Cumberland County, New Jersey
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 152,538, making it the state's 16th-largest county, representing a 2.8% decrease from the 156,898 enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 10,460 from the 146,438 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 16th-most populous county. Its county seat is Bridgeton. Cumberland County is named for Duke of Cumberland; the county was formally created from portions of Salem County as of January 19, 1748. This county is part of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 677.62 square miles, including 483.70 square miles of land and 193.92 square miles of water. Cumberland is a low-lying featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay; the highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand 140 feet above sea level.
Gloucester County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – northeast Cape May County, New Jersey – southeast Kent County, Delaware – southwest1 Salem County, New Jersey – northwest1across Delaware Bay. The population density was 324.4 per square mile. There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.74% White, 20.23% Black or African American, 1.11% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 11.15% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% of the population. There were 51,931 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 24% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 146,438 people, 49,143 households, 35,186 families residing in the county; the population density was 299 people per square mile. There were 52,863 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.88% White, 20.20% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 9.08% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 19.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 15.6% of residents were of Italian, 12.1% German, 10.7% Irish and 8.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,143 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,150, the median income for a family was $45,403. Males had a median income of $35,387 versus $25,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,376. About 11.3% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Cumberland County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members; each Freeholder is assigned responsibility for one of the County's departments.
These individuals are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000; as of 2018, members of the Cumberland County Board of Chosen Freeholders are: Freeholder Director Joseph Derella Jr. Deputy Freeholder Director Darlene R. Barber George Castellini Carol Musso James F. Quinn Joseph V. Sparacio Jack Surrency Then-Freeholder Director Bill Whelan, whose term was to run to December 2014, announced in July 2013 that he was resigning from office; that month, Joe Derella was chosen to replace Whelan as
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Fairfield Township, Cumberland County, New Jersey
Fairfield Township is a township in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the Vineland-Millville- Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area for statistical purposes; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 6,295, reflecting an increase of 12 from the 6,283 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 584 from the 5,699 counted in the 1990 Census. Fairfield Township was formed by Royal charter on May 12, 1697, from portions of the Cohansey Township area, while still part of Salem County, was formed as a precinct in the newly created Cumberland County on January 19, 1748, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798, as one of the initial group of 104 townships in the state by an act of the New Jersey Legislature. Portions of the township were taken to form Downe Township, Millville Township and Lawrence Township; the name Fairfield refers to its original settlers, who were émigrés from Connecticut. The oldest Presbyterian church in South Jersey is said to date from before 1697.
There is an old cemetery which indicates the original log building. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 43.950 square miles, including 41.260 square miles of land and 2.690 square miles of water. Fairton is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within Fairfield Township. Other unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Back Neck, Ben Davis Point, Clarks Pond, Gouldtown, Lanings Wharf, Mulfords Landing, New England Crossroads and Sea Breeze and Tindells Landing; the township has three primary population centers: Sea Breeze and Gouldtown, an old African American community from the segregation period. Fairfield Township borders Lawrence Township, Deerfield Township, Upper Deerfield Township, Hopewell Township, Greenwich Township, the Delaware Bay; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,295 people, 1,882 households, 1,356.922 families residing in the township. The population density was 152.6 per square mile.
There were 2,058 housing units at an average density of 49.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 37.49% White, 47.53% Black or African American, 5.10% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.58% from other races, 4.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.84% of the population. There were 1,882 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township, the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.0 years. For every 100 females there were 139.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 148.8 males.
Fairfield Township had the highest percentage of Native Americans in any municipality in New Jersey, at 5.10% in the 2010 Census. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $46,895 and the median family income was $55,286. Males had a median income of $45,333 versus $32,763 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,619. About 6.7% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 6,283 people, 1,751 households, 1,322 families residing in the township; the population density was 148.6 people per square mile. There were 1,915 housing units at an average density of 45.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 41.41% White, 47.43% African American, 5.08% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.39% from other races, 3.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.87% of the population.
There were 1,751 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.5% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.19. In the township the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 36.4% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 146.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 161.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $37,891, the median income for a family was $41,326. Males had a median income of $31,858 versus $23,931 for females; the per capita income for the township was $17,547. About 6.9% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
Fairfield Township is governed under the Township form of government. The five-member Township Comm
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary