A chamberlain is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. The chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber; the position was honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility or the clergy a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius; the papal chamberlain of the Pope enjoys extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was silvered, fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign. Many institutions and governments – monasteries and cities – had the post of chamberlain, who had charge of finances; the Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, who managed city accounts, until the early 20th century.
From the Old French chamberlain, Modern French chambellan, from Old High German Chamarling, whence the Medieval Latin cambellanus, camerlengus. Some of the principal posts known by this name: Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Grand Chamberlain of The Councils of BruneiAround the year of 2012, The Grand Chamberlain of The Council, Alauddin bin Abu Bakar, on emergency broadcast had announced the divorce between the Sultan and his third wife. June 7, 2015; the Grand Chamberlain of Brunei announced the newborn prince of Deputy Sultan, Crown Prince of Brunei Koubikoularios Parakoimomenos Praepositus sacri cubiculi Hofmarskallen Kammerherre Kammerdame Grand Chamberlain of France Grand Chamberman of France Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Reichskämmerer Lord Chamberlain of the Archduchess Grand Chamberlain of Japan and Chamberlain of Japan Lord Chamberlain of Norway Podkomorzy Chamberlain-Major of Portugal Chamberlain of the Prince of Portugal Admissionales Praepositus sacri cubiculi Cubicularius Ober-Kammerherr or Kammerherr (Russian: Обер-камергер or Камергер}.
Postelnichiy was the ceremonial post at the court of a Grand Duke. In 1772, at the court of the Tsar the German term Kammerherr was introduced; the Ober-Kammerherr was responsible for the audiences granted to members of the Royal Family. Since the beginning of the 18th century, the Ober-Kammerherr was the most senior appointed official of the Russian Imperial Court associated with the household of the sovereign; the most notable figures were: Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov 1727 - 1728 Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukov 1730 - 1740 Duke Ernst Johann von Biron 1730 - 1740 Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev 1761 - 1768 Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer 1916 - 1917, the last Ober-Kammerherr of Tsar Nicholas II. Kaznac In Sweden there are eight serving chamberlains and four serving cabinet chamberlains at the royal court; the chamberlains are not employed by the court but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits and official dinners. In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain.
He has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy in charge of a specific portfolio. Lord Great Chamberlain Lord Chamberlain Chamberlain of the City of London Chamberlain of the Exchequer, treasury official in the English Exchequer Lord Chamberlain of Scotland Chamberlain of the City of New York Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Papal Gentleman Court appointment
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary in different jurisdictions. A constable is the rank of an officer within the police. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title; the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli and originated from the Roman Empire. The title was imported to the monarchies of medieval Europe, in many countries developed into a high military rank and great officer of State. Most constables in modern jurisdictions are law enforcement officers. However, in the Channel Islands a constable is an elected office-holder at the parish level. A constable could refer to a castellan, the officer charged with the defense of a castle. Today, there is a Constable of the Tower of London. An equivalent position is that of Marshal, which derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", meant "stable keeper", which has a similar etymology. In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank in most police services.
It is categorised into the following from lowest to highest: probationary constable, constable first class, senior constable, leading senior constable. These variations depend on the individual state/territory police force in question. Senior constable refers to a police officer of the rank above constable and is denoted by way of two chevrons/stripes; the New South Wales Police Force has three grades of senior constable, namely senior constable, incremental senior constable and leading senior constable. A senior constable is senior to a constable but junior to an incremental senior constable. Promotion to senior constable can occur after a minimum of five years service, one year as a probationary constable in addition to four years as constable and upon passing probity checks and an exam. Incremental senior constable is attained after ten years of service automatically. One is appointed the rank of leading senior constable on a qualification basis but must have a minimum of seven years service amongst other criteria in order to be eligible.
