Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Ivesdale is a village in Champaign County, United States. The population was 267 at the 2010 census, it is served by Saint Joseph Catholic Parish and is home to Saint Joseph Roman Catholic Church, known locally as "The Cathedral of the Cornfield". The town's most recent mayor Bernard Alblinger was the second longest-serving mayor in the history of Illinois, serving a total of 48 consecutive years from 1963 until his death in 2011. Ivesdale is located at 39°56′41″N 88°27′25″W. According to the 2010 census, Ivesdale has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 288 people, 117 households, 84 families residing in the village. The population density was 384.4 people per square mile. There were 121 housing units at an average density of 161.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.31% White, 0.69% from two or more races. There were 117 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families.
25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.92. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $45,938, the median income for a family was $51,964. Males had a median income of $42,083 versus $21,696 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,829. None of the families and 3.5% of the population were living below the poverty line
Homer is a village in Champaign County, United States. Its population was 1,193 at the 2010 census. Homer grew from a settlement named Union, on the Fort Clark or State Road running between Danville and Urbana, nearly three miles north of the present town. Union was little more than several cabins built in 1829-30, but it served as a post office and meeting place in what was Vermilion County prior to the creation of Champaign County in 1833. Moses Thomas, a native of Pennsylvania, built a mill on the Salt Fork creek southeast of Union in 1834 and began to mill grain. A young merchant traveling from Indiana, Michael Doctor Coffeen, built a store adjacent to the mill, with Thomas created the village of Homer on January 26, 1837; the post office was moved to Homer with M. D. Coffeen as postmaster in 1841. Homer grew to 120 people in 1850, the coming of the Great Western Railroad to the south of the town prompted the village to move to its present location. In February 1855, the town's 32 buildings were dragged 1.5 miles south by 18 teams of oxen.
The village became a stop on the railway named the Wabash Railroad, becoming the center of agriculture in eastern Champaign County. In 1905, the town became the location for Homer Park, an amusement park on the Illinois Traction System interurban line. Homer Park, north of the village on the Salt Fork creek, offered swimming, baseball, movies and a small zoo; the park closed in 1937 after poor management. The Homer School District, which served the village and the surrounding area, set a record for the longest teacher's strike in the nation's history, spanning from October 26, 1986, to June 23, 1987. At 156 days, the strike was more than twice as long as the second-longest, set by a school district near Cleveland, Ohio during the 2002-2003 school year. At issue throughout the negotiations was the salary formula, which the Chicago Tribune reported was "not to drastically change the pay rates of... teachers." Other provisions included allowing teachers fired during the strike to be allowed to return with no loss of salary or seniority and the district's newly unionized support staff getting a 6 percent pay increase beginning July 1, an additional 2 percent increase at the beginning of the 1988-1989 school year.
Legal fees were estimated to be $150,000. Although the strike lasted 156 days, students only lost 11 days of class time as strikebreaking teachers were hired to teach classes. However, some families moved from Homer or paid tuition to have their children attend neighboring schools; the Homer School District consolidated with the Allerton-Broadlands-Longview School District, many of the teachers left and all but two school board members either did not seek re-election or were defeated in the first election after the settlement. The town suffered from the effects of the strike for many years, according to a 2006 article in The News Gazette of Champaign-Urbana. Homer is located at 40°2′6″N 87°57′32″W. According to the 2010 census, Homer has a total area of all land; this Homer should not be confused with the former village of Homer, now called Troy Grove nor the Homer Glen area of Will County in Homer Township. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,200 people, 489 households, 339 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,169.3 people per square mile. There were 511 housing units at an average density of 497.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.83% White, 0.08% African American, 0.50% Asian, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.25% of the population. There were 489 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $37,429, the median income for a family was $43,170. Males had a median income of $33,021 versus $23,897 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,788. About 7.3% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Raymond Kelly Cunningham Jr. and Molly Shoaf. "From the Timber to the Prairie: A History of Homer Illinois Volume I." Village of Homer Illinois Homepage
Area code 217
Area code 217 is the North American telephone area code for much of western and parts of north southern Illinois. The 217 area code includes the Illinois capital, plus Champaign, Decatur, Effingham and Rantoul. 217 was one of the original area codes, which were created in 1947. 217 included most of Metro East, the Illinois side of the St. Louis metropolitan area. However, a slight boundary shift in 1951 moved most of the southern portion of Metro East to 618, leaving the northern portion in 217; the only other significant change in 217's boundaries was in 1957, when its northern portion was combined with part of area code 815 to form area code 309. Other cities and towns in the 217 area code include: List of North American Numbering Plan area codes List of Illinois area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Illinois List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 217 Area Code
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Allerton is a village in Sidell Township, Vermilion County, United States. A small portion of the village extends into Champaign County; the population was 291 at the 2010 census. Samuel W. Allerton was a wealthy landowner in Vermilion County who had made his fortune on the agricultural and livestock markets, he was one of the founders of the First National Bank of Chicago and Co-founder of the Chicago Union Stockyards. The town was founded on a 3,800-acre tract of land in the southwestern part of the county which Allerton purchased in 1880, it had been known as Twin Grove Farm. When the C&EI railroad came through the area, he gave them a right-of-way through his land, established a grain elevator and platted the village. Allerton himself continued to live in Chicago. Samuel Allerton owned 12,000 acres in Piatt County, part of which became the Robert Allerton Park, farther west in the Monticello area. Samuel's total land holdings included 78,000 acres across four Midwest states. Allerton is located near the southwestern corner of Vermilion County at 39°54′46″N 87°56′8″W.
The village extends west into Champaign County in two places. Champaign-Urbana is about 30 miles to the northwest, Danville is the same distance to the northeast. According to the 2010 census, Allerton has a total area of all land. Allerton is located on the county line, a small portion of is located in Champaign County, Illinois; as of the census of 2000, there were 293 people, 112 households, 89 families residing in the village. The population density was 454.4 people per square mile. There were 122 housing units at an average density of 189.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.61% White, 0.68% Native American, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.39% of the population. There were 112 households out of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.5% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 2.93. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $42,250, the median income for a family was $51,964. Males had a median income of $38,611 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,512. None of the families and 4.5% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 8.6% of those over 64