The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The remit of the Home Office was reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office, its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure. The Home Office continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.
The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.
Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.
On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that follo
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Capital punishment in Taiwan
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Taiwan. The death penalty can be imposed for murder, drug trafficking and serious cases of robbery and kidnapping and many other serious offenses, such as piracy and for military offences, such as desertion. Before 2000, Taiwan had a high execution rate when strict laws were still in effect in the harsh political environment. However, after controversial cases during the 1990s and the changing attitudes of some officials towards abolition, the number of executions dropped with only three in 2005 and none between 2006 and 2009. Executions resumed in 2010. According to the poll numbers, more than 80% of Taiwanese people support maintaining the use of capital punishment; the Criminal Law of the Armed Forces rules the following crimes eligible for the death penalty on military personnel: Treason Collaboration Espionage Defection Malfeasance Disclosure of intelligence or secrets Desertion Disobeying orders Mutiny Hijacking Destroying military supplies and equipment Stealing and selling ammunition Fabricating orders The Republic of China Criminal Code rules that the following offenses are eligible for the death penalty: Civil disturbance as ringleader Treason Abandoning territory in charge Hijacking Sexual Offenses with murder Civil servant forcing others to cultivate, sell or transport poppy plants to manufacture opium or morphine Murder Robbery with homicide, severe injury, kidnapping or arson Piracy Kidnapping with homicide, severe injury or rape Article 63 of the Criminal Code rules that the death penalty cannot be imposed on offenders aged under 18 or above 80 for any offenses.
The death penalty in Taiwan is not handed down as a mandatory punishment. Other special laws which rule non-compulsory capital offenses: Civil Aviation Act Hijacking Endangering flight safety or aviation facilities by force and causing death Using unapproved aviation products and parts to cause death Narcotics Hazard Prevention Act Manufacturing, transporting or selling Category One narcotics Compelling others to use Category One narcotics by means of violence, deception or other illegal methods Civil servant manufacturing, transporting or selling Category Two narcotics Punishment Act for Violation to Military Service System Carrying weapons by group, obstructing a military service and causing death Carrying weapons by group, fighting publicly against a military service and Caused death or Is the ringleader Child and Youth Sexual Transaction Prevention Act Committing and purposely killing the victim of Making a person under 18 engage in sexual transaction by violence, medicament, hypnogenesis or other ways against the will of himself/herself Intending to making a person under 18 engage in sexual transaction, to deliver or accept him/her to or from other person by dealing, impawning or other ways and by violence, medicament, hypnogenesis or other ways against the will of himself/herself Punishment Act for Genocide Intending to commit genocide and committing any of the following Murder Serious injury, physically or mentally Impairing fertility Abducting Children Other ways sufficient to elimination the group Controlling Guns and Knives Act Manufacturing, selling or transporting cannons, shoulder arms, machine guns, submachine guns, automatic rifles, traditional carbines, pistols, or any types of artillery shells and explosives without approval with intention to commit a crime by himself/herself or assist others to commit a crime Act for the Control and Punishment of Smuggling Smuggling, resisting arrest or inspection with weapon and caused deathIn practice, since 2003 all death sentences and executions have been restricted to murder-related offenses.
The last execution for crimes other than homicide took place in October 2002 in the case of a Pingtung County fisherman who trafficked 295 kg heroin in 1993. The following two laws gave certain offenses a mandatory death penalty and have made a significant contribution to the numbers of people executed: Act for the Control and Punishment of Rebellion which imposed a mandatory death sentence on treason and defection. Enacted in 1949 when the Central Government had just retreated to Taiwan, this law was applicable in both military and common courts and played an important role during the white terror period. Information about people sentenced according to this law was restricted because they counted as court-martials. In two high-profile cases, Bo Yang and Shih Ming-teh were both sentenced to death under this law, but were given life imprisonment due to worldwide political pressure during their trials. Act for the Control and Punishment of Banditry which ruled a mandatory death penalty on kidnapping, piracy or robbery along with murder and arson.