Leading senior constable is a specialist position of which there are limited allocated numbers within any section/unit or local area command. If an officer is transferred to another duty type or station, the officer is relieved of the position of leading senior constable, it is a position for field training officers who oversee the training and development of inexperienced probationary constables or constables. Within Victoria Police, a senior constable is the rank above a constable while above a senior constable is a leading senior constable; when first introduced into Victoria Police, the leading senior constable was a classification not a rank, somewhat like "detective". Leading senior constables were appointed to assist in the training and mentoring of more junior members; the last round of wage negotiations however saw leading senior constable become a rank in its own right, one that a lot of members will pass on their way from constable to sergeant though it is not necessary and is permissible to be promoted to sergeant direct from senior constable.
The general form of address for both senior constable and leading senior constable is "senior" and this is acceptable in courts. In Canada, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank with most law enforcement services, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In Newfoundland the provincial police are the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary whereby all officers are addressed by the term "constable". In addition, the chief officers of some municipal police services in Canada, notably Vancouver Police Department, carry the title of chief constableIn Canadian French, constable is translated to agent, except in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where it is translated as gendarme.) Appointments can further be separated into: Special constables RCMP special constables are appointed for specific skills, for example, aboriginal language skills. They are peace officers under the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. Outside of the RCMP, special constables are not police officers but are appointed to serve certain law enforcement functions.
For example, SPCA agents or court/jail security officers. Auxiliary constables, or reserve constables, are volunteers with a policing agency, they only have peace officer status when engaged in specific authorized tasks only. Provincial civil constables deal with matters of a civil nature. In the Danish armed forces the ranks "Konstabel", "Overkonstabel" and "Overkonstabel af 1. Grad" are used for professional enlisted soldiers and airmen; the rank is more or less equal to a Private, Private 1st class and Lance corporal but higher than the rank "menig" which translates into "private" and only applies to drafted soldiers. In the Finnish Police, the lowest rank of police
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
A butler is a domestic worker in a large household. In great houses, the household is sometimes divided into departments with the butler in charge of the dining room, wine cellar, pantry; some have charge of the entire parlour floor, housekeepers caring for the entire house and its appearance. A butler is male, in charge of male servants, while a housekeeper is a woman, in charge of female servants. Traditionally, male servants were of higher status than female servants; the butler, as the senior male servant, has the highest servant status. He can sometimes function as a chauffeur. In older houses where the butler is the most senior worker, titles such as majordomo, butler administrator, house manager, staff manager, chief of staff, staff captain, estate manager and head of household staff are sometimes given; the precise duties of the employee will vary to some extent in line with the title given, but more in line with the requirements of the individual employer. In the grandest homes or when the employer owns more than one residence, there is sometimes an estate manager of higher rank than the butler.
The butler can be served by a head footman or footboy called the under-butler. The word "butler" comes from Anglo-Norman buteler, variant form of Old Norman *butelier, corresponding to Old French botellier "officer in charge of the king's wine bottles", derived of boteille "bottle", Modern French bouteille, itself from Gallo-Romance BUTICULA "bottle"; the role of the butler, for centuries, has been that of the chief steward of a household, the attendant entrusted with the care and serving of wine and other bottled beverages which in ancient times might have represented a considerable portion of the household's assets. In Britain, the butler was a middle-ranking member of the staff of a grand household. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the butler became the senior male, member of a household's staff in the grandest households. However, there was sometimes a steward who ran the outside estate and financial affairs, rather than just the household, and, senior to the butler in social status into the 19th century.
Butlers used always to be attired in a special uniform, distinct from the livery of junior servants, but today a butler is more to wear a business suit or business casual clothing and appear in uniform only on special occasions. A silverman or silver butler has expertise and professional knowledge of the management, secure storage and cleaning of all silverware, associated tableware and other paraphernalia for use at military and other special functions; the modern role of the butler has evolved from earlier roles that were concerned with the care and serving of alcoholic beverages. From ancient through medieval times, alcoholic beverages were chiefly stored first in earthenware vessels later in wooden barrels, rather than in glass bottles; the care of these assets was therefore reserved for trusted slaves, although the job could go to free persons because of heredity-based class lines or the inheritance of trades. The biblical book of Genesis contains a reference to a role precursive to modern butlers.
