The Official Charts Company referred to as Official Charts is a British inter-professional organisation that compiles various "official" record charts in the United Kingdom, including the UK Singles Chart, the UK Albums Chart, the UK Singles Downloads Chart and the UK Album Downloads Chart, as well as genre-specific and music video charts. The OCC produces its charts by gathering and combining sales data from retailers through market researchers Millward Brown, claims to cover 99% of the singles market and 95% of the album market, aims to collect data from any retailer who sells more than 100 chart items per week. In 2017, the OCC made a deal with the Irish Recorded Music Association to compile the Irish Singles Chart, Irish Albums Chart and other Irish charts on behalf of IRMA; the deal will run for five years. The OCC is operated jointly by the British Phonographic Industry and the Entertainment Retailers Association. Since 1 July 1997, CIN and the OCC have compiled the official charts. Prior to this date, the charts were produced by a succession of market research companies, beginning with the British Market Research Bureau in 1969, by Gallup.
Before the production of the "official" charts, various less comprehensive charts were produced, most notably by newspaper/magazine New Musical Express which began its chart in 1952. All of the OCC's charts are published weekly on Friday nights, cover sales for the preceding week, Friday to Thursday. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from Sunday to Saturday. Genre-specific charts include UK Dance Chart, UK Indie Chart, UK R&B Chart, UK Rock Chart and the Asian Download Chart; the Scottish Singles and Albums Charts ― and the former Welsh Singles and Albums Chart ― appears in listings within the Official Charts Company. It is a regional listing reflecting how sales towards the UK Singles Chart and UK Albums Chart are faring in Scotland; the Welsh Singles and Album Chart served the same purpose in Wales. It charts the UK DVD Chart and UK Budget Album Chart. While their music charts are now Friday to Thursday, their video charts remain Sunday to Saturday. On 5 September 2008, the Official UK Charts Company rebranded itself as the Official Charts Company and introduced a new company logo.
It dropped the word'Company' and became just "Official Charts". From May 2012, a new chart was launched – the Official Streaming Chart; this counts audio streams from streaming services Spotify, Blinkbox Music, amongst others. The chart is the first of its kind to rank streams from ad-funded and subscription services and the Official Streaming Chart Top 100 is now published weekly on the Official Charts website, in music industry trade magazine Music Week. In April 2015, the UK's first vinyl record chart of the modern era was launched by the Official Charts Company due to'the huge surge of interest' in the sector; the chart was launched following the growth of the sector in the UK for the seventh year in a row. In July 2015, Official Charts changed its chart methodology from traditional Sunday slot to the new Friday slot, effective on 10 July 2015 to coincide with the'New Music Friday - Global Release Day' campaign set by IFPI which effective on 10 July 2015 as well. Beginning in 2017 the Official Charts Company changed its methodology for calculating the Top 40, intending to more reflect the rise in music streaming.
Prior to January 2017, 100 streams counted as one'sale' of a song. From January onward, the ratio became 150:1. Additionally, in June 2017, it was decided that after a record has spent at least 10 weeks on the chart, any track which has declined for three consecutive weeks will see its streams:sales ratio change from 150:1 to 300:1, in an attempt to accelerate their disappearance from the chart. UK Albums Chart UK Singles Chart UK Video Charts UK Singles Downloads Chart UK Album Downloads Chart British Phonographic Industry Official Charts Company website
Castle Down is a windswept plateau of maritime heath in the northern part of the island of Tresco, Isles of Scilly. The area has a number of designations including Castle Down Site of Special Scientific Interest. There are a number of Schedule Ancient Monument's ranging in age from Bronze Age cairns to castles built in the 16th and 17th centuries to protect the anchorage of New Grimsby harbour. There is a long history of human habitation with 66 cairns dating to the Bronze Age. In addition, within 100 m of the southern boundary of the SSSI, there is an Iron Age field system, associated hut circles and large middens covering 3 ha; the huts are 5 m to 20 m apart and have diameters ranging from 5 m to 7 m while the middens are up to 11 m long, 10 m wide and 1 m high. The field system was reused in the 19th century; the artillery fort on the highest point of the west side of Chapel Down, now known as King Charles's Castle, was built between 1548 and 1554 in the reign of King Edward VI. It was built to guard the northern, deep water approach, to New Grimsby harbour, although it proved to be badly sited to fire on ships below, or to withstand attack from the landward side.
For a short time it was the main stronghold in the islands but was replaced by Star Castle on the Garrison, St Mary’s in the 1590s. It was used as a quarry for the building of the nearby fort known as Cromwell’s Castle; the name, King Charle's, comes from the occupation by Royalist forces – the Parliamentarians took Tresco in 1651 by landing on the other side of the island. In March, 1651 a Dutch fleet arrived off the islands demanding reparations from Royalist privateers; the Dutch threat was countered by Admiral Robert Blake who captured the islands from the Royalists in June. The round tower of Cromwell's Castle, built on the site of a previous blockhouse, was completed the following year to guard the deep water approach to New Grimsby harbour, it was updated around 1740 with a platform built for cannon on the seaward side. In 1652 the Parliamentary Survey of Scilly reported a row of shallow pits and spoil heaps following, in part the line of a tin lode; the pits were 1.8 m to 2.4 m deep with some shafts to 7.3 m.
At the western end was an adit. The mining ended by 1652 and was said to be of no value. Piper’s Hole is a deep cavern reached by scrambling down the north coast cliff; the cave consists of a 20 m long boulder–filled passage leading to an underground pool. With the arrival of tourism in the 19th century a punt was kept there and was used to take tourists to the inner chamber. Castle Down is the name given to the northern part of the island of Tresco and is a 35 m plateau of coarse–grained Hercynian granite; the southern edge of the Late Devensian ice sheet reached the northern islands of the Isles of Scilly about 18,000 years BP and there are glacial outwash gravels on the northern part of the downs with erratic pebbles. Raised beach deposits are exposed on the cliffs between Cromwell's Grimble Porth; the thin skeletal podzolic soils and extreme exposure to salt laden winds have led to the development of a wind–pruned, lichen–rich, “waved” maritime heath dominated by heather. The northern part of Tresco is designated as the Castle Down Site of Special Scientific Interest for its waved maritime heath, its lichen flora, a breeding colony of Common Tern and for its geology.
The SSSI was first notified in 1971, re–notified in 1986 and covers most of the higher land and cliffs to the north of the inhabited area of the island. Due to the thin, low nutrient podzolic soils and exposure to salt laden winds the vegetation is pruned into a low growing, ankle height, heather carpet. Waved heath is so called because the plants form ‘waves’. On the windward side of the plant there is bare ground and exposed roots with the leaves and flowers concentrated on the sheltered side; the heath is species poor with western gorse and some bell heather, which becomes dominate on the southern side of the area. Other species found on the heath are common bird’s-foot trefoil, English stonecrop, heath bedstraw and tormentil. Forty five species of lichen have been recorded including rare Heterodermia communities; the only European sites for H. propagulifera are in the Isles of Scilly. Peter and Myrtle Ashmore investigated Piper’s Hole in 1993 and amongst the cavernicolous fauna found a springtail new to Britain, Onychiurus argus, a troglophile species known from caves in Belgium and Spain.
Isles of Scilly Wildlife Trust The Isles of Scilly Wildlife Trust The Isles of Scilly Area of Outstanding Beauty Isles of Scilly Seabird Recovery Project Lowland heathland - a cultural and endangered landscape The Megalithic Portal
Blusas are Basque citizens who dress in the traditional clothes of the region and attend events in Vitoria-Gasteiz such as the Virgen Blanca Festivities. The blusas assemble in groups called cuadrillas and their main role is to provide entertainment at these events. Etymologically, blusas comes from the Basque language and refers to the typical blouse worn at festivities. However, this word was a loanword from the Spanish blusa which describes the clothes worn in the countryside by farmers, it was a loanword from the French blouse which itself had a German origin. The festivities in Vitoria-Gasteiz have a rural origin. Throughout history they have been developed in accordance with the population. Though the beginning of the blusas tradition is pretty unknown, it is believed that it may have a direct relationship with the myth of Celedón. There are several versions of this story. However, two have been reckoned by the Basque traditions as the most reliable ones: The first version tells the story of Celedonio Aizola, an outgoing bricklayer from Zalduondo.
His fame came from his good people skills used in the Virgen Blanca Festivities several decades before. It is said that every time he stepped into this village, he made all the inhabitants gather in order to party with him. In 1975, some friends of his came up with an idea to hang an artificial figure which resembled Celedonio so as to make the Vitoria's festivities start some year after the man's death. Nowadays that invention is part of the tradition. S along the Virgen Blanca Square pushed by some ropes; the second hypothesis is about Celedón Iturralde. A friend of his, Pedro Fernandez de Retana, the organist of Vitoria around the 1870s, took the role of organizing this village's festivities; this man, emphasised in telling that he was doing it as a memorial of Celedon iturralde, who died 12 year before in the Carlist Wars. In 1918, Mariano San Miguel gathered all the typical songs of the festivities into a song book, among them, there was the one which Celedón wrote with the strophe that sounds non-stop in the festivities "Celedón ha hecho una casa nueva.
Celedón, con ventana y balcón". These lines talk about the house, made by Celedón in Bitoriano where he had a balcony and a window; this emblematic character of the Basque was undoubtedly the origin of the festivities of Vitoria-Gasteiz. It is a mystery when did the blusas and neskas start with the tradition of dressing up but it is believed that at the beginning, there used to be only men. However, those ancient characteristics have changed up to the point that nowadays every cuadrilla are mixed. One curiosity could be that it is thought blusas have celebrated this tradition from its beginning to nowadays inconstantly, but after the civil war and the time of the dictation this tradition disappeared for some years; these groups are thought to be just the grouping of inhabitants in the festivities but it is far more than that. In fact, they give social aid by going to elderly's residences or organizing special events for children during the year, their brotherhood goes much further as in other festivities such as "San Prudencio" they hang up.
The cuadrillas, have the curiosity. They do have some unwritten ones, which are given from the veterans to the freshmen. Besides, everybody has the opportunity to join these groups in exchange of some money. Blusas are the main cheerleaders of festivals and thus, their routine is connected with it, their activities could be divided into two parts: Religious activities: consist of going to San Miguel's church and participating in the religious pilgrimage in order to give the Virgen Blanca bouquets of flowers. Social activities: As an example, doing the famous "Paseillos" or organizing activities from the citizens; the Paseillo is called to the activity of parading across the centre of the city with a fixed route. During the parade each cuadrilla goes dancing and drinking with the help of musicians who play "txarangas". Meanwhile, the audience stays on the edges of the road the blusas have to follow young ladies, who wait for the blusas to pick them and take them to dance; the blusas give stickers which symbolise the cuadrilla they belong to, which are meant to be placed on to festival-goers clothing.
The blusas wear the typical rural attire. The outfit consists of a shirt, a "blusa", a pair of trousers and the "albarcas" whereas "neskak" wear a blouse, long skirt and "albarcas". Alegrios Basatiak Batasuna Belakiak Bereziak Biznietos de Celedón Los Desiguales Galtzagorri Gasteiztarrak Hegotarrak Jatorrak Karraxi Luken Martinikos Okerrak Nekazariak Petralak Turutarrak Txinpartak Txirrita Txolintxo Zintzarri Zoroak Virgen Blanca Festivities <http://www.blogseitb.com/vitoriagasteiz/2012/03/06/vitoria-descubre-quien-fue-celedon-y-donde-esta-su-casa/ /> <http://www.euskonews.com/0632zbk/elkar_eu.html /> <http://www.elcorreo.com/alava/fiestas/vitoria-gasteiz-la-blanca/noticias/blusas-vitoria-descubierto-201207251056.html /> http://www.euskonews.com/0632zbk/elkar_eu.html
Slough railway station, in Slough, England, is on the Great Western main line, halfway between London Paddington and Reading. It is 18 miles 36 chains down the line from Paddington and is situated between Langley to the east and Burnham to the west; the station is just to the north of the town centre, on the north side of the A4. It is served by Great Western Railway, with main line services to Paddington, Reading and stations to Worcester Shrub Hill, Great Malvern and Hereford on the Cotswold Line, local services to Reading and Didcot Parkway, it is the junction for the Windsor branch. It is served by TfL Rail local services between Paddington and Reading; the first section of the Great Western Railway, between the original station at Paddington and the original station at Maidenhead, opened on 4 June 1838, but although trains stopped at Slough, there was no actual station: tickets were sold at the Crown Inn. This was because the Act which authorised the construction of the GWR contained a clause which forbade the construction of a station within 3 miles of Eton College without the permission of the Provost and Fellows of the school.