Enacted as a short-term special law by the Kuomintang government during the Second Sino-Japanese War period, the law was extended for a long time for a variety of reasons. A ROC judicial execution requires a final sentence from the Supreme Court of the Republic of China and a death order signed by the Minister o
The stone or stone weight is an English and imperial unit of mass now equal to 14 pounds. England and other Germanic-speaking countries of northern Europe used various standardised "stones" for trade, with their values ranging from about 5 to 40 local pounds depending on the location and objects weighed; the United Kingdom's imperial system adopted the wool stone of 14 pounds in 1835. With the advent of metrication, Europe's various "stones" were superseded by or adapted to the kilogram from the mid-19th century on; the stone continues in customary use in Britain and Ireland used for measuring body weight, but was prohibited for commercial use in the UK by the Weights and Measures Act of 1985. The name "stone" derives from the use of stones for weights, a practice that dates back into antiquity; the Biblical law against the carrying of "diverse weights, a large and a small" is more translated as "you shall not carry a stone and a stone, a large and a small". There was no standardised "stone" in the ancient Jewish world, but in Roman times stone weights were crafted to multiples of the Roman pound.
Such weights varied in quality: the Yale Medical Library holds 10 and 50-pound examples of polished serpentine, while a 40-pound example at the Eschborn Museum is made of sandstone. The English stone under law varied in practice varied according to local standards; the Assize of Weights and Measures, a statute of uncertain date from c. 1300, describes stones of 5 merchants' pounds used for glass. In 1350, Edward III issued a new statute defining the stone weight, to be used for wool and "other Merchandizes", at 14 pounds, reaffirmed by Henry VII in 1495. In England, merchants traditionally sold potatoes in half-stone increments of 7 pounds. Live animals were weighed in stones of 14 lb. Smithfield market continued to use the 8 lb stone for meat until shortly before the Second World War; the Oxford English Dictionary lists: The Scottish stone was equal to 16 Scottish pounds. In 1661, the Royal Commission of Scotland recommended that the Troy stone be used as a standard of weight and that it be kept in the custody of the burgh of Lanark.
The tron stone of Edinburgh standardised in 1661, was 16 tron pounds. In 1789, an encyclopedic enumeration of measurements was printed for the use of "his Majesty's Sheriffs and Stewards Depute, Justices of Peace... and to the Magistrates of the Royal Boroughs of Scotland" and provided a county-by-county and commodity-by-commodity breakdown of values and conversions for the stone and other measures. The Scots stone ceased to be used for trade when the Act of 1824 established a uniform system of measure across the whole of the United Kingdom, which at that time included all of Ireland. Before the early 19th century, as in England, the stone varied both with locality and with commodity. For example, the Belfast stone for measuring flax equaled 16.75 avoirdupois pounds. The most usual value was 14 pounds. Among the oddities related to the use of the stone was the practice in County Clare of a stone of potatoes being 16 lb in the summer and 18 lb in the winter; the 1772 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica defined the stone:STONE denotes a certain quantity or weight of some commodities.
A stone of beef, in London, is the quantity of eight pounds. The Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which applied to all of the United Kingdom, consolidated the weights and measures legislation of several centuries into a single document, it revoked the provision that bales of wool should be made up of 20 stones, each of 14 pounds, but made no provision for the continued use of the stone. Ten years a stone still varied from 5 pounds to 8 pounds to 14 pounds. However, the Act of 1835 permitted using a stone of 14 pounds for trade but other values remained in use. James Britten, in 1880 for example, catalogued a number of different values of the stone in various British towns and cities, ranging from 4 lb to 26 lb; the value of the stone and associated units of measure that were legalised for purposes of trade were clarified by the Weights and Measures Act 1835 as follows: In 1965, the Federation of British Industry informed the British Government that its members favoured adopting the metric system.
The Board of Trade, on behalf of the Government, agreed to support a ten-year metrication programme. There would be minimal legislation, as the programme was to be voluntary and costs were to be borne where they fell. Under the guidance of the Metrication Board, the agricultural product markets achieved a voluntary switchover by 1976; the stone was not included in the Directive 80/181/EEC as a unit of measure that could be used within the EEC for "economic, public health, public safety or administrative purposes", though its use as a "supplementary unit" was permitted. The scope of the directive was extended to include all aspects of the EU internal market as from 1 January 2010. With the adoption of metric units by the agricultural sector, the stone was, in practice, no longer used for trade.
Capital punishment in Australia
Capital punishment in Australia was a form of punishment in Australia, abolished in all jurisdictions. Queensland abolished the death penalty in 1922. Tasmania did the same in 1968, the federal government abolished the death penalty in 1973, with application in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Victoria did so in 1975, South Australia in 1976, Western Australia in 1984. New South Wales abolished the death penalty for murder in 1955, for all crimes in 1985. In 2010, the federal government passed legislation prohibiting the re-establishment of capital punishment by any state or territory; the Commonwealth will not extradite or deport a prisoner to another jurisdiction if they might face the death penalty. The last execution in Australia took place in 1967. Between Ryan's execution in 1967 and 1984, several more people were sentenced to death, but had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment; the last death sentence was given in August 1984, when Brenda Hodge was sentenced to death in Western Australia.