The early Hebrew Joseph interpreted a dream of Pharaoh's שקה, most translated into English as "chief butler" or "chief cup-bearer". In ancient Greece and Rome, it was nearly always slaves who were charged with the care and service of wine, while during the Medieval Era the pincerna filled the role within the noble court; the English word "butler" itself comes from the Middle English word boteler, from Anglo-Norman buteler, itself from Old Norman butelier, corresponding to Old French botellier, Modern French bouteiller, before that from Medieval Latin butticula. The modern English "butler" thus relates both to casks; the European butler emerged as a middle-ranking member of the servants of a great house, in charge of the buttery. While this is so for household butlers, those with the same title but in service to the Crown enjoyed a position of administrative power and were only minimally involved with various stores; the Steward of the Elizabethan era was more akin to the butler that emerged.
Throughout the 19th century and the Victorian era, as the number of butlers and other domestic servants increased in various countries, the butler became a senior male servant of a household's staff. By this time he was in charge of the more modern wine cellar, the "buttery" or pantry as it came to be called, which supplied bread, butter and other basic provisions, the ewery, which contained napkins and basins for washing and shaving. In the grandest households there was sometimes an Estate Steward or other senior steward who oversaw the butler and his duties. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, a manual published in Britain in 1861, reported: The number of the male domestics in a family varies according to the wealth and position of the master, from the owner of the ducal mansion, with a retinue of attendants, at the head of, the chamberlain and house-steward, to the occupier of the humbler house, where a single footman, or the odd man-of-all-work, is the only male retainer; the majority of gentlemen's establishments comprise a servant out of livery, or butler, a footman, coachman, or coachman and groom, where the horses exceed two or three.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, was destroyed by the Mamluks, its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade; this second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin. At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade, but at its height in the mid-12th century, the kingdom encompassed the territory of modern-day Israel and the southern parts of Lebanon.
From the Mediterranean Sea, the kingdom extended in a thin strip of land from Beirut in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located further north: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli. While all three were independent, they were tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and west lay the states of Armenian Cilicia and the Byzantine Empire, with which Jerusalem had a close relationship in the twelfth century. Further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad; the fragmentation of the Muslim east allowed for the initial success of the crusade, but as the 12th century progressed, the kingdom's Muslim neighbours were united by Nur ad-Din Zangi and Saladin, who vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast.
In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, another crusader state founded during the Third Crusade. Dynastic ties strengthened with Tripoli and Armenia; the kingdom was soon dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. Emperor Frederick II claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a civil war among the kingdom's nobility; the kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian and Mongol invaders. As a minor kingdom, it received little financial or military support from Europe; the Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291. The kingdom was ethnically and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority, they imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, there were close familial and political connections with the West throughout the kingdom's existence.
The kingdom inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians Greek and Syriac Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims; the native Christians and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders, who came from France, spoke French. There were a small number of Jews and Samaritans. According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, there were 1,000 Samaritans in Nablus, 200 in Caesarea and 300 in Ascalon. Since sets a lower bound for the Samaritan population at 1,500, since the contemporary Tolidah, a Samaritan chronicle mentions communities in Gaza and Acre. Benjamin of Tudela estimated the total Jewish population of 14 cities in the kingdom to be 1,200, making the Samaritan population of the time larger than the Jewish for the only time in history; the First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.
However, the main objective became the control of the Holy Land. The Byzantines were at war with the Seljuks and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria; the Sunni Seljuks had ruled the Great Seljuk Empire, but this empire had collapsed into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in 1092. Malik-Shah was succeeded in the Anatolian Sultanate of Rûm by Kilij Arslan I, in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul; this disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimid Caliphate, which had extended further into Syria before the arrival of the Seljuks. Warfare between