Following the repeal of the relevant clauses in the GWR Act, the first proper station at Slough opened on 1 June 1840. The arrival of the railway led to Queen Victoria making her first railway journey, from Slough to Bishop's Bridge near Paddington, in 1842. A branch to Windsor & Eton Central was built for the Queen's greater convenience. Nowadays, the journey time between Windsor and Slough is six minutes; the headmaster of Eton College, Dr. John Keate, had resisted efforts to place a station closer to Eton College than Slough, because he feared that it would "interfere with the discipline of the school, the studies and amusements of the boys, affecting the healthiness of the place, from the increase of floods, endangering the lives of boys." This led to Slough station becoming, temporarily at the Royal Station. It is grander than other stations in the area to accommodate its role at the time. Windsor & Eton Central railway station and Windsor & Eton Riverside railway station both opened in 1849 despite the opposition from the College.
Its approach road, Mackenzie Street, which ran from the Great West Road to the station, was much wider than an approach road would otherwise have needed to have been. This was to accommodate the Queen's entourage. Slough High Street was part of the Great West Road, which has now been diverted via Wellington Street, allowing the High Street to be pedestrianised, thus Mackenzie Street became a cul-de-sac in 1970 when Wellington Street was redeveloped, is now part of the Queensmere Shopping Centre. The remainder of Mackenzie Street, north of the redeveloped Wellington Street, was renamed Brunel Way. Opposite the railway station once stood the grand Royal Hotel. On 1 January 1845, John Tawell, who had returned from Australia, murdered his lover, Sarah Hart, at Salt Hill in Slough by giving her a glass of stout poisoned with cyanide of potash. With various officials in chase, Tawell boarded a train to Paddington; the electric telegraph had been installed between Paddington and Slough in 1843, a message was sent ahead to Paddington with Tawell's details.
Tawell was trailed and subsequently arrested and executed for the murder at Aylesbury on 28 March 1845. This is believed to be the first time that the telegraph had been involved in the apprehension of a murderer. From 1 March 1883, the station was served by District Railway services running between Mansion House and Windsor & Eton Central; the service was discontinued as uneconomic after 30 September 1885. On 8 September 1884 the original station was closed and replaced by the present station, situated 220 yards to the west of the old. On 16 June 1900, an express train from Paddington to Falmouth Docks ran through two sets of signals at danger, collided with a local train from Paddington to Windsor, standing in the station; the driver of the express only noticed the signal before the platform. Five passengers on the local train were killed; the official enquiry ruled that a primary cause of the accident was the poor physical condition of the driver, due to his age and fatigue. The guard and fireman of the express were criticised for failing to notice that their train had passed the danger signals.
