th century the city was the seat of the Count of the Orient, head of the regional administration of sixteen provinces, it was the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch was one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean of Rome's dominions, it covered 1,100 acres within the walls of which one quarter was mountain, leaving 750 acres about one-fifth the area of Rome within the Aurelian Walls.
Antioch was called "the cradle of Christianity" as a result of its longevity and the pivotal role that it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity. The Christian New Testament asserts, it was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, its residents were known as Antiochenes. The city was a metropolis of a quarter million people during Augustan times, but it declined to relative insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes, a change in trade routes, which no longer passed through Antioch from the far east following the Mongol invasions and conquests. Two routes from the Mediterranean, lying through the Orontes gorge and the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain of the Antioch Lake and are met there by the road from the Amanian Gate and western Commagene, which descends the valley of the Karasu River to the Afrin River, the roads from eastern Commagene and the Euphratean crossings at Samosata and Apamea Zeugma, which descend the valleys of the Afrin and the Quweiq rivers, the road from the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the fringe of the Syrian steppe.
A single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley. The settlement called Meroe pre-dated Antioch. A shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by Herodotus the "Persian Artemis", was located here; this site was included in the eastern suburbs of Antioch. There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Iopolis; this name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians—an eagerness, illustrated by the Athenian types used on the city's coins. Io may have been a small early colony of trading Greeks. John Malalas mentions an archaic village, Bottia, in the plain by the river. Alexander the Great is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, dedicated an altar to Zeus Bottiaeus; this account is found only in the writings of Libanius, a 4th-century orator from Antioch, may be legend intended to enhance Antioch's status. But the story is not unlikely in itself. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, his generals divided up the territory. After the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, he proceeded to found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of, Antioch, a city named in honor of his father Antiochus.
He is reputed to have built sixteen Antiochs. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the twelfth year of his reign. Antioch soon rose above Seleucia Pieria to become the Syrian capital; the original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria by the architect Xenarius. Libanius describes the first arrangement of this city; the citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay on the low ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out on the east and by Antiochus I, from an expression of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town, it was enclosed by a wall of its own. In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, on this Seleucus II Callinicus began a third walled "city", finished by Antiochus III.
A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. From west to east the whole was about 6 kilometres in diameter and a little less from north to south; this area included many large gardens. The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia and Jews; the total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers. During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch's population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants and was the third largest city in the Empire after Rome and Alexandria. In the second half o
County of Tripoli
The County of Tripoli was the last of the Crusader states. It was founded in the Levant in the modern-day region of Tripoli, northern Lebanon and parts of western Syria which supported an indigenous population of Christians and Muslims; when the Christian Crusaders – Frankish forces – captured the region in 1109, Bertrand of Toulouse became the first Count of Tripoli as a vassal of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem. From that time, the rule of the county was decided not by inheritance but by factors such as military force and negotiation. In 1289 the County of Tripoli fell to Sultan Qalawun of the Muslim Mamluks of Cairo; the county was absorbed into Mamluk Egypt. Raymond IV of Toulouse was one of the most powerful of the Prince Crusaders. So, after the First Crusade, he had failed to secure any land holdings in the Near East. Meanwhile, the County of Edessa, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Principality of Antioch had been established. Tripoli was an important strategic goal as it linked the French in the south with the Normans in the north.
It was a well populated area. In 1102, Raymond IV occupied Tortosa and in 1103, he prepared, together with veterans of the 1101 crusade, to take Tripoli. On a natural ridge, which he named "Mons Peregrinus", 3 kilometres from Tripoli, Raymond IV began the construction of a large castle, known in Arabic as Qal'at Sanjil. Despite this new fortress and seasoned troops, Raymond IV's siege of Tripoli failed to secure the port, he died on 25 February 1105. Count William of Cerdagne, Raymond IV's cousin and comrade, was supported by Tancred, Prince of Galilee, but his succession in the Tripoli campaign was challenged by Raymond IV's illegitimate son, Bertrand of Toulouse. Bertrand of Toulouse, supported by Baldwin I of Jerusalem, arrived in the Near East with a substantial army and a large Genoese fleet. In order to resolve the succession issue, Baldwin I created a partition treaty, it specified that William was to hold northern Tripoli and pay homage to Tancred while Bertrand was to hold south Tripoli as a vassal of Baldwin.
Under a united Christian onslaught, Tripoli fell on 12 July 1109, completing the Kingdom of Jerusalem. When William died of an arrow through the heart, Bertrand became the first Count of Tripoli; the extent of the County of Tripoli was determined in part by pre-existing Byzantine borders and in part by victory in battle, tempered by the demands of neighbouring crusader states. At its height, the county controlled the coastline from Maraclea in the north to Beirut in the south. Inland, the county's control extended to the Krac des Chevaliers fortress; the rich inland agricultural land of the Homs Gap was known as La Bocquée. The county was divided into'lordships'; the Count of Tripoli himself held the port of its surrounds. He controlled the hostile region of Montferrand, now modern-day Bar'in, lying to the east. One quarter of the land seized around Tripoli was given to the Genoese as payment for military aid; the Genoese admiral Guglielmo Embriaco was awarded the city of Jubail. Despite his contribution to its establishment, Baldwin I did not directly control the County of Tripoli.
The County of Tripoli owed fealty and homage to him, he, in return, provided support to the county in times of trouble. Although occupying a narrow coastal plain, the mountain range beyond was a natural defensive line for Tripoli. Several castle forts were built to defend the mountain passes. Muslim forces attacked the County of Tripoli along its borders those to the east. In 1137, Raymond II, the reigning count, lost control of Montferrand; the Muslim position strengthened when the Hashshashin forces formed in the Nosairi mountains to the north. In 1144, in order to increase the county's defences against Zangi of Mosul, Raymond II gave the Knights Hospitaller large stretches of frontier land along the Buqai'ah plain; this included the castles of Krak des Chevaliers, Tell Kalakh, Qalaat el Felis and Mardabech. In the 1150s, the defences were further strengthened by the presence of the Knights Templar at Tartus on the seashore. In religious matters, the counties of the Kingdom of Jerusalem were expected to follow the lead of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
However, one of the Counts of Tripoli, Pons of Tripoli had formed an alliance with Antioch, acknowledged the Latin Patriarch of Antioch. This was so after a Papal edict to the contrary. ShaizarAs a vassal of the Kings of Jerusalem, Bertrand of Tripoli was drawn into war with the Seljuk Turks. In 1111, Mawdud ibn Altuntash, a Turkish military leader, campaigned against Edessa. Bertrand of Tripoli and Baldwin I marched to defend the Christians in the north. In joining Tancred and the Count of Edessa at the Battle of Shaizar, their defence of the kingdom was successful. HabIn 1119, the Seljuk Empire again attacked Antioch. However, Count Pons of Tripoli and Baldwin II defended Antioch and, at the Battle of Hab defended the flank of the Christian forces. AzazIn 1125, Count Pons of Tripoli marched against the Turks who had again attacked Edessa, this time besieging the town of Azaz. Pons of Tripoli, Baldwin II and the Count of Edessa lured the Turks from Azaz and into an ambush on the plains, where the Turkish forces were defeated.
On 29 June 1170, an earthquake struck the region. The defensive forts of Krac des Chevaliers, Chastel Blanc and al-'Ariymah were damaged; the cathedral of St Mar