Death sentences were carried out under Aboriginal customary law, either directly or through sorcery. In some cases the condemned could be denied mortuary rites; the first executions carried out under European law in Australia took place in Western Australia in 1629, when Dutch authorities hanged the mutineers of the Batavia. Capital punishment had been part of the legal system of Australia since British settlement. During the 19th century, crimes that could carry a death sentence included burglary, sheep stealing, sexual assaults and manslaughter, there is one reported case of someone being executed for "being illegally at large". During the 19th century, these crimes saw about 80 people hanged each year throughout Australia. Before and after federation, each state punishments. For a full list see: In 1973 the Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973 of the Commonwealth abolished the death penalty for federal offences, it provided in Section 3 that the Act applied to any offence against a law of the Commonwealth, the Territories or under an Imperial Act, in s. 4 that " person is not liable to the punishment of death for any offence".
No executions were carried out under the bridge of the federal government, the passage of the Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973 saw the death penalty replaced with life imprisonment as their maximum punishment. Since the Commonwealth effects of utilising this Act, no more individuals have been exposed to the death penalty. On 11 March 2010, Federal Parliament passed laws that prevent the death penalty from being reintroduced by any state or territory in Australia; the Commonwealth will not extradite or deport a prisoner to another jurisdiction if they might face the death penalty. A recent case involving this was the case of American Gabe Watson, convicted of the manslaughter of his wife in North Queensland, faced capital murder charges in his home state of Alabama, his deportation was delayed until the government received assurances that he would not be executed if found guilty. The last execution in New South Wales was carried out on 24 August 1939, when John Trevor Kelly was hanged at Sydney's Long Bay Correctional Centre for the murder of Marjorie Constance Sommarlad.
New South Wales abolished the death penalty for murder in 1955, but retained it as a potential penalty for treason and arson in naval dockyards until 1985. New South Wales was the last Australian state to formally abolish the death penalty for all crimes. Victoria’s first executions occurred in 1842 when two Aboriginal men and Maulboyheenner, were hanged outside the site of the Melbourne Gaol for the killing of two whalers in the Westernport district. Ronald Ryan was the last man executed in Australia, he was hanged on 3 February 1967 after being convicted of shooting dead a prison officer during an escape from Pentridge Prison, Victoria in 1965. Victoria was the state of the last woman executed in Australia: Jean Lee was hanged in 1951, she was accused of being an accomplice in the murder of 73-year-old William Kent. She, along with her accomplices, were executed on 19 February 1951. Victoria would not carry out another execution until that of Ronald Ryan. Not all those executed were murderers: for instance, Albert McNamara was hanged for arson causing death in 1902, David Bennett was hanged in 1932 after being convicted of raping a four-year-old girl.
Bennett was the last man to be hanged in Australia for an offence other than murder. This number includes triple murderer Edward Leonski, executed by the U. S. Army in 1942; the beam used to execute condemned prisoners was removed from Old Melbourne Gaol and installed in D Division at Pentridge Prison by the condemned child rapist David Bennett, a carpenter by trade. It was used for all 10 Pentridge hangings. After Victoria abolished capital punishment in 1975, the beam was removed and put into storage, was reinstalled at the Old Melbourne Gaol in August 2000. A total of 94 people were hanged in the Moreton Bay/Queensland region from 1830 until 1913; the last person hanged was Ernest Austin on 22 September 1913 for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Ivy Mitchell. The only woman to be hanged was Ellen Thompson on 13 June 1887. In 1922, Queensland became the first part of the British Commonwealth to abolish the death penalty. In Western Australia, the first legal executions were under Dutch VOC law on 2 October 1629 on Long Island, Houtman Abrolhos, when Jeronimus Corneliszoon and six others were
Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare
Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare, was a British Liberal Party politician, who served in government most notably as Home Secretary and as Lord President of the Council. Henry Bruce was born at Duffryn, Glamorganshire, the son of John Bruce, a Glamorganshire landowner, his first wife Sarah, daughter of Reverend Hugh Williams Austin. John Bruce's original family name was Knight, but on coming of age in 1805 he assumed the name of Bruce: his mother, through whom he inherited the Duffryn estate, was the daughter of William Bruce, high sheriff of Glamorganshire. Henry was educated from the age of twelve at Swansea. In 1837 he was called to the bar from Lincoln's Inn. Shortly after he had begun to practice, the discovery of coal beneath the Duffryn and other Aberdare Valley estates brought his family great wealth. From 1847 to 1854 Bruce was stipendiary magistrate for Merthyr Tydfil and Aberdare, resigning the position in the latter year, after entering parliament as Liberal member for Merthyr Tydfil.