This accident was instrumental in the introduction of Automatic Train Control on the Great Western Railway. On the evening of 2 November 1994 a Class 165 Turbo train crashed through the buffer stop of platform 6, after failing to slow down due to poor rail adhesion on the approach to the crossover, it is estimated that the train had only reduced its speed from 56 miles per hour to 30 miles per hour at the time of collision skidding for some 1,200 yards through three sets of points. Evidence gathered at the scene by investigators suggested that the train, had it not hit the buffers, could have continued for another 910 yards. There had been light drizzle on the evening in question; this was only one of a number of instances in which Class 165/166 Turbo trains had overshot platforms and run through red lights. These incidents led
Robert Styles is an English football Referee from Waterlooville, who officiated in the FA Premier League, for FIFA. He retired in 2009. Styles began refereeing in 1987, officiating in the Wessex League and the Isthmian League before being appointed to the National List of referees in 1996; the year 2000 was a busy one for Styles. He handled a Football League First Division play-off semi-final, a Second Division play-off semi-final, plus the Second Division play-off final itself, between Wigan Athletic and Gillingham at Wembley, which ended 2–3 after extra time, he was fourth official for both the Football League Trophy final of that year between Stoke City and Bristol City, the 2000 FA Trophy Final, when Kingstonian beat Kettering Town 3–2. His promotion to the Premier League list happened in the year 2000, his first match in the top group was the 1–0 win by Leicester City at West Ham United on 23 August 2000, Darren Eadie scoring the goal, he became a FIFA referee in 2002. He was referee for the 2003 FA Youth Cup Final when Manchester United beat Middlesbrough 3–1.
However, his highest honour was his selection as referee for the 2005 FA Cup Final at the Millennium Stadium, between Arsenal and Manchester United, which the Gunners won 5–4 on penalties after a 0–0 draw following extra time. In August 2007 Styles refereed the Premier League game between Liverpool and Chelsea where he wrongly awarded a penalty to Chelsea and caused confusion by showing two yellow cards for a single incident; as a result of his decision to award the penalty and the confusion regarding the yellow cards, it was announced by Keith Hackett, general manager of Professional Game Match Officials Limited, that Styles would be "dropped" for one round of matches. Styles last game the West Bromwich Albion and Manchester United match in January 2009, he sent off West Brom defender Paul Robinson five minutes before half time. In the following days the red card was overturned by the F. A. Two days after the overturning Styles retired from refereeing, citing the lack of support from the FA as his main reason.
In a former life rob styles was a hot dog vendor outside Port Vale FC's stadium. He charged £2 a dog or 2 for £3 Rob Styles Referee Statistics at soccerbase.com Rob Styles 2005 FA Cup Final interview at the Football Association Retrospective feature on his 2005 FA Cup Final performance, by Guardian Unlimited online
Alan Henry Brooke, 3rd Viscount Brookeborough, is a Northern Irish peer and landowner. He is one of the 92 hereditary peers, he is the current Lord Lieutenant of Fermanagh. Lord Brookeborough was educated at Harrow School and the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, he joined the British Army in 1971. In 1977 he transferred to the Ulster Defence Regiment, to become the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1993, became Honorary Colonel of the 4th/5th Battalion, Royal Irish Rangers, in 1997. Lord Brookeborough married Janet Elizabeth Cooke, now Viscountess Brookeborough, in 1980, they farm the 1,000 acres Colebrooke Estate, just outside Brookeborough in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The centre of the estate is Colebrooke Park, an early 19th-century neo-Classical country house, the ancestral seat of the Brooke family. Brooke succeeded his father as the 3rd Viscount Brookeborough in 1987. Although he lost his automatic right to a seat in the House of Lords, with all other hereditary peers after the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999, Lord Brookeborough remained in the House as an elected crossbench hereditary peer.
He has been a Lord-in-waiting to The Queen since 1997. He is President of the Co. Fermanagh Unionist Association and was appointed as an independent member of the Northern Ireland Policing Board in 2001; the Lord Brookeborough has represented The Queen as HM's Lord-in-Waiting, instead of The Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall, on the arrival of the U. S. President, Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama to the United Kingdom on their official state visit, on 24 May 2011. Field Marshal The 1st Viscount Alanbrooke was a member of the same family. Lord Alanbrooke was an uncle of The 1st Viscount Brookeborough; the current Lord Brookeborough has no children. His younger brother, The Hon. Christopher Brooke, is his heir presumptive. Lord Brookeborough intends to leave the Colebrooke Estate, including Colebrooke Park, to his nephew, his brother's eldest son and heir. List of Northern Ireland members of the House of Lords Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Brookeborough