Bruce was returned unopposed as MP for Merthyr Tydfil in December 1852, following the death of Sir John Guest. He did so with the enthusiastic support of the late member's political allies, notably the iron masters of Dowlais, he was thereafter regarded by his political opponents, most notably in the Aberdare Valley, as their nominee. So, Bruce's parliamentary record demonstrated support for liberal policies, with the exception of the ballot; the electorate in the constituency at this time remained small, excluding the vast majority of the working classes. However, Bruce's relationship with the miners of the Aberdare Valley, in particular, deteriorated as a result of the Aberdare Strike of 1857-8. In a speech to a large audience of miners at the Aberdare Market Hall, Bruce sought to strike a conciliatory tone in persuading the miners to return to work. In a second speech, however, he delivered a broadside against the trade union movement referring to the violence engendered elsewhere as a result of strikes and to alleged examples of intimidation and violence in the immediate locality.
The strike damaged his reputation and may well have contributed to his eventual election defeat ten years later. In 1855, Bruce was appointed a trustee of the Dowlais Iron Company and played a role in the further development of the iron industry. In November 1862, after nearly ten years in Parliament, he became Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, held that office until April 1864, he became a Privy Councillor and a Charity Commissioner for England and Wales in 1864, when he was moved to be Vice-President of the Council of Education. At the 1868 General Election, Merthyr Tydfil became a two-member constituency with a much-increased electorate as a result of the Second Reform Act of 1867. Since the formation of the constituency, Merthyr Tydfil had dominated representation as the vast majority of the electorate lived in the town and its vicinity, whereas there was a much lower number of electors in the neighbouring Aberdare Valley. During the 1850s and 1860s, the population of Aberdare grew and the franchise changes in 1867 gave the vote to large numbers of miners in that valley.
Amongst these new electors, Bruce, as noted above, remained unpopular as a result of his actions during the 1857 -8 dispute. It appeared that the Aberdare iron master, Richard Fothergill, would be elected to the second seat alongside Bruce. However, the appearance of a third Liberal candidate, Henry Richard, a nonconformist radical popular in both Merthyr and Aberdare, left Bruce on the defensive and he was defeated, finishing in third place behind both Richard and Fothergill. After losing his seat, Bruce was elected for Renfrewshire on 25 January 1869, he was made Home Secretary by William Ewart Gladstone, his tenure of this office was conspicuous for a reform of the licensing laws, he was responsible for the Licensing Act 1872, which made the magistrates the licensing authority, increased the penalties for misconduct in public-houses and shortened the number of hours for the sale of drink. In 1873 Bruce relinquished the home secretaryship, at Gladstone's request, to become Lord President of the Council, was elevated to the peerage as Baron Aberdare, of Duffryn in the County of Glamorgan, on 23 August that year.
Being a Gladstonian Liberal, Aberdare had hoped for a much more radical proposal to keep existing licensee holders for a further ten years, to prevent any new applicants. Its unpopularity pricked his nonconformist's conscience, when like Gladstone himself he had a strong leaning towards Temperance, he had pursued'moral improvement' on miners in the regulations attempting to further ban boys from the pits. The Trades Union Act 1871 was another more liberal regime giving further rights to unions, protection from malicious prosecutions; the defeat of the Liberal government in the following year terminated Lord Aberdare's official political life, he subsequently devoted himself to social and economic questions. Education became one of Lord Aberdare's main interests in life, his interest had been shown by the speech on Welsh education which he had made on 5 May 1862. In 1880, he was appointed to chair the Departmental Committee on Intermediate and Higher Education in Wales and Monmouthshire, whose report led to the Welsh Intermediate Education Act of 1889.
The report stimulated the campaign for the provision of university education in Wales. In 1883, Lord Aberdare was elected the first president of the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire. In his inaugural address he declared that the framework of Welsh education would not be complete u
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n